IKBFU's Vestnik

Current issue

Economic, social and political geography

On strengthening the territorial differentiation of the rural popu­lation and the agrarian sector of the economy in the Russian Federation

Abstract

Rural settlement in Russia and its dynamics are subject to the general laws of spatial development of the economy and demography, the most im­portant of which is polarization. At the same time, regional settlement sys­tems differ greately due to both physical and economic geographical factors, which may show some discrepencies because of the vast country's territory. These differences are taken into account in the Spatial Development Strategy of the Russian Federation, but require further study through identification of criteria for assessing regional settlement systems and concretization of regula­tion measures. The ways of the settlement evolution should also be taken into account in the strategies of the regional socio-economic development. Having studied the statistical data published by Rosstat, the article analyzes the terri­torial features of rural settlement and its changes in relation to the level, structure and dynamics of agricultural production in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. Given their essential ekistic and economic charac­teristics, the author made a typological grouping of regions, which is intended for practical use in the regional policy of the state and in the preparation of spatial and strategic planning documents at the regional level. The author suggests adapting the concept of the Unified Settlement System, developed in the Soviet period, in orfer to improve the regional systems of settlements in Central Russia.

Download an article

Typoligocal diversity of the strongholds of Russian coastal bor­derlands: (theoretical and conceptual aspect)

Abstract

In the late XX — early XXI centuries, the growth of marine activity is one of the most obvious and significant global trends. The multidimensional "turn" to the Sea is fully inherent in modern Russia. The article attempts to comprehend and conceptualize the effects of the spatial concentration of the national "marine" economy, as well as its complex formation and clusteriza­tion in the framework of the conceptual development of the "strongholds of coastal borderlands", understood as a special socio-geographical (economic-geographical and, at the same time, geo-economic, geopolitical) compact for­mation in the structure of the coastal zone. The essential features of the "strongholds" are identified, including its "focus", "amphibian", contact, cross-border nature, compatibility of structural elements, priority of infra­structure functions, conjugation with other similar "strongholds of coastal borderlands", geo-economic and geopolitical significance. The most important typological characteristics of the "strongholds of coastal borderlands" are em­phasized: "place" (position), "weight" (including the actual marine economy), functionality, and economic structure. Priority attention is paid to the dy­namic aspect of the typology-the grouping of "strongholds of coastal border­lands" in the dichotomy "stability-variability", "development-degradation". The conceptual and theoretical generalizations are illustrated by concrete ex­amples of the spatial dynamics of Russia's marine activity and the corre­sponding typological groupings of its "strongholds of coastal borderlands".

Download an article

Typology of small towns in the western borderland regions of Russia

Abstract

Recognizing the leading role of large urban agglomerations in the devel­opment of any region, it should be noted that small towns perform their equal­ly important function as reference points in the regional framework of the set­tlement system. In strategic regions, like the ones of the Western borderland, small towns, inter alia, become significant for ensuring national interests along the state border of Russia. The article presents the author's version of the typology of small towns in the Western borderlands of Russia, based on the statistical and analytical databases. Due to the limited research tools for assessing the level of development and quality of life in individual cities, the proposed assessment methodology may be interesting for conducting similar studies in some other regions of Russia. The results of the typological research showed that only 10 % of small cities in the Western borderlands can be clas­sified as relatively prosperous, in which over the past 10 years the population has grown (or decreased, but the rate of decline was below the average regional values), and urban environment in the cities has enabled to classify them as favorable.

Download an article

Implementation of the INTERREG program in the Kaliningrad region and neighboring countries: a brief overview

