The antinomy of political reason. Some deliberations on Kant’s “Answer-ing the Question: What is Enlightenment?”
This article analyses Kant’s work “Answering the Question: What is Enlightenment?” It is shown that Kant’s enlightenment is a political project. The author focuses on the philosophical prerequisites and the essence of this project and analyses the difference between the “public” and “private” use of reason....
Was heißt Fortschritt im Wissen? Gnoseotopische Überlegungen zur Aufklärung und ihren Folgen
This article focuses on the question of what “progress in knowledge” (Fortschritt im Wissen) since the Enlightenment could mean. The answer is rooted in a shift in perspective in our understanding of the Enlightenment, and in an awareness of the gnoseotope at the center of this perspectival shift. Given the fact that human knowledge has always been considered ...
Kant’s Ethics in the Context of the Enlightenment. Report of the 12th Kant Readings Conference (Kaliningrad, 21-25 April 2019
... thematically universal, embracing all the areas of Kant’s legacy. This time the conference focused on practical philosophy, i.e. the historical grounds and modern significance of Kant’s ethical thought as compared to other philosophical projects of the Enlightenment era. Due attention was paid to the reception of the ethics of Kant and the Enlightenment by philosophers in Russia and the West. Breakout groups discussed aspects of interconnection between the Enlightenment ethics and esthetics as well ...
Kant on the rights of citizens in matters of religion: The concept of religious tolerance in the German Enlightenment
... must not dispense justice or rule in a way that is demeaning to his or her greatness. Moreover, the section covers the problem of the rights and obligations of the monarch and his or her subjects in religious matters. This problem was crucial to the Enlightenment. Kant’s deliberations on the issue include a long prehistory of formulating the concept of religious tolerance and modelling relations between the state and different confessions, based on the rules of natural law, which date back to the ...
Light and shades of the Enlightenment. Reflections on “Utopias of the Age of Enlightenment” a book by A. V. Chudinov. M. : Integration: Education and Science, 2017. 96 p.
The article focuses on the book "Utopias of the Age of Enlightenment" by A. V. Chudinov. Analyzing this work, the author reflects on the contradictions and paradoxes of the Enlightenment: the utopian ideals of the Enlightenment, aimed at achieving universal happiness and prosperity, in practice were ...
Logic Manuals for Women in the Late Enlightenment Era
... Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, pp. XII-LXIX.
Hoffmann, P. T., 1927. Eine Altonaer Dichterin von Wein, Weib und Gesang: Johanne Charlotte Unzerin. Altonaer Stadtkalender, 15, pp. 31-35.
Kant, I., 1991. An Answer to the Question: ‘What is Enlightenment?’ In: I. Kant, 1991. Political Writings. Edited by H. S. Reiss, translated by H. B. Nisbet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 54-60.
Kharitonova, А. М., 2016. Medical Anthropology in the 18th Century and Development of Anthropology ...
Intellektuelle Anschauung und philosophische Schwärmerei. Kant und die Aufklärung des philosophierenden Subjekts
The article broaches the issue of Kant’s claim of the enlightenment of the philosophizing subject by tracing his criticism of philosophical enthusiasm (“Schwärmerei”). For Kant intellectual intuition (“intellektuelle Anschauung”) serves in case of philosophical enthusiasm as a reason for the justification ...
Immaturity and the objective of a true reform in ways of thinking. Part I.
The originality of Kant’s answer to the question of the Enlightenment in a 1784 article consisted not in addressing the words of Horace, which was commonplace in Germany of the time, but in linking it to the revised legal notion of immaturity, which is now interpreted from the philosophical and theological ...
Kant — a leap out the world of Enlightenment
... landing ground is unprecedented. Kant preformed this intellectual feat through understanding the true essence of human nature. All the novelties and discoveries that he introduced into philosophy are the results of this initial achievement. Whereas the Enlightenment formulated the principle of naturalism as a basic one for the comprehensive understanding of the world, Kant juxtaposed it with the principles of transcendental anthropology. As a result, it requires a new understanding of 1) the nature ...
Inadvisable Concession: Kant’s Critique of the Political Philosophy of Christian Garve
Kuehn, M., 1987. Scottish Common Sense in Germany, 1768-1800. Kingston and Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.
