CURRENT PROBLEMS IN LINGUISTICS
Andrej Zaliznjak. Cutting off the unnecessaryAbstract
This paper offers a polemic linguistic and philological view on the scientific heritage of one of the most prominent linguists of the 20th century, Andrej A. Zaliznjak (1935—2017), who authored fundamental works on the Russian and Old Russian languages. In different years, Zaliznjak addressed issues in morphology, syntax, accentology, and historical grammar. This apparent variety of his research interests gives an impression that Zaliznjak moved from purely structural paradigmatic descriptions to merely historical-philological analysis of specific texts. Zaliznjak basic method, however, remained unchanged throughout his life. His descriptions were always rule-based: he extracted rules from language data and tested them on a specific collection of texts. Zaliznjak’s rules can, therefore, be identified with predictive models in the sense adopted in natural sciences. His models gave accurate results since Zaliznjak had a rare gift of cutting off all kinds of redundant information in his rule-based grammatical descriptions and kept the latter apart from other linguistic issues as well as from historical-philological commentary. Although Zaliznjak himself stayed away from programmatic declarations about the language structure and avoided developing integral theories of language, he can be called a consistent structuralist who successfully applied natural science criteria to linguistic evidence.
THE PATHS OF THE PUSHKIN TEXT: THE 220TH ANNIVERSARY OF ALEXANDER PUSHKIN
The phenomenology of Pushkin’s ‘universal sympathy (based on ‘Аscene from ‘Faust’, ‘The feast in the time of plague’, and ‘the Wanderer’)Abstract
This article attempts to approach the discovery of what Dostoevsky called Pushkin’s ‘great secret’. In his essay ‘Pushkin’, Dostoevsky wrote that the poet had ‘a capacity for universal sympathy’. The ‘secret’ of Pushkin is analysed in this article in the context of the general cultural problem of fundamental ontological predicates, which determined the main cultural codes of the literary worlds reflected in the poet’s oeuvre. The methodological approach is based on Valentin Nepomnyashchiy’s concept of the poetic momentum of Pushkin’s literary work, which is always in the stress field between the Christmas and Easter meta-codes. This field dictates the solution to the main Christian problem of correlations in the dialogue between God and the human being. It is concluded that Pushkin was aware of the dangers of ‘the mystery of iniquity’, which is closely connected with the ideas of Gnosticism when partaking spiritually and poetically of the literary phenomenology of Goethe’s tragedy Faust, John Wilson’s poem ‘The city of the plague’, and John Bunyan’s allegorical novel Pilgrim’s Progress. The article emphasises that Pushkin used his ‘capacity for universal sympathy’ to incorporate those dangers in both life and poetry. The hermeneutics of poetry is also dealt with in its connection to the hermeneutics of faith within the context of Russia’s and Western Europe’s eschatological objectives, which shaped the cultural codes of the two territories.
On fate and/or providence in Pushkin’s short story ‘The blizzard’Abstract
It has been repeatedly noted that there are similarities between Pushkin’s short story ‘The blizzard’, Zhukovsky's ballad ‘Svetlana’, from which Pushkin borrowed the epigraph, and Burger's ‘Lenora’, which was twice used by Zhukovsky in different contexts. Differences in the functioning of the traditional plot are considered against the background of the interrelation and interdependence between fate, chance, and free will. In a Christian reading, the attitudes of the main characters of the three works to God's providence explain the motives behind their actions, the further course of events, and the endings of the works.
Pushkin texts in the description of characters by Dostoevsky and NabokovAbstract
In his novels, Dostoevsky refers to the Pushkin text to describe characters. For Dostoevsky, Pushkin is an ethical and aesthetic touchstone; the writer’s voice is consonant with that of the poet’s persona. In some cases, the Pushkin text is embedded in religious discourse (the parable of the prodigal son). In interpreting the Pushkin text, Dostoevsky’s characters present and disclose themselves. The ‘dreamer’ from ‘White Nights’ invokes the Pushkin text to convey the values of his own. In her peculiar account of the ‘poor knight’ ballad, Aglaya is transforming religious discourse into aesthetic and mundane. Pushkin’s St Petersburg text, whose sign is wet snow, creates the space in which contradiction-ridden Hermann (The Queen of Spades) and Dostoevsky’s paradoxalists develop. The Pushkin code in Dostoevsky’s texts is what the images of characters are built on. It is a text-producing and plot-building technique and an element of literary discourse, of author-reader interactions. These techniques are used by Vladimir Nabokov in Despair and “The Visit to the Museum”.
Time and eternity in the literary image of the church procession: Pushkin’s Boris Godunov and Shmeleff’s The Year of the LordAbstract
This article considers the depiction of the church procession to examine the literary interpretation of time and eternity in Alexander Pushkin’s historical drama Boris Godunov and Ivan Shmeleff’s novel The Year of the Lord. The two texts share fundamental similarities in literary images. The church procession is portrayed as a manifestation of eternity in the tangible reality of this world. Despite their common temporal nature, images in Boris Godunov and The Year of the Lord differ in terms of both motivation (state-driven in Pushkin’s drama and public-driven in Shmeleff’s novel) and the degree of detail. The description is condensed and script-driven in Boris Godunov, whereas the church procession in The Year of the Lord unfolds before the reader to reveal personal, family-related, and public aspects of the phenomenon.
