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2022 Issue Выпуск 2

Linguistics

Mental lexicon and language consciousness: similaritiea and discrapencies in research methodology

Abstract

The article discusses the similarities and differences between the research methodology of the mental lexicon and language consciousness. Most studies of language consciousness do not differ in any significant way from studies of the mental lexicon, and this is not recognized or is hushed up by their authors. The problem of their differentiation is connected with the definition of language consciousness. The author of the article defines it as a psycholinguistic concept that shows how the internal and external factors for the functioning of a language as a human property are associated with changes in the meanings and senses of linguistic signs. This definition gives way to comparative psycholinguistic research, in which the comparison is based on the nature of the activities that representatives of different groups carry out regularly. Studies on language consciousness are similar to studies on mental lexicon in experimental procedures for obtaining empirical material and differ from them in general methodological principles arising from the definition of this concept, and in procedures for processing and theoretical analysis of empirical material. To distinguish itself from mental lexicon research, 1) language consciousness research must be comparative; 2) the comparison should be carried out on activities that are regular for at least one of the compared groups; 3) empirical material should be selected in such a way that it reflects the features of linguistic phenomena caused by this particular activity; 4) empirical material should be analyzed in such a way that identifies a regular (i. e. not random) influence on it from regular activities and personal assessment.

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The cognitive structures of the concept of SUCCESS in the Russian common mentality

Abstract

The paper attempts to reconstruct the deep cognitive principles underlying the idea of success among native speakers of the Russian language. To this end, the concept of SUCCESS is examined in two aspects — onomasiology and deep semantics. For the first time, two models of success in the Russian linguistic mentality are identified, and the cognitive foundations of the semantic evolution of words included in the word-formation-etymological nest of the word success are shown. The closeness of the deep cognitive archetype of the success of quantum reality is hypothetically noted.

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The use of the photo corpus in the study of word-formation processes (on the derivatives with the prefix super-)

Abstract

The paper analyzes the trends of prefix nominal derivation, identified on the data analysis represented in the National Photographic Corpus of the Polish language. It is shown that the analysis of derivatives with the prefix super-, functioning only in modern discursive practices, leads to unreasonable conclusions about the innovativeness of this process in the Polish language. The dated and localized photo citations collected in the photocorpus ensure the reliability of the data obtained, which allows us to assert that the addition of the prefix super- to the nominal parts of speech has been an active word-formation practice in the Polish language since the beginning of the XX century. The influence of Anglo-American linguistic and cultural globalization has led to an increase in the productivity of this model and to semantic specification of the prefix, which serves as a marker of an exclusively positive evaluation.

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The inclusive function of translation in the digital space of a modern museum

Abstract

The article deals with museum communication in the virtual space of modern Internet platforms, which provide the user with the opportunity to discover masterpieces of world art. In the context of the pandemic, virtual museum visits have become especially relevant. The implementation of principles of accessibility and inclusion among foreign-speaking tourists / viewers requires museums and galleries to adapt exhibition texts and labels linguistically and culturally. The purpose of this study is to describe translation functions in a museum on the labels for exhibits presented on the Artefact digital platform within the framework of the Culture national project. Linguistic equality of museum visitors in a multicultural urban society is determined as an inclusive function of translation. The analysis of museum communication models, as well as the review of the best local and foreign practices in the translation aspect reveals that the role of lingua franca traditionally belongs to the English language in its simplified globalized version. In order to render general information about an artist or a work of art, the translation must meet the criteria of quality assessment and be performed by professionals, not by machine translation systems. The author provides practical recommendations for adapting museum texts.

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Literary studies

“Who are you?” or implementing the strategy of depersonalization on an autobiographical narrative

Abstract

This article seeks to explore the possibility of applying psychological and neurobiological data with regard to the notions of “self”, “narrative identity”, and “depersonalization” to the case of autobiography as a type of text. The analysis highlights the importance of memory being a cognitive process that underlies any self-narration. Using Will Self’s work “Walking to Hollywood: memories of before the fall” as case study, we investigate an authorial technique of mimicking the gradual failure of the narrative identity by the subject of the autobiogtaphical narrative, so “the strategy of depersonalization”. The article, therefore, is structured in three parts with a conclusion. The first two introductory sections are about the crucial importance of interdisciplinary approach in cognitive linguistic studies, and memory’s interpretative significance in constructing self-narration. Ultimately, in section 3, we offer an analysis of some extracts from the text in question which show how “the strategy of depersonalization” is being omplemented by the author.

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The unexpected someone in Nobel history