Maliks, R., 2014. Kant’s Politics in Context. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Oz-Salzberger F., 1995. Translating the Enlightenment: Scottish Civic Discourse in Eighteenth-Century Germany. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Solovyov, E. Y., 2005. Kategoricheskiy imperativ nravstvennosti i prava [Kategorical Imperative of Morality and Law]. Moscow: Progress-Traditsiya. (In Rus....
Kants „moralisch-bestimmter Monotheismus“ – eine an der „wahren Aufklärung“ orientierte Kritik an Lessings Ringparabel?
... the two is probably also the primary reason why important factual differences and controversial aspects have so far usually been neglected or ignored in research, although they still continue to raise problems and controversies in the context of the Enlightenment and the philosophy of religion. Although Lessing and Kant are both committed to the ideas of the Enlightenment and also appear as “related in essence”, above all with regard to religio-philosophical questions, Kant’s “moral determined ...
The apologia of reason in J. Chr. Gottsched’s classicistic system: On the 250th anniversary of the philosopher’s death
This article revisits the ratio-centric system developed by the prominent exponent of the German enlightenment J. Chr. Gottsched (1700—1766). The authors examine the problem of the ontological argument in the context of the current civilizational crisis of consciousness, which arose against the background of the 20th century crisis of objectivist ...
«Cultivate Your Garden»: Natural Existence Utopia of Enlightenment Man in Park and Garden Landscapes (on the Example of “Life and Adventures” by Andrei Bolotov)
This article considers the realisation of the Enlightenment landscape utopia on the example of the analysis of the evolution of utopian ideas by Andrei Bolotov in his autobiographical work “Life and Adventures”. The author of the article outlines the destruction of ‘natural state’ of a human ...
Kantian ethos in J. Rawls’s political philosophy
This article examines the relation between J. Rawls’s philosophical and political conceptions and I. Kant’s ideas and the intellectual and political tradition of the Enlightenment in general. The author defends Rawls’s approach to Kant’s works interpreting it as “discipleship”, the assimilation and intrinsic reconceptualization of Kantian ideas preserving the essence of the assimilated. Rawls justifies his ...
The Knight of Contemporary Russian Kantiana. On the 85th Birthday of Leonard Kalinnikov
... (4): Transcendental Metaphysics, Epistemology and the Philosophy of Mind. Proceedings of International Seminar]. Moscow: GAUGN Press, pp. 42-46. (In Rus.)
Kalinnikov, L. A., 2019c. Kant’s System as the Development of Ideological Intentions of the Enlightenment. In: N. A. Dmitrieva and V. A. Chaly, eds. 2019. 12th Kant-Readings. Kant and the Ethics of Enlightenment: Historical Roots and Contemporary Relevance: Proceedings of the International Conference. Kaliningrad: IKBFU Press, pp. 41-42.
The Book of Life in the hermeneutics of Johann Georg Hamann
... many modern philosophers: the world of culture is turning into an autochthonous flicker of hybrid quotations ruins.
Gilmanov, V., 2003. Germenevtika «obraza» I. G. Gamana i Prosveshchenie Kaliningrad [Hermeneutics of Image by J. G. Hamann and Enlightenment]. Kaliningrad (in Russ.).
Gilmanov, V., 2005. Crusades of J. G. Hamann against Enlightenment. Vestnik MGU. Ser.: Filosofia [Bulletin of Moscow State University. Ser.: Philosophy], 3, pp. 14—26 (in Russ.).
Gilmanov, V., 2013. J. G. Gaman ...
Thinking and faith. An afterword to the correspondence regarding relations between Hamann and Kant
9. Schadel E. Kants “Tantalischer Schmertz“: Versuch einer konstruktiven Kritizismus-Kritik in ontotriadischer Perspektive. Frankfurt am Main ; Berlin ; Bern ; New York ; Paris ; Wien : Lang, 1998.
G. Hamann, I. Kant, philosophy of Enlightenment, Critique of Pure Reason, hermeneutics, transcendental philosophy, Hamann’s polemic against Kant
Gilmanov V. Kh.
[html]<div align="justify">1. Gilmanov, V. H. 2003, Germenevtika «obraza» ...
