IKBFU's Vestnik

Current issue

Economic, Social and Political Geography

Attitude to economic development issues as a feature of the sociological profile of the population in the Smolensk region bor­der areas

Abstract

The article focuses on territorial interests as one of the fundamental con­cepts of social geography which reveal both objective and subjective character. The primary territorial interest of the region is the efficient economic devel­opment, while losses and risks are minimal. The population opinion poll con­ducted in the Smolensk region identifies the priority areas in economic and so­cial policy. The article also points out to the difference in opinions of the popu­lation and the political elite of the region regarding the main vectors of eco­nomic development. The findings of the opinion polls can construct the socio­logical portrait of the region.

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Geographical structure and dynamics of foreign trade relations of the Republic of Crimea with the border countries and economic security issues

Abstract

The status of the Republic of Crimea as a new border region of Russia prioritizes the study of the region's foreign economic relations. The article fo­cuses on general and particular foreign trade indicators of the Republic of Crimea while ensuring economic security of the region. The author analyzes the features of the post-Soviet export-import operations dynamics in the Cri­mean border region considering the changes in the scale of foreign trade after the reunification of the Crimea with the Russian Federation. The article de­scribes the transformation of the geographical structure of the Crimean for­eign trade relations in the context of modern geo-economic and geopolitical processes. «Turn to the East» and Russia's participation the integration pro­cesses of «Greater Eurasia» are found to have an impact on the foreign trade of the Republic of Crimea. Special attention is given to the Republic's position in the foreign trade relations in the Greater Black Sea region. The article de­scribes the specifics of exports and imports commodity structure with core partner countries. It is revealed that large-scale changes in the foreign trade of the Republic of Crimea were influenced by external restrictions (sanctions and blockades) and the process of reorientation of Crimean enterprises to domestic commodity markets. Foreign trade is concluded to be the least stable segment of the Crimean economy.

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Economic security of the Russian-Ukrainian border regions of the Russian Federation in modern conditions

Abstract

The article is devoted to the urgent problem of economic security of the Russian border regions, directly adjacent to Ukraine: Kursk, Belgorod, Voro­nezh, Rostov and Krasnodar regions. The study is going to assess the level of economic security in these regions, as well as its dynamics after 2014, taking into account cyclical features and long-term trends that have been in effect since the early 2000s. Having analyzed the research papers and public dis­course, the study built the picture of intraregional perception of the current and potential threats to economic security, compared with the results of long-term statistical observation aimed at identifying the components and factors of economic risks in the regions.

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Innovative development priorities of the major coastal agglomerations of the European part of Russia

Abstract

The innovation development dynamics of coastal regions is under the growing influence of the agglomeration factor and the coastalization factor, which results in polarizing the innovation space around large cities and urban agglomerations in the coastal zone. Coastal agglomerations act as drivers for regional development, concentrating a significant part of the population, eco­nomic entities, scientific, technological, and financial infrastructure, drawing resources from other municipalities. This makes the innovation space uneven, promoting an internal innovation periphery and strong nuclei in the coastal zone. The purpose of this study is to identify the features and specifics of the agglomeration development in coastal regions and assess their impact on the innovation trajectory of regional innovation systems. The study focuses on the agglomerations in 5 coastal regions of Russia: Murmansk, Arkhangelsk, Kali­ningrad, Rostov regions, and Krasnodar Territory. The author evaluates the place of coastal and inland agglomerations in the socio-economic and innova­tion-technological space of the sample regions and determines the development priorities in the aspect of prominent innovation demand and its role in the re­gional innovation strategy. It is revealed that the coastal agglomerations con­centrate a significant innovation potential of the coastal regions, and their size allows them to act as drivers of regional growth, transferring their innovation specificity to the meso-level.

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On digitalization of the Kaliningrad region as an economic security element

Abstract

Digital technologies, which have received rapid development in recent years, are increasingly integrated into modern economic and social processes. The course towards digitalization taken by most countries is determined by the onset of a new digital era, when knowledge and information are the most important resources of the economy and are the basis for innovation. Howev­er, accelerated digitalization, as well as slowed down, carries a significant number of economic, social, political, cultural, and other threats that can be partially mitigated by creating favorable basic conditions for digital transfor­mation. In this regard, the purpose of this study is to assess some quantitative indicators reflecting the readiness of the region's economy for digitalization. For this purpose, the integral index is calculated as the arithmetic mean of 8 sub-indices characterizing the technological provision of enterprises in the re­gion and the affordability of information and communication technologies for them, human resources of the digital economy, the presence of a digital por­trait of companies and the level of their internal digitalization, the develop­ment of e-commerce and digital networks, information security. The research is carried out in the Kaliningrad region of the Russian Federation in 2010—2018. The results of the study have shown that the level of digitalization of the economy of the Kaliningrad region correlates with the national average. The authors conclude that additional state support is required for the development of the digital economy of the region while implementing an alternative scenar­io of innovative development.

