The problem of antinomy of pure theoretical reason in Kant’s system
A thorough analysis of the structure of the treatise constituting the first Critique and its comparison with the analogous structure of the second and third Critiques show that the Critique of Pure Reason lacks such an important element as the antinomy of pure theoretical reason. Of course, it is implied in the text: Kant’s reasoning is based on it and takes it into account. However, it is not explicitly expressed. Instead of this crucial structural ...
The Universe of Science. The Architectonic Ideas of Science, Sciences and their Parts in Kant
I argue that Kant has developed a broad systematic account of the architectonic functionality of pure reason that can be used and advanced in contemporary contexts. Reason, in the narrow sense, is responsible for the picture of a well-ordered universe of science consisting of architectonic ideas of science, sciences and parts of sciences. In the first ...
Self-knowledge of Reason as a vital phenomenon in Kant’s transcendental dialectic
This study attempts to interpret the process of self-knowledge of reason in the transcendental dialectic as a vital phenomena. In the transcendental dialectic, a thesis and antithesis arises from the division of reason, which can not happen in the death of reason. Dogmatism and skepticism, which had been derived from ...
Kant on evil in the human nature
... stages of Kant’s logic of ethics and, on this basis, reconstructs his idea of evil. Of special importance is the analysis and criticism of the anthropology-focused study of the sources of good and evil in the work Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason. The author sees the key to understanding Kant’s approach to the problem of evil in the differentiation of the levels of the existing and the due in his theory. The article has the following structure: first, the author emphasis that, for Kant,...
On the Role of Gesinnung in Kant’s Ethics and Philosophy of Religion. Part II
... of the problems of its translation into English were presented in the first part of this article; the second part examines the novel features that Kant brings to the interpretation of this concept in the critical period. In the Critique of Practical Reason these include the questions of manifestation of Gesinnung in the world, apprehended through the senses, the method of establishing and the culture of truly moral Gesinnung, as well as the problem of the immutability of Gesinnung in the progress ...
On the nature of thinking without representation
... premise. For Deleuze, thinking is an energy flow or sensual “vitality”.Another approach to analysing the fundamentals of thinking can be found in Kant’s article “What Does It Mean to Orient Oneself in Thinking?” where he speaks of the “need of reason”. Since the “need of reason” is necessary for the practical interest of reason itself, it directs, according to Kant, not only practical reason, but also general systematic and critical thinking. It is “common sense”, as the location ...
Transcendental reflection and the ideal of pure reason in Kant’s works
This article discusses the problem of correlation between the two fundamental concepts of Kantian philosophy — transcendental reflection and the ideal of pure reason. Based on the analysis of Kant’s three Critiques, the author demonstrates that the ideal of pure reason can be described as a goal that defines the shape of knowledge in any field of activity, whereas transcendental reflection is a means to embody ...
On a review deliberated by Kant and published under the name of Chr. Kraus
... and Chr. J. Kraus, was first published under the name of the philosopher’s friend and student and later in collections of Kant’s works.It is shown that the review criticises the naturalism of Unlrich’s theory of freedom and stresses the major reason behind its failure, namely, that its author did not distinguish between the theo-retical and practical functions of consciousness. This circumstance complicates that understanding of that the same act can belong to natural determination in one ...
The Role of the Sublime in Kant’s Religion: Moral Motivation and Empirical Possibility
I show that Kant’s depiction of the christic figure in Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason is not contingent but explains how this figure functions in two essential ways: as a representation of a maximum of morality that can ground our moral disposition and in so doing acts as a standard for morality. More precisely, the following ...
On the morals-centrism of Kant’s transcendental anthropology and the role of morals in human nature
... philosophical system is a system of transcendental anthropology, which acts as a method in Kant’s pragmatic anthropology. The essence of transcendental anthropology is the metaphysics of morals. This role of morals manifests itself in the primacy of practical reason over theoretical reason. The humanity owes its development and existence to practical reason. In Kant’s system, morality is the essence of humanity.
1. Гартман Н. Этика. СПб., 2002.
2. Гуревич П. С. Философская ...
The antinomy of political reason. Some deliberations on Kant’s “Answer-ing the Question: What is Enlightenment?”