Studies into the history of Russian Neo-Kantianism in Poland
... zwierzat (rec.) [G. Czelpanow. About mind animals (rev.)] // Przeglad Filozoficzny [Philosophical Review]. № 4, p. 520.
103. Walicki A. 1973, Rosyjska filozofia i mysl spoleczna od Oswiecenia do marksizmu [Russian philosophy and social thought from the Enlightenment to Marxism]. Warsaw.
104. Walicki A. 1979, A history of Russian thought from the Enlightenment to Marxism. Trans. H. Andrews-Rusiecka. Stanford.
105. Walicki A. 1980, A history of Russian thought from the Enlightenment to Marxism. Trans....
How transcendental are Kant’s principles of public law?
.... Political Review. Almanac] 2005. No. 2. P. 7—14. URL: http:// www. politex. info/content/view/153/30/ (accessed on 22.06.2015)
4. Zilber, А. S. 2014, «Negativnaja mudrost'» politicheskogo Prosveshhenija [The „Negative Wisdom“ of Political Enlightenment], in: XI Kantovskie chtenija: Kantovskij proekt prosveshhenija segodnja: materialy mezhdunarodnoj konferencii [XI Kant Readings: Kant's Enlightenment Project Today: Proceedings of the International Conference]. Kaliningrad. P. 178—181....
Immaturity and the objective of a true reform in ways of thinking. Part II
The originality of Kant’s answer to the question of the Enlightenment in a 1784 article consisted not in addressing the words of Horace, but in linking it to the revised legal notion of immaturity, which is now interpreted from the philosophical and theological perspective and has become one of key philosophical ...
Kant as the German Theorist of the French Revolution: the Origin of a Dogma
.... Engels, 1975. Collected Works. Volume 1: Marx, 1835–1843. Moscow: Progress Publishers; London: Lawrence & Wishart, pp. 203-210.
Mezhevich, V. S., 1833. Hegel. In: Teleskop. Zhurnal sovremennogo prosveshchenija [Telescope. Journal of Contemporary Enlightenment Telescope. Journal of Contemporary Enlightenment], edited by N. I. Nadezhdin, 16(15), pp. 381-397. (In Rus.)
Mitin, M. B., ed. 1934. Dialekticheskij i istoricheskij materializm v 2-h chastjah. Uchebnik dlja komvuzov i vtuzov. Part 1: Dialekticheskij ...
Positive Philosopher with Restless Imagination (Rev.: V. V. Vasilyev, David Hume and the Riddles of His Philosophy. Moscow: LENAND, 2020, 704 pp.)
... Higher-Order Theories of Consciousness. In: S. Schneider and M. Velmans, eds. 2017. The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness. Hoboken. N. J.: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 288-297.
Home, H., 2005. Essays on Principles of Morality and Natural Religion. Natural Law and Enlightenment Classics. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund.
Hume, D., 1960. A Treatise of Human Nature. Reprinted from the original edition in 3 volumes and edited, with an Analytical Index, by L. A. Selby-Bigge. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Ivanenko, A. A., 2012....
Kantian Philosophy and ‘Linguistic Kantianism’
... l’Académie Royale des Sciences & Belles-Lettres de Prusse pour l’année 1759. Nouvelle bibliothèque germanique, ou histoire littéraire de l’Allemagne, de la Suisse, & des Pays du Nord, 21(1), pp. 201-204.
3. Berlin, I., 2013. Three Critics of the Enlightenment: Vico, Hamann, Herder, 2nd ed. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
4. Devitt, M., Sterelny, K., 1999. Language and Reality, 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell.
5. Dragalina-Chernaya, E. G., 2018. Consequences and Design in General and Transcendental ...
Antecedents to the idea of constitutional control in the French legal thought of the Enlightenment
In this article, I consider the institution of constitutional control and its development during the Enlightenment. I stress that enlighteners thoroughly disapproved of French parliaments as forerunners of modern bodies of constitutional justice and explain why this was the case. In an early modern state, conditions for constitutional control and its ...
Kant und das Recht der Lüge
The author analyses the Enlightenment's principle of justifying lie from altruistic motives, which was criticised by Kant in the article "On a supposed right..." The article considers the advantages and disadvantages of arguments drawn in Kant's work. The author proves ...