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Physical Geography, Geo-Ecology and Oceanology

Paleoecological conditions of the Gdansk ba­sin in Holocene in the complex analysis of short sediment cores

Abstract

The article is aimed at reconstructing the paleoecological conditions in the Gdansk Basin of the Baltic Sea in the Late Holocene. The hydrological and hydrochemical conditions of its isolated bottom layer are strongly influenced by water exchange with the North Sea, which in connected to the World Ocean. Information on environmental conditions in the past is necessary to understand the observed changes in the Baltic Sea ecosystem, to identify the natural and anthropogenic components of these changes, as well as to make re­liable forecasts. Changes in natural conditions are reflected in the composition of bottom sediments. Based on the complex study of three short sediment cores, including lithological, micropaleontological and geochemical analysis, the environmental conditions in the Gdansk basin in the Post-Litorina stage of the Baltic Sea were reconstructed. According to the correlation of sediment analysis data with published reconstruction results, the sediments of the stud­ied cores were formed during the last three millennia (from the Roman Warm Pe­riod to the Modern Warm Period). Intensified water exchange between the Baltic and North Seas was recorded before the Roman Warm Period, during the Roman Warm Period itself, the Dark Ages and during the Medieval Cli­mate Optimum. Periods of climate warming, characterized by an increase in surface water productivity and bottom water hypoxia, correspond to the Ro­man Warm Period, the Medieval Climatic Optimum, and the Modern Warm Period.

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Chlorophyll «a» concentration in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea in summer 2018 (on satellite data)

Abstract

The study focuses on chlorophyll "a"concentration variability in the South-Eastern part of the Baltic sea in summer 2018. The data of the MODIS radiometer installed on Aqua and Terra satellites were used for the analysis. The average concentration of chlorophyll "a" in the warm period of 2018 (May-August) was 3.8 mg/m3 while the average sea surface temperature was 17.7° С. The Maximum concentration of chlorophyll "a" (8.1 mg/m3) was rec­orded in May. However, the most massive development of phytoplankton oc­curred in July — the average monthly concentration of chlorophyll "a" was the highest and exceeded 4.2 mg/m3. August was the warmest month, when the peak sea surface temperature (24.7° С) was observed, and the average monthly temperature reached 21.8° С, which is higher than the average annu­al value for August (2.8° С). Thus chlorophyll "a" concentration for the peri­od under study was revealed at the average multiyear level, and the sea sur­face temperature was higher than the average for 2003—2016 by 2.4° С. The direct influence of the weather anomaly of 2018, which caused the water warming above the long-term average level, on the monthly average concen­trations of chlorophyll “a” was not revealed, that indicates a sustainable state and strength of the south-eastern Baltic Sea ecosystem towards the variability of environmental conditions over several years.

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Medical issues

Ultrasound elastometry of the spleen (review)

Abstract

Measuring spleen stiffness is an insufficiently described diagnostic meth­od, although it allows to diagnose some of internal diseases. The purpose of the paper is to study the influence of various factors on the obtained values of spleen stiffness. The authors gave an overview of the relevant publications in the RSCI and PubMed databases and well-acknowledged textbooks. Spleen elastometry is not described in current clinical guidelines, so the authors of publications rely on their own research methods and get different results. The authors provide a systematization of the research methodology, the values of stiffness for the norm and in the conditions of various diseases. Factors affect­ing the results of stiffness measurement in healthy volunteers (the patient's position, food intake, respiratory phase, number of measurements) were iden­tified, which resulted in mean values of spleen stiffness. It was found that spleen stiffness does not depend on gender, height, body weight, and body mass index. The study reveals a range of diseases in which the spleen stiffness is significantly higher than normal values, and it includes liver cirrhosis, por­tal hypertension, esophageal varicose veins Grade III and portal vein obstruc­tion. A discussion to develop a consent opinion on the research methodology and normative values of spleen stiffness will certainly support the further study.

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The progressing multiple splenosis: paper review and own observation

Abstract

The article provides an overview of domestic and foreign interdisciplinary studies of post-traumatic splenosis. Furthermore, we focused on the develop­ment of splenosis of various localization and the possibility of radiation imag­ing diagnostics. The authors analyzed a differential diagnosis with a primary or secondary tumour process and reviewed patient management tactics as well as potential complications. The study described a case of splenosis 14 years af­ter splenectomy due to spleen rupture with blunt abdominal trauma at the age of 7. A comprehensive examination of the patient with the methods of radia­tion imaging and laboratory diagnostics is presented. In the study, the au­thors identified 4 lesions of splenosis. A new lesion in the pelvis emerged after 8 years. The ultrasonic characteristics of the identified lesions are described. The article discusses the therapy strategy for a patient who is planning a pregnancy.

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