The Universe of Science. The Architectonic Ideas of Science, Sciences and their Parts in Kant
... suggest differentiating between four levels of use of architectonic ideas, drawing on the metaphor of a well-structured universe as imagined by Kant in his work on the Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens. I also claim that each possible idea of reason can be (apart from its primary function) additionally regarded as a fourth-level architectonic concept when explicitly conceived as an object of (e. g. philosophical) studies, i. e. from a mere methodological perspective. In the final section (III),...
The problem of antinomy of pure theoretical reason in Kant’s system
... However, it is not explicitly expressed. Instead of this crucial structural element, which would significantly simplify the understanding of such a complicated treatise, the Critique of Pure Reason presents the system of antinomies of the cosmological idea of pure reason. However, these phenomena are not identical — there is a great difference between the antinomy of pure reason and a system of particular antinomies of one of its ideas. The article addresses this complication and the reasons behind it and explicates ...
Kantian ethos in J. Rawls’s political philosophy
.... Bloom A. Justice: John Rawls versus the Tradition of Political Philosophy // American Political Science Review. 1975. № 69. P. 648—662.
5. Krasnoff L. How Kantian is Constructivism? // Kant-Studien. 1999. № 90. P. 385—409.
6. Rawls J. The Idea of Public Reason Revisited // The University of Chicago Law Re¬view. 1997. № 3. P. 765—807.
7. Rawls J. Justice as Fairness: A Restatement. Cambridge, 2001.
8. Rawls J. Kantian Constructivism in Moral Theory // The Journal of Philosophy. 1980. № 9. P. ...
Transzendentalphilosophie als kritische Bestimmung des Standpunkts. Eine wissenschaftstheoretische Annäherung
... — Kant on Imaginary Standpoints and the Regulative Role of Reason. Kant Yearbook, 9, pp. 63-72.
McFarland, J. D., 1970. Kant’s Concept of Teleology. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
McLaughlin, P., 2014. Transcendental Presuppositions and Ideas of Reason. Kant-Studien, 105, S. 554-572.
McNulty, M. B., 2015. Rehabilitating the Regulative Use of Reason: Kant on Empirical and Chemical Laws. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 54, pp. 1-10.
Medicus, F., 1902. Kants Philosophie der Geschichte....
Kant, Nietzsche, and the Enlightenment: A comparative analysis
... Filosofskiy diskurs o moderne [The philosophical discourse of modenity], Moscow, 416 p.
20. Heidegger, M. 2006, Nitsshe [Nietzsche] in Heidegger, M. Nitsshe: v 2 t. [Nietzsche: in 2 volumes], vol. 1, St. Petersburg.
Enlightenment, minority, freedom, mind, idea of reason, difficulties of Enlightenment, myth
Rovbo M. V.
The teaching on postulates in Kant’s lectures on philosophical theory of religion
“Lectures on Poelitz’s philosophical theory of religion” are one of the four surviving manuscripts of Kant’s lectures on rational ... ... of rational theology, namely: the concept of theology, arts of natural theology, the idea of highest essence, possible types of arguments for the existent of God and their... ... semester 1783/84, i. e. the period between the first edition of the Critique of Pure Reason and the Critique of Practical Reason, and shortly before the publication of Groundwork...
Transcendental Philosophy as a Research Programme
... Epistemology & Philosophy of Science, 56(2), pp. 6-18. (In Rus.)
Williamson, T., 2008. The Philosophy of Philosophy. Malden, MA & Oxford & Carlton, Victoria: Wiley-Blackwell.
transcendental philosophy, Kant, programmatics, architectonics, metaphilosophy, ideas of reason, Lakatos, research programmes, scientific theory
The antinomy of political reason. Some deliberations on Kant’s “Answer-ing the Question: What is Enlightenment?”
... shown that Kant’s enlightenment is a political project. The author focuses on the philosophical prerequisites and the essence of this project and analyses the difference between the “public” and “private” use of reason. The article emphasises the major significance of this difference for developing the ideal of enlightenment in the field ... ... comprehensive critique of social reality by a citizen capable of self-determination is considered against the background of Rousseau’s ideas, who defended the right of people to revolution. The reconstruction of Kant’s position is followed by a discussion of ...
Taking Detours through the “Transcendental Dialectic”. The Principles of Homogeneity, Specification, and Continuity
... ed. 2000. Erfahrung und Urteilskraft. Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, pp. 113-148.
Willaschek, M., 2018. Kant on the Sources of Metaphysics. The Dialectic of Pure Reason. Cambridge: University Press.