The unity of public and family morals in the comedies of Yekaterina II
This article considers the enlightenment strategy of Yekaterina the Second aimed at introducing the nobility to basic values, in particular, family consolidation and devotion to the interests of the state. A literature means of implementing this strategy was the comedies of Yekaterina ...
A Relation to the Politikal Revolution as a Touchstone for Practical Philosophy
... Kant’s positive attitude to the French revolution as a ‘historical sign’ of the possibility of moral and legal improvement of humanity through striving for moral goals. Political revolutions are considered as the initial (‘negative’) stage of enlightenment consisting in the liberation from coercion and ‘assistance’ from guardians. This s
1. Aldanov, M. A. 2002, Devyatoe termidora [The Ninth Thermidor]. In: Aldanov, M. A. Myslitel’. Tetralogiya [The Thinker, a tetralogy]. Moscow.
Condorcet interpretation of probability’s theory: the use of a mathematical construct to the field of social action
... history of probability calculus as a method to describe historical chronology. The nature of Condorcet’s thoughts on the wide interdisciplinary opportunities of mathematics makes it possible to compare his ideas with those of other philosophers of the Enlightenment (Rousseau, Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Diderot), as well as a number of provisions of Kant’s philosophy. Despite the fact that Condorcet was not familiar with Kant’s works, his general ideas on the autonomous subject, their reason and ...
Donelaitis and Kant: to the issue of the hermeneutic of survival in the era of the “mystery of iniquity”
... This was the era of pietism. However, in Königsberg of the first half of the 18th century, pietism was not determined solely by the dogmatics of orthodox Lutheranism. Adherents of pietism demonstrate soteriological will to improve the world through enlightenment, which contradicts the predestination dogma. This will is found not only in Kant’s philosophical and pedagogical endeavours, but also in Donelaitis’s pedagogy, which deserves serious attention. Despite his deeply pietistic education,...
XI Kant Readings
Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University announces the XI International Kant Readings “Kantian Project of Enlightenment Today”, dedicated to Kant’s 290th anniversary and to 230th anniversary of his widely influential essay “Answering the Question: What is Enlightenment?”
The Organizing Committee
Enlightenment, Place and Identity: Imagining Russia in the Latvian Literature of the 18th—19th Centuries
... apgaismības virzienu kontrasti un nozīme latviešu 18. gadsimta literatūras attīstībā // Latviešu literatūras procesi un personības. Rīga, 2008.
2. Daija P. Genesis of the Concept of Statehood and Perception of Patriotism in Latvian Enlightenment Literature // Latvia and Latvians: A People and a State in Ideas, Images and Symbols. Rīga, 2000.
3. Dann O., Hroch M. Einleitung // Patriotismus und Nationsbildung am Ende des Heiligen Römischen Reiches. Köln, 2003.
4. Dunsdorf ...
Kant and His Heritage in Belarusian Philosophy of the Soviet and Post-Soviet Periods
... Activity of the Subject of Knowledge in German Philosophy of the Second Half of the 18th Century]. Abstract of the Dissertation for the PhD Degree. Minsk: BSU. (In Rus.)
Grudnitsky, G. D., 2006. Nyameckaya asveta i Kant (prablemy gnasealogii) [German Enlightenment and Kant (Problems of Gnoseology)]. Novopoltsk: Polackі Dzyarzhaўny Unіversіtet. (In Belar.)
Ivanovsky, V. N., 1923. Metodologicheskoe vvedenie v nauku i filosofiyu [Methodological Introduction to Science and Philosophy]. Minsk: Beltrestpechat’....
Participation of foreign volunteers in the Greek Revolution of 1821—1830
... organization, funding sources, the nature of the participation of volunteers in hostilities. The study used historical-genetic and historical-comparative methods. The idea of the responsibility of Europeans for the fate of the Greeks appeared in the enlightened circles of Europe long before the Greek Revolution. With the beginning of the uprising on the Peloponnese, it developed into Philhellenic committees, which raised money for the Greeks and sent volunteers to Greece. The author concludes that ...
What is Kantian Philosophy of Mathematics? An Overview of Contemporary Studies
... Theory of Mental Activity: a Commentary on the Transcendental Analytic of the Critique of Pure Reason. Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press.