Abstract

The main intention of the article is to prove that the unique style of Handke’s creative individuality reflects his special life-saving SOMEONE, who resists in his negative dialectic the dictatorship of another pernicious SOMEONE who sets the false movement. In a remarkable symmetry to post-structuralist theories about the “totalitarianism of language”, Handke experiences in his own verbalized existence the pernicious power of some of this totalitarianism, seeking to free himself from it in a kind of poetic resistance to the dictatorship of those discursive practices of the Western world that lead to the “death of the subject” (Foucault). After Handke’s essays on Yugoslavia had been published in the Sueddeutsche Zeitung in 1996, where he supported the Serbs, he became persona non grata not only in Kosovo and Sarajevo, but also among the intellectual elite of the West. Therefore, the Nobel Prize came as a complete surprise for the author and sparked a furious protest from the world’s leading media giants. One of the conclusions of the article, based on a hermeneutic study of Handke’s works, reflects the author’s conviction that the great uniqueness of Handke’s creative phenomenology lies in his attempt to break out of the destructive gravity of some killer language in an effort to deconstruct it in search of the original proto-structure for the acquisition of the Other, in which there is still Someone Else with his Other “Me-Language”. Handke’s poetic evolution, or even revolution, is in keeping with not only post-structuralist attempts to “save the language”, such as in Foucault’s transgression, but also with the biblical warning that “Life and death are in the power of the tongue” (Proverbs 18: 21). The innovative potential of this work lies in the attempt of hermeneutic penetration into the phenomenological eidos of Handke on the basis of the symbolic and at the same time dialectical method supposing that the Phenomenon of Handke is the living antithesis of the post-structuralist theory of the “death of the author” and that being is still “breaking through” into the narrative of modern culture. The work is relevant due to the scientific, literary and linguistic and cultural uniqueness of Handke, as well as the fact that it is a living proof of the connection between the cognitive potential of art and politics.

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The opposition of homeland — foreign country in “american” novels “For Daily Bread” by H. Sienkewicz and V.G. Korolenko’s “Without Language”

Abstract

The article deals with the peasant emigration to America in the novels of Henryk Sienkiewicz “For Daily Bread” and Vladimir Korolenko “Without Language”. The plot structure of the stories and the system of characters are contrasted for spatial oppositions “close — far” and “homeland — foreign land”. It is demonstrated that the peasant traditional patriarchal picture of the world is in conflict with the image of America as an urban civilization of modern times. The authors reveal the specifics of Sienkiewicz’s and Korolenko’s disclosure of American themes. It is emphasized that the vision of America by both writers is ambivalent. From the point of view of Polish and Russian writers, America gives a chance for individual fulfillment, but the positions of both authors indicate their patriotism. This is confirmed, in particular, by nostalgic motifs in the novels “For Daily Bread” and “Without Language”.

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Pedagogy and psychology

Psychological health of senile men and women during the COVID-19 pandemic

Abstract

The article discusses the issue of maintaining psychological health in men and women of senile age in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The sample consisted of 100 respondents aged 74 to 98, living in a family and in a nursing home. Negative characteristics of psychological health in men and women of senile age were revealed: low level of life satisfaction, low mental activation and emotional tone, high level of stress. A higher level of anxiety and more pronounced depressive tendencies were found in respondents living in a nursing home. The significance of differences was assessed using the Mann — Whitney U-test. The empirical results of the study led to the conclusion about the relevance of the development of preventive and corrective psychological measures in order to maintain the psychological health of the elderly. Psychological work must be targeted at depressive manifestations, situational anxiety, general neuropsychic tension, level of life satisfaction, general emotional background. The developed program will be in demand for reducing negative manifestations in the mental state of the elderly in the conditions of active modern social transformations, since mental reactions to dangerous situations are largely similar and universal.

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The problem of cognitive deficiency in breast cancer patients

Abstract

The article siscusses the works on the psychological support for people with an oncological diagnosis, namely, with breast cancer. The range of psychological research and therapeutic practices is narrowed to the study of the features of cognitive functions characterized by deficiency. Also in the work, based on the research results available to date, the hypothesis of the presence of cognitive deficits is put forward and theoretically substantiated even before the oncological diagnosis.

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Distant learning in the Institute of Medicine during the COVID-19 pandemic

Abstract

The article examines the problematic issues of teaching medical students during the COVID 19 pandemic. In total, 73 students of the 6th year of the medical institute took part in an online training. Instead of three levels of teaching, typical for the “Pain management” course, two were left, i. e., “Theoretical knowledge” and simulation online training “The Interview”. In the end of the course the students were to take an anonymous questionnaire to meet their achievement needs. The research has proved that the online teaching can be viewed as an alternative multifunctional pedagogical instrument to educate students of the Institute of Medicine. Mind maps and “Annotation-interview” were effectively designed for new educational demands and were approved of by the students. But it should be taken into consideration that the effectiveness of the training is technically dependent and implies that all the lecturers and the students have to be supplied with personal computers with the latest software and the stable high-speed Internet.

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Sociobiological psychotherapy of eating disorders

Abstract

On the modern provisions of social biology and ethology, the original method of psychotherapeutic work with patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia is conceptually substantiated and described in detail. The presented information and analytical technology rely on the concept of evolutionarily stable behavior strategies and is a variant of emotional stress therapy adequate for patients with autodestructive and potentially disastrous behavior.

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Procedural texts in the formation and assessment of functional literacy in the primary school

Abstract

The article analyses the possibilities of using procedural texts for the formation and assessment of the functional literacy of elementary school students on the basis of an independent assessment of the results of primary education within the framework of the PSHPU Quality Cluster project. This study relies on the method of comparative analysis of Russian and foreign scientific sources, the principle of unity of historical and logical. The methodological foundations of the research are the concepts of “zone of actual development”, “zone of proximal development”, “independent assessment”, “activity approach”, “meta-subject coordination”. Finally, the texts for the development and assessment of functional literacy were classified: explanatory and procedural, continuous and non-continuous, the structure of the procedural text was identified. An independent assessment of functional literacy resulted in the description of the main difficulties that arise when primary school students work with similar texts. The author notes the need for appropriate training of primary school teachers.

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