Abstract

As part of the study, the authors have considered the Interreg Programme as a tool for the cross-border cooperation development. The projects granted from «Russia — Lithuania» Interreg Cross-Border Cooperation (CBC) Pro­gramme 2014—2020 and «Poland — Russia» Interreg CBC Programme 2014—2020 have been the research subjects. The authors have identified the most active actors of cross-border cooperation from the Kaliningrad region and the border regions of Lithuania and Poland and have compared the out­comes with the results of the previous Cross-Border Cooperation (CBC) Pro­grammes. The research has recognized the municipalities constantly partici­pating in the projects, aimed at promoting social and economic development and strengthening international cooperation. The research objective has been to analyze and compare the results of the implementation of the CBC Pro­grammes in different programme periods. It has singled out the tendencies in the cross-border cooperation development in the Kaliningrad region of the Rus­sian Federation. The authors relied on the methodology based on a desk re­search analysis (literature review, the previous authors research and reports regarding the implementation of the CBC programmes) as well as a quantita­tive analysis and qualitative research methodology (interviews conducted with the project executors). Projects beneficiaries on the Lithuanian-Polish border­land in 2020 were also interviewed and it helped to compare the implementa­tion procedures of the projects co-financed by the Interreg Programme: the projects on the Lithuanian-Polish borderland with the projects of the CBC programmes «Poland — Russia» и «Lithuania — Russia». The study also re­ferred to the results of the official evaluation of the Interreg Programmes made in 2018 and 2019 on the other European borders. The authors themselves par­tic­ipate in implementation of cross-border projects so an observation method has been used as well.

Download an article

Physical Geography, Geoecology and Oceanology

The environmental impact of agriculture on the ecological status of water bodies in peripheral districts of the Kaliningrad region

Abstract

The article analyses the environmental impact of agriculture on the eco­logical status of river basins in four peripheral districts of the Kaliningrad re­gion (Pravdinsky, Ozersky, Nesterovsky and Krasnoznamensky). The author studied the current condition of agriculture in the considered districts. In the study the established methodology for assessing the quality of water bodies was used to define the ecological state of watercourses in four peripheral dis­tricts considering the nutrient impact. The author concludes that maximum concentration limit of nutrients was exceeded in the considered watercourses, which clearly correlated with the agricultural specialization of each of the dis­tricts.

Download an article

Deformations of the marinve coastline of the Curonian spit (South-Eastern Baltic Sea) during autumn-winter season of 2018—2019

Abstract

A northern storm with a wind speed of up to 23 m/s, lasting 10 hours, with a wave height of 7—8 m, accompanied by a rise in sea level by 0.7 m, hit the coast of the Southeastern Baltic Sea in January 2019. The coast of the Rus­sian part of the Curonian Spit was selectively eroded. The most significant erosion was recorded in the near border part of the coast (the foredune retreat­ed from 1 to 4.7 m), as well as in the root section, where the foredune broke through and the adjacent territory was flooded. The zone between these parts of the spit proved to be relatively stable for 20 km. The values of the storm de­formation of the coast and the morphometric characteristics of the beach were found to correlate. The largest erosion is seen with areas with the minimum height and width of the beach: 0.3—1 m in height and 3—17 m in width at the root site and 1.6 m and 15—19 m, respectively, at the border with Lithua­nia. The beach is the highest (2—2.5 m) and widest (up to 60 m) on stable coastal areas in the middle of the surveyed section of the spit. The storm of 2019 and its aftermath are very similar to the storm in January 2012.

Download an article

Medical issues

Treatment of peptic ul­cer of gastroenteroanastomosis complicated by ongoing bleeding. Practical ob­servation

Abstract

The article describes a clinical case of surgical treatment of postgastrore­section syndrome, represented by a peptic ulcer of gastroenteroanastomosis, ulcerative bleeding and a shortened (insufficient length) adductor loop. Com­plications wereseen to have resulted from insufficient volume of gastric resec­tion, while a small length of the adductor loop created certain difficulties for reconstructive surgery. We performed an adequate resection of the organ stump and found a solution to the problem associated with the insufficient size of the adductor loop by reconstructing the inter-intestinal anastomoses. The applied technique made it possible to avoid post-surgery complications. The control examination for a period of more than a year showed the absence of a relapse of the disease, the restoration of normal nutrition and normal in­dicators of the physical methods of patient examination.

Download an article

Analysis of contextual mental health factors in ado­lescent girls and women of fertile age

Abstract

The aim of the article is to analyze the level and frequency of the psycho­pathology prevalence (stress-related disorders) in adolescent girls and women of fertile age and to identify the relationship with contextual factors that ad­versely affect health.

The research found that the most important contextual factors affecting psychological health and the prevalence of psychopathologies in adolescent girls and women of fertile age are family environment, the lack of supportive intrafamily relationships that provide emotional support and activate the mental potential of a woman, adverse life events, and in adolescent girls it is also a long-term stress which is linked to academic activities. These factors pose a significant threat to mental health, can cause difficulties in adaptation, can become a trigger mechanism for psychopathologies, and also affect the dis­orders, exacerbating the female problems.

Download an article