Kant, philosophy of mathematics, intuition, construction, philosophy of science, philosophy of German Enlightenment
Evstigneev M. D.
Breakthrough in Chinese Kant Scholarship. Interview with Prof. Deng Xiaomang
Yang, Z. and Deng, X., 2001. 康德《纯粹理性批判》指要 Kangde “Chuncui lixing pipan” zhiyao [Introduction to Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason]. Beijing: 人民出版社 Renmin chubanshe [People’s Publishing House].
Kant, China, Enlightenment, New Confucianism, Translation, Li Zehou, Yan Fu, Mou Zongsan, Li Minghui
The Place of Hermann Cohen’s Ideas in the Philosophy of Dialogue
... Borisovicha Pasternaka i ego 90-letiyu [“A Hug in a Thousand Embraces”: a Collection of Papers in Memory of Evgeny Pasternak and His Ninetieth Birthday]. St. Petersburg: RChGA, pp. 59-80. (In Rus.)
Dmitrieva, N., 2016. Back to Kant, or Forward to Enlightenment: The Particularities and Issues of Russian Neo-Kantianism. Russian Studies in Philosophy, 54(5), pp. 378-394.
Dvorkin, I. S., 2002. The Thou and the It: Following of Buber and Freud. Voprosy Filosofii, 4, pp. 141-158. (In Rus.).
Georges Gurvitch and Sergey Hessen on the Possibility of Forming Social Unity
... contemporaines, 33, pp. 553-554. (In Rus.)
Bitcilli, P. M., 1935. [Rev.] G. Gurvitch, L’expérience juridique et la philosophie pluraliste du droit, Paris, 1935. Novy Grad, 10, pp. 139-142. (In Rus.)
Dmitrieva, N. A., 2016. Back to Kant, or Forward to Enlightenment: The Particularities and Issues of Russian Neo-Kantianism. Russian Studies in Philosophy, 54(5), pp. 378-394.
Duguit, L., 1921. Objective Law. II. Columbia Law Review, 21(1), pp. 17-34.
The Problem of the Relationship between Apperception, Self-Consciousness and Consciousness in Kant’s Critical Philosophy
... Wolfian Psychology. In: Istoriko-filosofskii ezhegodnik 2004 [History of Philosophy Yearbook 2004]. Moscow: Nauka, pp. 238-249. (In Rus.)
Vasilyev, V. V., 2010. Filosofskaia psikhologiia v epokhu Prosveshcheniya [Philosophical Psychology in the Age of Enlightenment]. Moscow: “Kanon+” ROOI Reabilitatsiya. (In Rus.)
Vasilyeva, M. Y., 2009. Kant and Berkeley: Similarity or Difference? Kantian Journal, 1(29), pp. 30-38. (In Rus.)
Wolff, C., 1725. Vernünfftige Gedancken von Gott, der Welt und der Seele ...
“Russian people” in the literature and documents of the 19th century: an experience of linguistic portraiture
... and the image of Russian people was mythologized. The authors concluded that the concept “Russian people” is composed of two parts — ‘ordinary people’ and ‘society’. The latter behaves in a fatherly way, taking upon itself the mission of enlightenment of ordinary people and their liberation. In the semantic field “Russian people” there are numerous semantic components directly related to the concept analysed: faith, faithfulness, patience, tolerance, understanding, receptivity, ...
Kant’s Dissertation for the Master’s Degree On Fire and the Transformations of his Ideas of Ethereal Matter
... kantovskoi metafiziki (deduktsiya kategorii) [Basements of Kant’s Metaphysics (Deduction of Categories)]. Moscow: Nasledie. (In Rus.)
Vasilyev, V. V., 2010. Filosofskaya psikhologiya v epokhu Prosveshcheniya [Philosophical Psychology in the Age of Enlightenment]. Moscow: Kanon+. (In Rus.)
Vernadsky, V. I., 1981. Kant and Natural Sciences. In: V. I. Vernadskii, 1981. Izbrannye trudy po istorii nauki [Selected Works on the History of Science]. Moscow: Nauka, pp. 190-214. (In Rus.)
