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Linguistics

Development of quasi-symbols based on connotations of verbal units meanings

Abstract

The article verifies the assumption that connotations of verbal sememes can serve as the basis for the development of a quasi-symbol meaning. A qua­si-symbol is an element of an intermediate, linguocultural system, generated as a result of close interaction between language and culture. While a symbol is a sign of culture that expresses some idea in an imperative manner, a quasi-symbol is a type of symbol that has a verbal nature. The study has objectified connotations based on the semantics of secondary nomination signs and has shown that connotations, regardless of their nature, are culturally marked. They reflect the picture of the world developed in a certain linguistic culture. Culture chooses a language unit to express its meanings, giving it new cul­tural functions. The unit is chosen due to the connotations included in the composition of its sememes. In the process of transferring a verbal unit into a cultural system, connotations are moved to the nuclear part of the new sem­eme of the cultural sign. Thus, cultural knowledge is transferred to the lan­guage system, and then verbal signs are transferred to the culture system. Since the cultural intent of the quasi-symbol is modeling the behavior of the interpreter, the development of symbols is based on connotations that reflect cultural attitudes, ideologies, and norms.

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Regional denonyms of the 1940s: the use of deno­nyms in regional newspapers

Abstract

The use of denonyms in regional newspaper texts of the XX century helps to elucidate the development trends in this lexis. Regional newspapers are a perfect source for observation as it is the language of the media that both re­flects and shapes the worldview and linguistic competencies of a native speak­er. Various local publications complement each other and contribute to a more complete picture of the use of denonyms within the region as a whole and its separate territories. The Bolshevik Slovo newspaper of the Bykovsky District and the Bolshevik Victory of the Kalachevsky District were selected as sources of information. The chosen time frame of 1941—1945 allows us to identify the characteristic features of regional denomination during one of the most diffi­cult periods of the past century and to identify the extralinguistic factors, which had an impact on the lexis studied. Statistical and contextual methods are used to analyze the frequency of use and semantic content variability. The proposed approach makes it possible to study the peculiarities of the develop­ment and spelling of derivatives in the texts of the regional wartime newspa­pers.

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Russian facets in J. Joyce’s neologisms and their interlan­guage translation

Abstract

The paper examines nonce words in James Joyce’s Finnegans Wake, par­ticularly those originating from the Russian language. The research aims at defining word-formation patterns of the units in question and studying limi­tations of their interlanguage translation. Based on morphemic and word-formation analysis of the English deviated lexical units, as well as a compre­hensive comparative analysis of the occasional words in the source and target languages, various types and grades of the lexical deviations and translation issues are outlined. The paper reveals certain features — the word-play based on phonetic similarity, repetition of foreign word meaning in a short context, transfer of morphological markers, and others. Being a most challenging phe­nomenon, interlanguage nonce words cause enormous difficulties in transla­tion and thus require special attention. The full and incomplete versions of Finnegans Wake in German (D. Stündel, I. Horn, R. Weninger, F. Rathjen), Russian (A. Rene, A. Volokhonsky) and Spanish (M. Zabaloy) languages are explored. Various translation strategies are considered. However brilliant the exemplified decisions are, they are predictably subjective. The required trans­formation of the source test is often radical and added comments are bulky, leading to the creation of the modified version of Finnegans Wake rather than a translation in the true sense.

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English borrowings in modern mass media

Abstract

The article explores the typology of modern English borrowings in mass media texts. The main aim of the article is to identify and describe the types of English borrowings by analyzing how they got adapted in the Russian lan­guage. The first type includes the borrowings, which date back to the late XX and the early XXI centuries and entered the Russian dictionaries of borrow­ings. The second type is represented by the borrowings that are used in the Russian spoken and written language, but are not included in dictionaries. The borrowings of the third type are the English words that are rarely used. All the borrowed lexical units are classified according to the time they entered Russian dictionaries and the Russian National Corpus. This result relies on the earlier studies that examine the process of borrowings adaptation and is intended to stimulate further academic discussion and research.