... is Enlightenment?” It is shown that Kant’s enlightenment is a political project. The author focuses on the philosophical prerequisites and the essence of this project and analyses the difference between the “public” and “private” use of reason. The article emphasises the major significance of this difference for developing the ideal of enlightenment in the field of politics. It is suggested that this ideal be seen in the evolutionarydevelopment of society based on the transformation ...
Kant’s philosophy of religion (from Critique of Pure Reason to Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason). Part 1
Schweitzer A. (translated from the German by V. Gilmanov)
The teaching on postulates in Kant’s lectures on philosophical theory of religion
... Theology” is of considerable research interest, since it departs from the textbook material and presents Kant’s own ideas on the subject. This manuscript is dated winter semester 1783/84, i. e. the period between the first edition of the Critique of Pure Reason and the Critique of Practical Reason, and shortly before the publication of Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals. Thus, these lectures are of special important for studying the process of development of the key ideas of Kant’s philosophy. Being ...
Kant’s transcendentalism as a transcendental paradigm of philo¬so¬phiz¬ing
... Парменид // Собр. соч. : в 4 т. М., 1993. Т. 2. С. 346—413.
10. Allison H. Kant's Transcendental Idealism: An Interpretation and Defense. New Hawen ; L., 2004.
11. Bird G. The Revolutionary Kant: A Commentary on the Critique of Pure Reason.Chicago, 2006.
12. Kant I. Critique of Pure Reason / eds. Guyer P., Wood A. Cambridge, 1998.
13. Hanna R. Kant and the Foundations of Analytic Philosophy. Oxford, 2001.
14. Hanna R. Kant in the XX century. 2007. URL: http://spot.colorado.edu/~rhanna/kant_in_the_twentieth_century_proofs_dec07....
Kant’s philosophy of religion (from Critique of Pure Reason to Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason). Part I
Schweitzer A. (translated from the German by V. Kh. Gilmanov)
Kant’s philosophy of religion: From the Critique of pure reason to the Religion within the boundaries of mere reason. Part 1. (Continued)
Schweitzer A. (translated from German by V. Gilmanov)
Is Spinoza’s Ethics Heteronomous in the Kantian Sense of the Term?
... philosophy extremely unlikely. These are i) identification of moral value in the quality of an agent’s law-oriented motivation, ii) distinction between human nature as rational and affective, ascribing different sets of laws to each, iii) endowment of reason with moral content, iv) recognition of the non-subjective notion of goodness. Added to this is my discussion of freedom and necessity in Kant and Spinoza in which I show that Spinoza’s overarching determinism is not an impediment for autonomy ...
Kant’s philosophy of religion: From the Critique of pure reason to the Religion within the boundaries of mere reason. Preface. Part 1.
Schweitzer A. (translated from the German by V. Kh. Gilmanov)
Inferences of understanding and reason as factors of textuality in I. Kant's philosophical discourse
On the basis of Kant's texts, the author attempts to prove that two and three-element logical-semantic structures — called the judgements of understanding and reason by Kant — represent logically organized complexes of propositions grouping around the structural core of both types of inferences and are communicative forms of textual material "packaging" and, thus, are forms of textuality in I. ...
The principle of sufficient reason in German philosophy of the Enlight-enment
In the 18th century, a philosophical dispute over the Principle of sufficient reason arose in Germany. Despite the fact that this Principe was explicitly formulated by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz only at the end of the 17th century, a major dispute about it was triggered by Christian Wolff who had considerable influence on the German ...
Kant’s philosophy of religion from the Critique of Pure Reason to Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason. Part 1 (final instalment)
Schweizer А. (translated from the German by V.Kh. Gilmanov)
Systematicity of the Critique of Pure Reason and Kant’s system (IV)
This article concludes the analysis of systematicity of the Critique of Pure Reason — the work that underlies the entire system created by the great Königsberg philosopher. The author considers the role of transcendental dialectic (it accounts for more than half of the book) in Kant’s methodology of science and the system ...
Taking Detours through the “Transcendental Dialectic”. The Principles of Homogeneity, Specification, and Continuity
... “Appendix to the Transcendental Dialectic”, Kant discusses the specific status of the principles of homogeneity, specification, and continuity. In doing so, he refers to an already proven argument and thus to other passages of the Critique of Pure Reason. In search of this argument the “Transcendental Analytic” but in particular the “first book” of the “Transcendental Dialectic” turn out to be possible reference points. Although this contextualisation demands further systematic and ...