Deduction of Freedom vs Deduction of Experience in Kant’s Metaphysics
Timmermann, J., 2003. Sittengesetz und Freiheit. Untersuchungen zu Immanuel Kants Theorie des freien Willens. Berlin and New York: De Gruyter.
Vasilyev, V. V., 2010. Filosofskaya psikhologiya v epokhu Prosvescheniya [Philosophical Psychology in the Age of Enlightenment]. Moscow: Kanon+ ROOI “Reabilitatsia”. (In Rus.)
Walker, R. C. S., 1978. Kant. London, Henley-on-Thames, and Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
metaphysics, transcendental deduction, pure concepts of understanding, freedom, moral law
Is Spinoza’s Ethics Heteronomous in the Kantian Sense of the Term?
... York: State University of New York Press, pp. 17-93.
Graetz, H., 1998. Geschichte der Juden: von der dauernden Ansiedlung der Marranen in Holland bis zum Beginne der Mendelssohn’schen Zeit. Volume X. Berlin: Arani.
Israel, J. I., 2001. The Radical Enlightenment: The Philosophy and Making of Modernity 1650-1750. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ivic, S., 2007. Spinoza and Kant on Suicide. Res Cogitans, 4(1), pp. 132-144.
Jura, G., 2003. Wstęp. In: B. Spinoza, 2003. Traktaty. Edited and translated ...
Kantian Ethical Humanism in Late Imperial Russia
... Renaissance Thought: The Classic, Scholastic, and Humanist Strains. New York: Harper Torchbooks.
Kunitsyn, A. P., 1966. Pravo yestestvennoye [Natural Law]. In: I. Ia. Shchipanov, ed. 1966. Russkie Prosvetiteli ot Radishcheva do Decabristov [Russian Enlightenment from Radishchev to the Decembrists], Volume 2. Moscow: Mysl’, pp. 204-351. (In Russ.)
Marx, K., 1976. Capital. A Critique of Political Economy, Volume 1. Translated by B. Fowkes. London: Penguin Books.
Mezhuev, V. M., 1977. Kul’tura ...
Kant als Mystiker? Zur These von Carl Arnold Wilmans’ dissertatio philosophica
Carl Arnold Wilmans received his degree of doctor in philosophy in Halle in 1797 for a bold thesis. He claimed a latent similarity between Kant’s enlightened philosophy of religion and the pure mysticism of some so-called separatists — and sent his work to Kant. The fact that and how the latter reacted to it, makes the matter all the more interesting. Could Kant have been a secret mystic? The ...
Russian Neo-Kantianism: An External Perspective
... 2013. Neo-Kantianstvo v Rossii: Aleksandr Ivanovich Vvedensky, Ivan Ivanovich Lapshin [Neo-Kantianism in Russia: Aleksandr I. Vvedensky, Ivan I. Lapshin]. Moscow: ROSSPEN, pp. 40-73. (In Russ.)
7. Dmitrieva, N. A., 2016. Back to Kant, or Forward to Enlightenment: The Particularities and Issues of Russian Neo-Kantianism. Russian Studies in Philosophy, 54(5), pp. 378-394.
8. Kubalica, T., 2013. Wiedza w neokantyzmie. Studia Systematica, 3, pp. 89-107....
Kategorische Rechtsprinzipien in Zeiten der Postmoderne. Interview mit Prof. Dr Otfried Höffe
... as a mission of the state rather than a subjective right of citizens), and argues that dictatorship and tyranny deserve resistance. Prof. Dr. Höffe gives detailed definitions of the notions of transcendental exchange, categorical legal principles, enlightened liberal democracy, and a world republic. This interview will supplement the body of Prof. Dr. Höffe’s works that have already been translated into Russian.
Hegel, G. W. F. 1979, Über die wissenschaftlichen Behandlungsarten des Naturrechts,...
The child that is «not of this world» in Sergey Snegov’s novel Humans as Gods
The novel by the famous Soviet science fiction writer is analysed in the context of evangelical allusions and connotations. Biblical references in the text suggest a link between one of the main characters, the boy Astr, and the image of Christ. Although well in line with the anthropology of enlighten-ment, the idea of the salvation of the universe, which is central to the plot of the novel, and the image of the saviour, the child that is ‘not of this world’, are counterposed to Christian philosophy...