Ypi, L., 2017. The Transcendental Deduction of Ideas in Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 117, pp. 163-185.
Zocher, R., 1958. Zu Kants transzendentaler Deduktion der Ideen der reinen Vernunft. Zeitschrift für philosophische Forschung, 12, pp. 43-58.
Zöller, G., 2011. Der negative und positive ...
Kant on evil in the human nature
This article focuses on the analysis of the problem of evil in Kant’s works. The author attempts at reconstructing the key stages of Kant’s logic of ethics and, on this basis, reconstructs his idea of evil. Of special importance is the analysis and criticism of the anthropology-focused study of the sources of good and evil in the work Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason. The author sees the key to understanding Kant’s approach to the problem of evil in the differentiation of the levels ...
I. Kant’s and E. Husserl’s practical philosophy
... philosophy (scientific ethics). Comparative analysis reveals terminological and conceptual similarities and differences between Kant’s and Husserl’s practical philosophies. Another important result is identifying the principles and departure point ideas for both thinkers. These are a shared understanding of the relationship between theoretical and practical reason, the principle of the ‘purity’ of moral motives and compulsoriness of the a priori, the idea of parallelism between logic and ethics, the interaction between will and mind, and the determining role of the categorical imperative. The author ...
Ideas of Kant’s theoretical philosophy in Peirce’s graph theory
C. S. Peirce is a prominent figure in the nineteenth-century American philosophy. His contribution to philosophy and logic is enormous. The significance of some of his ideas was not realized until today. As a philosopher, Peirce was shaped by Kant, whose Critique of Pure Reason he knew almost by heart. Peirce was fascinated by the German thinker, who literally opened for him the philosophy of modern era and introduced him to the problem of cognition and increment of knowledge. Peirce was never a Kantian but the oeuvre ...
Kant and Hegel, an alleged right and the ‘inverted world’
The category of power is one of ontological predicates discussed by Kant in lectures on metaphysics.... ... in Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit. Law is a simple form of unity incorporating an idea of the play of powers, whereas power is a category that makes it possible to understand... ... interpretation is inherent in the system of not only theoretical but also practical reason. Freedom is the ‘substance’ of human existence. The unity of freedom is an...
I. Kant on religion, faith, god, and church
... philosophy of religion. The findings are based on a comparative analysis of the German philosopher’s major works on the philosophical doctrine of religion, namely Lectures on the philosophical doctrine of religion and Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason. The authors trace both the evolution of Kant’s ideas on religion and the consistency and systematicity of changes in the philosopher’s views. The published Lectures confirm the fact that Kant never considered the problems of philosophy of religion as minor ones. When comparing the two major works ...
This article considers the correlation between the historical Christianity and the pure religion of reason, the figure of the biblical Christ of Nazareth and Kant's interpretation of his personality. The author focuses on the question, whether the Biblical Christ, as a real historical person, is the personification of the idea of the absolute good and moral perfection.
1. Кант И. Религия в пределах только разума ...
Systematicity of the Critique of Pure Reason and Kant’s system (IV)
... undergoing scientific revolutions. Constructing synthetic a priori judgements requires leaving the extant knowledge for the realm of possible experience, where reason is faced with antinomies. The author provides a critical examination of Karl Jaspers’ ideas about the cognising abilities of transcendental dialectical reason. It is stressed that transcendental dialectic ensures the system integrity of Kant’s philosophy, making it possible to construct a transcendental philosophy going beyond both vulgar mechanistic empiricism and transcendental dogmatism.
Reception of Kant’s Epistemological Ideas in Fyodor Golubinsky’s Metaphysics
... space and time to be objective. In his doctrine of the categories of understanding Golubinsky follows Kant in that the foundation of the categories of understanding is the unity of self-consciousness but he attributes the unity of self-consciousness to reason’s idea of the Infinite, whereas Kant sees it in the understanding. With some reservations, it can be said that Golubinsky adopts Kant’s table of categories but changes their order. As for the meaning of the categories, for Golubinsky they are not merely laws ...
The Role of the Sublime in Kant’s Religion: Moral Motivation and Empirical Possibility
I show that Kant’s depiction of the christic figure in Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason is not contingent but explains how this figure functions in two essential ways: as a representation of a maximum of morality ... ... determined as moral ones; 4) the image of Christ also acts as motivator by encompassing said transparency and standard in the idea of moral perfection. These four points show that the image of Christ functions in a dual manner. Points 1) to 3) address ...