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Literary studies

The conflict of the intellectual and the boor in the plays by S. Mrożek “Tango” and A. Chekhov “Cherry orchard”

Abstract

This article examines the social and cultural conflict, the essence of which lies in the opposition of the intellectual and the boor in Chekhov's play “The Cherry Orchard” and in S. Mrożek play “Tango”. The comparative analysis of the works reveals the national, historical and social specificity of the conflict between the intellectual and the boor in the context of the crisis of modern Western civilization. The author concludes that the disintegration of the bourgeois ethos in Chekhov's metaphysical theatre is more than natural and the paradoxical reconciliation of the parties to the conflict in Mrożek's absur­distic play, devoid of metaphysics, is also more than anticipated.

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The theme of Old Believers in the works of Alexander Kuprin: discus­sion and study prospects

Abstract

This article clarifies the significance of the phenomenon of Old Belief in the artistic heritage of A. Kuprin. The sources of Old Believer images in the writer's work, as well as their influence on the plot of his works, are investigated. A hypothesis is put forward about the significant influence of L. Tolstoy and A. Chekhov on the formation of the author's idea of old-timers. The thesis of the crucial importance of stereotypes ingrained in the people for the perception of Russian Old Believers by Kuprin is substantiated. Particularly emphasized is the inextricability of the author’s ideas about a “split” with such significant factors in the social life of Russia at the beginning of the 20th century. like entrepreneurship and revolution.

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Pedagogy and psychology

Socio-psychological factors provoking aggression in adoles­cents

Abstract

The article considers a wide range of socio-psychological factors leading to aggression of various degrees among adolescents. This research aims to study and compare the degree of aggression caused by socio-psychological fac­tors among adolescents aged 12—16. The study group included 109 teenagers of 12—16 age group — 60 girls and 49 boys who live in Zhytomyr. The re­search relied on the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) and the questionnaire Direction of Aggression in Adolescents, which was designed by E. K. Ageenkova, M. V. Tarasova and P. M. Larionov. The study analysed gender aspects of aggression and the focus of aggression among adolescents in connection with frustrating factors that occur in school environment, family, in their relations with peers, their social environment, as well as adolescents’ perception of themselves. It was found that the highest aggression among ado­lescents is caused by psychological pressure exerted on them, violation of per­sonal integrity and lack of personality recognition. Teenagers are acutely aware of the injustice they see in the world, combined with the insensitive and inhumane attitudes of some people. Aggression in adolescents in most cases is a reaction to adverse social conditions for which not only adolescents but adults are responsible.

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Sensory fatigue as a functional condition in people with disability

Abstract

The article explores the theoretical aspects of sensory fatigue as a func­tional state in people with disabilities. The study focuses on the types and forms of sensory fatigue, triggers causing this condition, switch-on mecha­nisms, the development of this condition in people with disabilities of different nosological groups, its symptoms and consequences. Sensory fatigue is a con­dition, which in itself is not a disease and does not require treatment. Howev­er, in people with poor health, it can be considered as a symptom of a health disorder. The review of literature on sensory fatigue allows us to identify methods for the study of its qualitative and quantitative characteristics, as well as to develop psychological and pedagogical methods and approaches to reducing it in people with health conditions.

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Operational thinking in the structure of the diagnostic thinking of a modern teacher-psychologist

Abstract

Diagnostic thinking is a vital professional component of many occupations, in particular, of a teacher-psychologist. The purpose of the study was to identify the place and role of various mental operations in the structure of diagnostic search carried out by a teacher-psychologist. The article explores cognitive operations used by a teacher-psychologist within the framework of a diagnostic algorithm. These operations are differentiated for various stages of diagnosis; their priorities are established. It is determined which operations are most important for each of the stages of the diagnostic algorithm. Mental operations (such as analysis, synthesis, analogy, generalization, comparison, etc.) are important for the diagnostic process and can be necessary components of diagnostic thinking. Comprehensive professional operational thinking of a teacher-psychologist is the basis of successful diagnostic activities. As for successful professional diagnostics, a teacher-psychologist also needs a system of categorical models of the diagnosable, the ability to analyze their diagnostic errors and ideas about categorical models of typical diagnostic errors. Special training in diagnostic thinking, in particular, the development of mental operations, which are necessary for teachers-psychologists to carry out effective diagnostics, is an essential component of their training and will increase the efficiency of their professional performance.

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