Moral inscrutability and self-constitution in Kant (translated from the English by V. Belonogova and D. Khizanishvili, edited by V. Chaly)
This article analyses the system of inferences used by Kant in Religion Within the Boundaries of Mere Reason to demonstrate the existence of evil disposition (Gesinnung). The author be¬lieves that, in this work, Kant introduces two innovations in respect of the fundamental project presented in the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. He emphasises ...
Kantian ethos in J. Rawls’s political philosophy
... Kantian ideas preserving the essence of the assimilated. Rawls justifies his own re-description of Kantian philosophy by using Kant's ideas. Transforming Kant’s ideas, the he implements Kantian ethos (spirit), which can be understood as the free use of reason. Using Rawlsian approach, the author attempts to defend Rawls from the accusation that he fundamentally misunderstands Kant. This defense is based on that the most important element of Kant’s philosophical legacy is the critical attitude (or ...
Cohen and Natorp’s Philosophy of Religion: the Argument about the Boundary of Reason
... School of Neo-Kantianism, is an important and at the same time controversial part of their philosophical systems. The discussion around the problems of religion began within the Marburg School and still continues among those who study that School. The reason for this is that “fitting” philosophical thinking about the phenomenon of religion into the classical triad of any system of philosophy, i. e. effectively formulating that phenomenon in logical concepts, ethical postulates and aesthetic principles ...
Deduction of Freedom vs Deduction of Experience in Kant’s Metaphysics
My aim is to demonstrate the specificities and differences between transcendental deduction of concepts and deduction of the fundamental principles of pure practical reason in Kant’s metaphysics. First of all it is necessary to examine Kant’s attitude to the metaphysics of his time and the problem of its new justification. Kant in his philosophy explicated not only the theoretical world of cognition, but also ...
This article considers the correlation between the historical Christianity and the pure religion of reason, the figure of the biblical Christ of Nazareth and Kant's interpretation of his personality. The author focuses on the question, whether the Biblical Christ, as a real historical person, is the personification of the idea of the absolute good and ...
Types of Representational Content in Kant
Gomes, A., 2014. Kant on Perception: Naïve Realism, Non-Conceptualism and the B-Deduction. Philosophical Quarterly, 64(254), pp. 1-19.
Griffith, A. M., 2012. Perception and the Categories: A Conceptualist Reading of Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason. European Journal of Philosophy, 20(2), pp. 193-222.
Grüne, S., 2009. Blinde Anschauung. Die Rolle von Begriffen in Kants Theorie Sinnlicher Synthesis. Frankfurt am Mein: Klostermann.
Gunther, Y. H., 2003. General Introduction. In: Y. H. Gunther,...
I. Kant’s and E. Husserl’s practical philosophy
This article focuses on the problem of reconciling a priori and empirical dimensions of freedom, will, and action as the crucial point for understanding the relationship between theoretical and practical reason in Kant’s and Husserl’s practical philosophy. Relying on the explanation of the relationship between transcendental and practical freedom given in Kant's practical philosophy, the author problematizes Kant’s thesis about the primacy of practical ...
Revisiting the Maxim-Law Dynamic in the Light of Kant’s Theory of Action
...., 1990. Kant’s Theory of Freedom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Atwell, J. E., 1986. Ends and Principles in Kant’s Moral Thought. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Beck, L. W., 1960. A Commentary on Kant’s Critique of Practical Reason. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Bittner, R., 2001. Doing Things for Reasons. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Brewer, T., 2002. Maxims and Virtues. The Philosophical Review, 111(4), pp. 539-572.
Bubner, R., 2000. Another Look at Maxims....
Kantian Ethical Humanism in Late Imperial Russia
... second form of humanism, Christian humanism, emerged slowly in nineteenth-century Russia under the influence of Slavophilism. The Slavophiles with a deep sense of religiosity rooted in an understanding of the Church Fathers. They rejected the role of reason in evaluating moral choices, relying on faith to reveal objective moral laws and rules. Their form of Christian humanism lay in a commitment to justice and respect for all human beings. However, the arguably most historically significant Christian ...