Kantian Ethical Humanism in Late Imperial Russia
... definition. Historians and philosophers have lumped together their various understandings of outlooks that stress the value and importance of human life under the collective... ... three, Marxist humanism, stemmed from late Soviet-era philosophers, who advocated the idea that the human individual as such had a timeless intrinsic value. A second form... ... religiosity rooted in an understanding of the Church Fathers. They rejected the role of reason in evaluating moral choices, relying on faith to reveal objective moral laws...
Kant, Gödel, and the problem of synthetic a priori judgements
Debates over Kant’s famous postulate about the existence of synthetic a priori judgements in mathematics, formulated in the Critique of Pure Reason, have been raging for over two centuries. On the one hand, it was fiercely criticised by neo-positivists in the early 20th century. On the other hand, Kant’s ideas on constructive nature of mathematics served as a philosophical framework for LEJ Brouwer’s programme of intuitionism in the foundations of mathematics. Of interest are the ideas of the great logician and mathematician Kurt Gödel about the analytical ...
Kantian Rationality in the Philosophy of Science. Report of the First Conference of the Kantian Rationality Lab.
The international conference “Kantian Rationality in Philosophy of Science” was held on 9–11 October 2020 at the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University ... ... countries discussed aspects of the Kantian understanding of science and the roles of reason in it: the unity, difference, and systematicity of the functions of reason in... ... metaphysics and science in the context of Kant’s time; secondly, the relevance of Kant’s ideas to modern sciences and the concepts of philosophy of science in the twentieth...
Kantian Philosophy and ‘Linguistic Kantianism’
The expression “linguistic Kantianism” is widely used to refer to ideas about thought and cognition being determined by language — a conception characteristic of 20th century analytic philosophy. In this article, I conduct a comparative analysis of Kant’s philosophy and views falling ... ... Statements about Time. The Journal of Philosophy, 60(9), pp. 225-237.
9. Hamann, J. G., 1995. Metacritique of the Purism of Reason. In: G. G. Dickson, 1995. Johann Georg Hamann’s Relational Metacriticism. Berlin & New York: Walter de Gruyter, pp. 517-525....
Kantian motives in logic and philosophy of science. Idea of Unity of a priory and empirical knowledge
Kant insisted on the inherent unity of a priori and empirical elements of cognition. To what extent further progress of philosophy and exact sciences confirmed (or modified) original Kant ideas? I'm inclined to judge that apriorism in its modest version do not contradict to modest type of empiricism. Real practice of logical and mathematical reasoning provides pry conjunctions of a priori and empirical elements of cognitive processes. We can find their harmonic combinations of mentioned standpoints and thus to confirm the validity of Kant idea related to inherent unity of a priori and empirical ...
Kantian motives in logic and philosophy of science. The idea of unity of a priory and empirical elements of cognition
Kant insisted on the inherent unity of a priori and empirical elements of cognition. To what extent further progress of philosophy and exact sciences confirmed (or modified) original Kant ideas? I'm inclined to judge that apriorism in its modest version does not contradict a modest type of empiricism. Real practice of logical and mathematical reasoning provides pry conjunctions of a priori and empirical elements of cognitive processes. We can find the harmonic combinations of mentioned standpoints and thus to confirm the validity of Kant’s idea related to inherent unity of a priori and empirical ...
The Philosophy of Vasily Sesemann and Marburg Neo-Kantianism
... element of cognition is an irrational, non-mediated component. The irrational factor of knowledge is the problems faced by human reason, as well as a condition for the progress of knowledge. The Russian philosopher strives to develop an original philosophical structure that just partially transcends the ... ... phenomenological movement, although expressing certain criticism thereof. The author draws a parallel between Se-semann’s ideas and Nicolai Hartmann’s conception, which makes it possible to classify the Russian philosopher as a post-Neo-Kantianist....
The Concepts of “Appearance” and “Phenomenon” in Transcendental Philosophy (Kant, Husserl, Fink)
This study aims, first, to delimit the seemingly synonymous concepts of “phenomenon” and “appearance” and second, to trace the functions of each ... ... phenomenological tradition. The analysis is based on Immanuel Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason and the central works of Edmund Husserl and Eugen Fink. Kant does not explicitly... ... Phänomenologie der natürlichen Lebenswelt. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
Husserl, E., 1983. Ideas Pertaining to a Pure Phenomenology and to a Phenomenological Philosophy. Translated...