Pushkin as a personal myth of the Russian avantgardeAbstract
This article analyses strategies for cultural appropriation and the appropriation of Pushkin’s personality and oeuvre by the Russian avant-garde. The treatment of Pushkin by the avant-garde is considered as a peculiar variant of cultural apophaticism when the object of reflection is asserted through its consistent negation. The factography of the Russian avant-garde proves that, from its earliest stages the creative system has been constructing its own Pushkin myth, within which the poet has the role of both an object of cultural overcoming and the reference point for the development of a new art. Through negation, the avant-garde strives to ‘discharge’ Pushkin and to show his strangeness to classical cultural models. By making the poet its own, the avant-garde uses him to secure its position in the literary field. Another focus of the article is the place and role of the Pushkin substrate in the poetry and theoretical treatises of Aleksei Kruchyonykh. In his works Pushkin is an object of poetical overcoming and a pole of attraction-repulsion. He is a touchstone, a reference point for the conceptualisation of a new literature. In developing his theory of the shift, Kruchyonykh views Pushkin as a ‘sound-poet’. That analytical position made it possible to move from dismissing him as ‘a deaf singer’ to the avant-gardist glorification of Pushkin as a genius who worked with the sound texture of the poem. Kruchyonykh demonstrates that for Pushkin the shift is a powerful semantic generator of poetry, a tool that makes an error ‘the rule of breaking rules’: semantic deviations turn into neologisms, whereas the shift itself enters the realm of productive poetic techniques.
On the Pushkin text in the poetry of PerestroikaAbstract
This article is devoted to Perestroika poets referring to the Pushkin text as a ‘tuning fork’ in reconfiguring poetics. The study aims to show that, in this case, intertextual connection create a special text-within-a-text. The corpus, intertextual, and compositional methods are used to analyse Pushkin-invoking texts by Yuri Arabov, Vladimir Druk, Timur Kibirov, and other poets. It is concluded that these authors perceive Pushkin’s poetry as a lexicon whose units can be used for building countless cycles of poetic reflections on the world as well as on poetry and the role of the poet. The donor text is an interlinear gloss for the recipient text. The implicit ‘alien’ and the explicit ‘own’ words merge into a single text. Perestroika poets inherit from Pushkin polystylism, a propensity to parody when analysing cultural codes and precedent texts, and fundamental dialogicity. Particular attention is paid to variations on the theme of Pushkin's ‘Monument’ as well as the symbolism of his name, which turned into somewhat of a common noun used to refer to any poet. The predominance of allusions to quotes in references to Pushkin points to the desire of perestroika poets engage in an equal dialogue with the national genius. At the same time, the Pushkin text becomes for them the point at which the semantic perspective of both a concrete poetic utterance and poetry as a whole is refracted.
THE BALTIC ACCENT: THE BIOGRAPHY AND MEMOIRS OF ANDREY BOLOTOV
On the employment status of Andrei Bolotov in KönigsbergAbstract
This article deals with Andrey Bolotov’s official employment status during his time in Königsberg (April 1758 — March 1762). The work considers the historiographic tradition originating from Bolotov’s memoirs, the Königsberg pages of which were written more than 30 years after the events described. Bolotov’s memoirs are compared with his correspondence of the time and the archival materials of the Russian administration of East Prussia during the Seven Years’ War. It is concluded that Bolotov’s status was ambivalent. Although serving as a translator at the governor’s office, he never had an official rank. The study makes it possible to clarify the role that Bolotov had in the local Russian administration as well as to understand his attitude to service in that difficult period for the Russian nobility.
A synthesis of genres in Andrey Bolotov’s memoirsAbstract
Although the genre status of the memoirs of the Russian writer Andrei T. Bolotov has been repeatedly raised in the literature, it has never merited a separate study. This article analyses the structure of Bolotov’s memoirs in terms of their genre peculiarity. Text analysis shows that, when writing his memoirs, Bolotov used techniques borrowed from across various genres with which he was well acquainted. Those were the novel, the epistolary genre, the travelogue, the historical essay, etc. In the broad context of Bolotov’s works, the article shows that all those elements were not combined mechanically. A well-read and stylistically sensitive author, he was guided by an intuitive sense of appropriateness of each technique depending on the object of description and thus achieved a genuine synthesis of genres. Finally, it is concluded that this intuition and a clear understanding that his task was a thorough description of his life as a record for posterity translated in the literary finesse of Bolotov’s texts and their appeal to the reader.
An early edition of Andrey Bolotov’s memoirs (from the archives and manuscripts section of the State Historical Museum)Abstract
The history of the creation of Andrei T. Bolotov’s memoirs has been little studied. In particular, the stages of his work on this text are not entirely clear. This article is an attempt to shed light on one aspect of this problem. Bolotov’s personal fund (No. 349) in the Archives and manuscripts section of the State Historical Museum contain a manuscript of Bolotov’s memoirs entitled “Part 2”. It differs significantly in its essential characteristics (paper, design, size, composition, title, division into sections, etc.) from most manuscripts of Bolotov’s memoirs. The study presents a textual analysis of this manuscript and compares it with the text of memoirs published by Mikhail Semevsky, — the most complete printed edition of The Life and Adventures of Andrei Bolotov. The stages of Bolotov’s work on the manuscript are considered; a comparative analysis of lexical units, stylistic preferences, and the content of the manuscript is carried out. The results obtained suggest that the undated manuscript is the earliest version of the memoirs, supposedly written in the late 1770s.