Kant’s philosophical system and the principles of its interpretation
[text]1. Kalinnikov, L. A.1989, Interpretatsiya i printsipyi [Interpretation and principles], Kantovskiy sbornik. no.14.2. Kant, I. 1965, Kritika practicheskogo razuma [Critique of Practical Reason] in Kant, I. Sobranie sochineniy v 6 tomah [Collected works in 6 volumes], Moscow, t. 5.3. Kant, I. 2006, Kritika chistogo razuma [Critique of Pure Reason], in Kant, I. Sochineniya na nemetskom i russkom yazyikah [Collected works in german and ...
The notion of necessity in the German philosophy of the¬ Enlighten¬ment
... philosophy of the Enlightenment, this concept was centralto the work of many thinkers. For them, necessity is related not only to logic but rather to the disciplines of general and special metaphysics. It is explained by that the principle of sufficient reason introduced by Leibniz is closely linked to the notion underconsideration. The recognition of this principle as one of the two basic principles of philosophy inevitably raises the question about the necessity of all things, since all that exists ...
The Architectonic Place of Language in Kant’s Philosophy (Rev.: R. Ehrsam, Le problème du langage chez Kant. Paris: Librairie Philosophique J. Vrin, 2016, 288 pp.)
Brandom, R., 1994. Making It Explicit: Reasoning, Representing, and Discursive Commitment. Cambridge and London: Harvard University Press.
Ehrsam, R., 2016. Le problème du langage chez Kant. Paris: Librairie Philosophique J. Vrin.
Kant, I., 1998. Critique of Pure Reason. Edited by P. Guyer ...
On the morals-centeredness of Kant’s transcendental anthropology and on the role of morals in the human nature
... system of Kant is a system of transcendental anthropology, which acts a method in Kant’s pragmatic anthropology. The essence of transcendental anthropology is the metaphysics of morals. This role of morals manifests itself in the primacy of practical reason over the theoretical one. The humanity owes its development and existence to the practical reason. In Kant’s system, morality is the essence of humanity.
1. Гартман Н. Этика. СПб., 2002.
2. Гуревич П. С. Философская ...
Ideas of Kant’s theoretical philosophy in Peirce’s graph theory
... prominent figure in the nineteenth-century American philosophy. His contribution to philosophy and logic is enormous. The significance of some of his ideas was not realized until today. As a philosopher, Peirce was shaped by Kant, whose Critique of Pure Reason he knew almost by heart. Peirce was fascinated by the German thinker, who literally opened for him the philosophy of modern era and introduced him to the problem of cognition and increment of knowledge. Peirce was never a Kantian but the oeuvre ...
The apologia of reason in J. Chr. Gottsched’s classicistic system: On the 250th anniversary of the philosopher’s death
... civilizational process, which shows distressing symptoms of existential foundation deficiency. The authors reconsider the historical and philosophical significance of Gottsched’s Enlightenment classicism to estimate the danger of the de-ontologisation of reason, which leads to the loss of reality. The phenomenon of Gottsched is considered within the hermeneutic discourse of the so-called mystery of the German spirit. It is stressed that Gottsched was committed to a well-reasoned apologia of reason as ...
Kant, Nietzsche, and the Enlightenment: A comparative analysis
... renunciation of Romanticism and experience of the death of God. Nietzsche extends Kant’s list of possible problems in achieving enlightenment — egoism, guardianship, sloth, and cowardice. For Nietzsche, the central problem is the dominant role of reason in the Enlightenment. Nevertheless, reason is not denied but rather it is limited and supplemented with the integrating power of myth, which is considered by Nietzsche not as a prejudice but as the origin of thought correlating with life. Moreover,...
Development tools of functional hybrid intelligent systems with heterogeneous visual field
... architecture, basic elements and implementation of the prototype of the tool for the development of functional hybrid intelligent systems with a heterogeneous visual field. Such systems are capable of simultaneously simulating collective verbal-symbolic reasoning and activating the visual-figurative reasoning of users. The use of such systems in the practice of solving problems, in particular when managing regional electric networks, will allow users to «see» the problem situation and its possible ...