Condorcet interpretation of probability’s theory: the use of a mathematical construct to the field of social action
... Condorcet’s thoughts on the wide interdisciplinary opportunities of mathematics makes it possible to compare his ideas with those of other philosophers of the Enlightenment (Rousseau, Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Diderot), as well as a number of provisions of Kant’s philosophy. Despite the fact that Condorcet was not familiar with Kant’s works, his general ideas on the autonomous subject, their reason and freedom, and history and social progress bear strong similarity to Kant’s views. However, the observed differences are indicative not only of Condorcet having overcome the prejudices of his time, but also of that his version of social, ethical,...
Kant between liberalism and conservatism
... Sbornik, № 2 (44). p. 46—52.5. Solovyev, E. Y. 2005, Kategoricheskij imperativ nravstvennosti i prava.6. Schmitt, C. 1922, Politicheskaya teologia [Political Theology].7. Beck, L. W. 1971, Kant and the Right of Revolution // Journal of the History of Ideas. Vol. 32, no. 3, Jul-Sep.8. Flikschuh, K. 2008, Reason, Right, and Revolution: Kant and Locke. Philosophy & Public Affairs, Vol. 36, no. 4 (Fall, 2008), pp. 375—404.9. Insole, Ch. 2008, Two Conceptions of Liberalism. Theology, Creation, and Politics in the Thought of Immanuel Kant and Edmund Burke ...
The notion of necessity in the German philosophy of the¬ Enlighten¬ment
... which is used in different disciplines from logic to ontology. In the German philosophy of the Enlightenment, this concept was centralto the work of many thinkers. For them... ... general and special metaphysics. It is explained by that the principle of sufficient reason introduced by Leibniz is closely linked to the notion underconsideration. The... ... 1984в, Razmyshlenie o poznanii, istine i ideyah [Meditations on knowledge truth and ideas] in: Leibniz, G. W. Sobranie sochineniy v 4 tomah [Collected works in 4 volumes]...
Kants praktischer Platonismus
... Unsterblichkeit der Seele. Hrsg. von A. Pollok. Hamburg: Meiner.
Palmquist, S.R., 2019. Kant and Mysticism: Critique as the Experience of Baring All in Reason’s Light. London: Rowman & Littlefield.
Philo Alexandrinus, 1967. Libellus de opificio mundi. Ed. L. Cohn. Hildesheim: ... ... auch allen Dingen überhaupt, anderer Theil, bestehend in ausführlichen Anmerckungen. 4. Auflage. Frankfurt: Andreä & Hort.
ideas, virtue, republic, moral laws, perfection, pure practical reason, intelligible world
The apologia of reason in J. Chr. Gottsched’s classicistic system: On the 250th anniversary of the philosopher’s death
... of imagination and the psychology of unconscious interest. The authors examine relevant aspects of Gottsched’s rational aesthetics in his struggle against pre-Romanticism theories. Attention is paid to the ideational proximity between Gottsched’s ideas and Kant’s regulative principles of practical reason. The authors emphasise the significance of Gottsched’s philosophy of language and his connection with the tradition of ontological theory of language in the context of modern hermeneutic research.
1. Weidle V. 2000, Umiranije iskusstva. Razmyishleniya ...
The metaphysics of science
... humanity rather than analysing or synthesising scientific knowledge or development it. Philosophy of science proper should be based on Aristotle’s idea of metaphysics revisited in view of metaphysics of self-consciousness and the doctrine of practical reason, freedom, identity, and dignity of a human being as a personality. It should also embrace the idea of world history and universal civil meaning of philosophy. Recognition of relative a priori determination of human knowledge and behaviour in a broad context of empiricism and relativism (development theory) has no bearing on Kant’s theory. Absolute ...
Another Critical Idealism of Hermann Cohen
This article attempts to answer the question as to why one should study Cohen. The author’s first and preliminary answer is that the study of Hermann Cohen’s thought is relevant to contemporary philosophy due to at least five reasons: (1) Cohen’s improvement of critical idealism of subject through replacing it with the idealism of ideas; (2) the exposition of thought as the ethics of law; (3) the development of the notion of anticipation as the principle of time, history, and interpretation; (4) the exposition of critical idealism as a form of idealism that is not violent, totalitarian ...
Modality as a basis of Kant’s philosophical system and its connection to the language structure
This article examines the category of modality through the postulate of empirical thinking in general and in constructing ... ... argument in favour of the organicity of his philosophy. However, the philosophical ideas of Kant’s system can serve as basis for a theory of grammatical moods. Kant’s... ... : «Vysshaya shkola».
2. Kant, I. 1964, Kritika chistogo razuma [Critique of Pure Reason] in: Kant, I. Sochinenija v shesti tomah [The works in six volumes], vol. 3,...
The Place of Hermann Cohen’s Ideas in the Philosophy of Dialogue
My aim is to prove that Hermann Cohen was not only a philosopher of dialogue but has played an exceedingly important role in the history of that current of thought. His books Ethics of Pure Will (1904) and Religion of Reason out of the Sources of Judaism (1919) offer a detailed analysis of the relationships between I and Thou, I and It, I and ... ... Love and Bewilderment: Matvei Kagan’s Literary Critical Concepts. Partial Answers: Journal of Literature and the History of Ideas, 11(1), pp. 9-28.
Katsman, R., 2013b. Matvei Kagan: Judaism and the European Cultural Crisis. Journal of Jewish Thought ...
Immaturity and the objective of a true reform in ways of thinking. Part I.
... detail supplementing the negative maxim of independent thinking with a positive maxim of thinking oneself in the position of others and the maxim of consistent and coherent thinking. Moreover, the requirement of independent thinking is limited by the idea of universal human reason, although Kant is not always consistent in distinguishing between reason and understanding in this context. Independentthinking as a search for the ultimate touchstone of truth within one’s reason/ understanding is supplemented with a thought ...
Is Hermann Cohen a Neo-Kantian?
... argued that Cohen created an original philosophical system; therefore, it is unproductive to speculate whether the Marburg philosopher was a proponent of Kant, Hegel, or Fichte. It seems appropriate to call Hermann Cohen a “Cohenian” and consider his ideas relating to the interaction between theoretical and practical reason and the construction of a rigid and elaborate system con-sisting of verified elements from the perspective of his own system of philosophy, which is complete in its key aspects. This article demonstrates the efforts of the Marburg philosopher to justify both the unity of ...
Kant’s and Fichte’s ethics as sources of Schopenhauer’s philosophy
This article aims to demonstrate the centrality of Kant’s and Fichte’s ethics to the development of Schopenhauer’s ideas of 1811—1813. The author proves the following theses based on the philosopher’s manuscripts and the first edition of ... ... sochineniy v 6 t. [Collected works in 6 volumes], vol 2, Moscow.
2. Kant, I. 1964б, Kritika chistogo razuma [Critique of Pure Reason] in: Kant, I. Sobranie sochineniy v 6 t. [Collected works in 6 volumes], vol 3, Moscow.
3. Kant, I. 1965б, Kritika practicheskogo ...
The Paradox of Kant’s Transcendental Subject in German Philosophy in the Late Eighteenth Century
The study of the “first wave” of reactions to the Critique of Pure Reason in Germany from the second half of the 1780s until the beginning of the nineteenth century reveals the paradoxical status ... ... The status ascribed to the transcendental subject is sometimes that of a thing-in-itself and sometimes that of a “mere” idea. Finally, Kant’s transcendental subject was sometimes seen as something to be overcome and sometimes as an infinite challenge ...
Duty and Coercion in Kant’s Republican Cosmopolitanism
... Citizenship, Cambridge.
11. Kleingeld, P. 2012b, Kant’s changing cosmopolitanism, in: Rorty, A. O., Schmidt J. (ed.), Kant’s Idea for a Universal History with a Cosmopolitan Aim. A Critical Guide, Cambridge, pp. 171—186.
12. Kleingeld, P. 2014, Patriotism,... ... 19/2 (2014), pp. 267—284.
13. Lafont, C. 2010, Accountability and global governance: challenging the state-centric conception of human rights, in: Ethics & Global Politics 3/3, pp. 193—215.
14. Maus, I. 2004, Kant’s Reasons against a Global State: Popular Sovereignty as a Principle of International Law, in: Filozofski Godisnuak 17, pp. 81—97....
The Embodied Practical Ideal: Kant’s Ethicotheology and Godmanhood
The metaphysical layer of what can be called philosophical Christology in Kant’s treatise on religion reflects his idea of the embodiment of the archetype of moral perfection. Kant raises the problem of the ontology of the ideal in the shape of the question about the conditions that make actual experience possible: the ideal of holiness resides in reason, i. e. in the human being, but the dominance of radical evil over the human will puts it out of human reach either in thought ...