Kant’s philosophy of religion (from the Critique of Pure Reason to Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason). Part 1. (Continuation)
Швейцер А. Философия религии Канта (от «Критики чистого разума» до «Религии в пределах только разума»). Предисловие. Ч. 1 // Кантовский сборник. 2016. Т. 35, № 2. С. 109—118 ; № 3. С. 82—98 ; № 4. С. 73—78 ; 2017. Т. 36, № 1. С. 90—103.
Schweitzer A. (translated from the German by V. Kh. Gilmanov)
The systemacity of CPR and Kant’s system (II)
Against the background of a dispute with K. Jaspers, this article considers the Critique of Pure Reason as a system of epistemology and an overview of Kant’s philosophical system. The central thesis is the statement that Kant’s epistemology is based on transcendental anthropology connected with the history of philosophy. It is proven that, in ...
On the moralcentrism of Kant's transcendental anthropology and the role of morals in human nature (continuation)
... philosophical system is a system of transcendental anthropology, which acts as a method in Kant’s pragmatic anthropology. The essence of transcendental anthropology is the metaphysics of morals. This role of morals manifests itself in the primacy of practical reason over the theoretical one. The humanity owes its development and existence to the practical reason. In Kant’s system, morality is the essence of humanity.
1. Апель К.-О. Априори коммуникативного сообщества ...
Objective and subjective reasons for crisis of Russian economy
The article presents basic reasons of world economic crisis and their negative influence on economic development of Russia including Kaliningrad region. One could find substantiation of forming new financialeconomic model as long-term development program for Russia.
1. Макиавелли ...
The Paradox of Kant’s Transcendental Subject in German Philosophy in the Late Eighteenth Century
The study of the “first wave” of reactions to the Critique of Pure Reason in Germany from the second half of the 1780s until the beginning of the nineteenth century reveals the paradoxical status of the Kantian transcendental subject. While the existence of the transcendental subject, whatever the term means, is not ...
‘Genuine criticism’: An unknown reception of Kant’s philosophy in early works of Schopenhauer
... addresses Schopenhauer’s manuscripts (early philosophical aphorisms and comments and marginal notes on Kant’s works, etc.), as well as the first edition of Schopenhauer’s doctoral dissertation On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason (1813). The mentioned influence of Kant’s philosophy on Schopenhauer and its decisive role in the development of the latter’s philosophy can be summed up as follows. Firstly, early Schopenhauer considered Kant as his only ally in the struggle ...
Kant and Hegel, an alleged right and the ‘inverted world’
... form of unity incorporating an idea of the play of powers, whereas power is a category that makes it possible to understand the supersensible as a realm of laws. This interpretation is inherent in the system of not only theoretical but also practical reason. Freedom is the ‘substance’ of human existence. The unity of freedom is an idea, whose unity is presented in the diversity of actions in the sensible world. A condition for cognising freedom is the categorical imperative. Apparently, applying ...
Is Hermann Cohen a Neo-Kantian?
... is unproductive to speculate whether the Marburg philosopher was a proponent of Kant, Hegel, or Fichte. It seems appropriate to call Hermann Cohen a “Cohenian” and consider his ideas relating to the interaction between theoretical and practical reason and the construction of a rigid and elaborate system con-sisting of verified elements from the perspective of his own system of philosophy, which is complete in its key aspects. This article demonstrates the efforts of the Marburg philosopher to ...
Some remarks on the concept and function of Kant’s theory of schematism in the Critique of Pure Reason
The article introduces Kant’s doctrine of schematism (Critique of Pure Reason A 137-A 147; B 176-B 187). The inclusion of the chapter on schematism in the ‘Doctrine of the Principles’ rather than the ‘Doctrine of Concepts’ is taken as a clue to distinguishing the Doctrine of Schematism from the Deduction of the Pure ...
Analytical Kant studies, transcendental idealism, and the thing in itself
... texts and presents the author’s interpretation of some key points of Kant’s theory of knowledge. Contrary to the analytical mainstream in Kant studies, the author argues that Kant’s ‘transcendental idealism’ in the field of the theoretical reason is completely compatible with epistemological realism. Hence, the term ‘thing in itself’ expresses neither ontological nor epistemological dualism. Rather it has a methodological function and it serves to indicate the possibility of different ...