Studies into the history of Russian Neo-Kantianism in Poland
The article deals with the jey areas of Russian Neo-Kantianism studies in Poland. Although the number and quality of studies ... ... works on Russian thought by Sister Teresa Obolevitch. The authors consider A. Noras’s idea about the development of the neo-Kantian concept into post-Neo-Kantianism as rather... ... praktycznego w logice. Teoria prawdy neokantowskiej szkoły badenskiej [Primacy of practical reason in the logic. Theory of truth of neo-Kantian Baden school]. Katowice.
Vernunft und Glaube. Zu Kants Deduktion der Gnadenlehre
... understood as complementary to the result of the transcendental deduction of the categories, namely the restriction of theoretical reason to the sensible world. Faith in God’s grace does not represent objective knowledge. As transcending objective knowledge, however, faith refers to the theoretically inexplicable awareness of moral obligation, and with it the idea of an intelligible world, as a necessary precondition of one’s moral conduct in the sensible world.
Bohatec, J., 1938....
‘Back to Kant’ or ‘Back to Leibnitz’? A critical view from the history of Russian metaphysical personalism
This article provides a comparative analysis of the influence of the two great German thinkers — Immanuel Kant and Gottfried Leibnitz — on the Russian philosophy of the 19th/20th centuries. The ideas of metaphysical personalists and neo-Leibnizians (E. A. Bobrov, A. A. Kozlov, S. A. Alekseev (Askoldov), N. O. Lossky, and ... ... russkoy filosofii [History of Russian philisophy]. Moscow, 880 p.
15. Kant I. 1994. Kritika chistogo razuma [Critique of Pure Reason] Moscow, 591 p.
16. Kogen G. 2012. Teoriya opyta Kanta [Kants Theory of Experience]. Moscow. 618 p.
17. Kozlov A. A. 1884....
Wittgenstein’s followers vs Habermas: A solution to I. Berlin’s dilemma
This article analyses Berlin’s negative and positive interpretations of freedom and idea of value pluralism. It is concluded that pluralism of values and liberals’ negative freedom results in the problem of relativism and ‘Hobbes/Berlin dilemma’ — the dilemma between individual and collective reasons. The concepts of freedom of L. Wittgenstein’s (Hurly, Pettit) and J. Habermas are considered through the prism of these ...
Systematicity of the CPR and Kant’s system (III)
This article continues to analyse the systemacity of the CPR as a text ensuring the integrity of Kant’s philosophical system. Following the ideas presented in the first two parts of this work, part three considers the correlation between the spheres of concepts and ... ... phenomena and contribute to the organisation of that world.
1. Kant, I. 1965a, Kritika practicheskogo razuma [Critique of Practical Reason] in: Kant, I. Sobranie sochineniy v 6 t. [Collected works in 6 volumes], vol. 4 (1), Moscow.
2. Kant, I. 1966, Kritika ...
Russian pre-revolutionary scientific ideas of criminal penalties of material nature
This article focuses on the theoretical ideas of criminal penalties of material nature in pre-revolutionary Russia of the second half of XIX — early XX century. The author ... ... Tagantsev, I. Foynitsky and others. The author analyses the views of the time concerning expropriation and fines, and identifies reasons for the prevailing attitude to criminal penalties of material nature, which was consistently negative.
1. Бернер ...
Anthropological ideas of Immanuel Kant and the problem of interreligious conflicts in the modern society
This article analyses Kant's anthropological ideas, his interpretation of affections and passions of human soul. It is claimed that everything that is inconsistent with reason, including passions and affections, should play a secondary, subordinate role in religion. Religious conflicts should be resolved through an appeal to universal moral values and the decrease in the pressure of religion ideology components that ...
Immaturity and the objective of a true reform in ways of thinking. Part II
... detail supplementing the negative maxim of independent thinking with a positive maxim of thinking oneself in the position of others and the maxim of consistent and coherent thinking. Moreover, the re¬quirement of independent thinking is limited by the idea of universal human reason, although Kant is not always consistent in distinguishing between reason and understanding in this context. Unstinting support for the French revolution, despite acknowledging the illegitimate nature of social and political revolutions per se, ...
Russian Socio-Economic Geography: Status, Challenges, Perspectives
The socio-economic geography studies the processes, characteristics and patterns of spatial development. In the recent decades, however, this area of scientific investigation has failed its promise, which happened for a number of external and internal reasons. The main external reason is the development of "consumer society", which does not require the search of new ... ... perspektivy» [Synergetics. Proceedings of the Seminar, Vol. 3: The materials of the round table "Self-organization and synergy: ideas, approaches and perspectives"], Moscow, MSU, p. 353.
4. Berest, А. А. 2010, Katenarnyj paragenezis v landshaftovedenii: ...