Translation and Discourse Analysis
This paper will illustrate how discourse analysis had been incorporated in Translation Studies. Discourse Analysis originated in Applied Linguistics and refers to the investigation of language in use. Depending on whether the term ‘discourse’ is understood in a narrower or a wider sense,...
Discursive features of intertextual elements
This paper deals with the discourse properties of quotations used in the English-language media discourse. Based on an analysis, the author comes to a conclusion that the discourse properties of quotations significantly affect the process of interpreting the media discourse.
1. Масленникова А. А. Лингвистическая интерпретация ...
Frames in discourse analysis
... лингвистика и проблемы композиционной семантики в сфере словообразования // Известия АН. Серия литературы и языка. 2002. T. 61, №. 1. C. 13—24.
3. Johnstone B. Discourse analysis. Bodmin, 2002.
4. Blass R. Relevance relations and discourse. Cambridge University Press, 1990.
5. Sperber D., Wilson D. Relevance. Communication and Cognition. Oxford, 1995.
6. Langacker R. W. Discourse in Cognitive Grammar // Cognitive Linguistics....
Verbal aggression in modern poetry: conventional and unconventional functioning of discourse markers
... Auschwitz: archive and witness]. Moscow (in Russ.).
Azarova, N. M., 2012. The criterion "addressee" in establishing the boundaries of poetic discourse. In: N. D. Arutyunova, ed. Logicheskiĭ analiz yazyka. Adresatsiya diskursa [Logical analysis of language. Addressing discourse]. Moscow. pp. 225—233 (in Russ.).
Apresyan, V.Yu., 2003. Implicit aggression in language. In: Computational Linguistics and Intellectual Technologies, Po materialam ezhegodnoi mezhdunarodnoi konferentsii «Dialog» (2003) [Papers from ...
Hybrid texts as a form of interaction between avant-garde artistic and political discourses
... between avant-garde art and political discourses, which have been in close contact since the 20th century and have common typological features. The main methods used in this study are the linguistic pragmatic method, the linguistic poetic method, and discourse analysis. The article proposes a definition of hybridization and hybrid texts while distinguishing between the linguistic, genre, multimodal, and multimedia types of hybridization. Special cases of language hybrids are onomatopoeic hybrids, which are ...
Image and discourse. On the discursive nature of political image formation
Дискурс объекта vs дискурс субъекта: системообразующие признаки.
(дата обращения: 27.01.2011).
Berendeyev M. V.
discourse, discourse analysis, political image, epistemology, identity.
The role of discourse in modern linguistics
... Ressourcen // Kultur und All-tag. Sonderband 6 der Zeitschrift «Soziale Welt» / hrsg. von H.-G. Soeffner. Göttin-gen, 1988. S. 299—312.
text, discourse, cognitive-communicative event, discursive practice, discursive formation, discourse analysis.
The media image of San Escobar in the space of fictional worlds: a socio-semiotic perspective
... semiotic studies. In the theoretical part of the paper, I give a brief analysis of the evolution of the concept of "context" in linguistics from the perspective of systemic functional grammar, cognitivism, social semiotics and multimodal discourse analysis. The analytical part of the article explores the constructed media image of the fictitious state of San Escobar through the prism of the following contexts: situational-medial, cultural-cognitive, linguistic, intentional and socio-economic....
The Text and Discourse in the Light of Communicative Meaning Formation
... teksta [New in foreign linguistics. Issue. 8. Linguistics of the text]. Moscow, p. 467.
8. Serio, P., 1999. How read texts in France. In: P. Serio, ed. Kvadratura smysla. Frantsuzskaya shkola analiza diskursa [Quadrature of meaning. French school of discourse analysis]. Moscow.
9. Stepanov, Yu. S., 1995. Alternative world, Discourse, Fact and principle of Causality. In: Stepanov, Yu. S., Frumkina, R. M., Rudenko, D. I. et al. Yazyk i nauka kontsa XX veka [Language and science of the late twentieth century]....
Linguistic Means Expressing Argumentation in Judicial Discourse late 19th: The Prosecutor’s Speech in Dostoevsky’s The Brothers Karamazov
... Articles and notes. Forensic speech]. Moscow.
8. Koptsev I. D., Kutdinova N. V. 2013. To speech pragmatic argument in the artistic discourse (on the material of the novel of T. Mann “Buddenbrooks”). RACIO.ru, 11, pp. 168—186.
9. Kotov, S. L., 2014. Chto ... ... Karamazov”]. Available at:
[Accessed 23 June 2017].
10. Nesterenko, K. V., 2012. Analysis of speeches as way characteristics of the characters and recreate the fragment of the naive picture of the world “the ...
Transformations in the Communicative Characteristics of Political Discourse in the Current Information Space
... poeticheskogo teksta [Semantics and structure of poetic text]. Moscow. pp. 42—43.
17. Zolyan, S. T., 2016. Semiotics and pragmasemantics of political discourse. Politicheskaya nauka [Political science], 3, pp. 47—77.
18. Il'in, M. V., 2002. Political discourse as a subject of analysis. Politicheskaya nauka [Political science], 3, pp. 11—12.
19. Kartsev, D. Bol'she, chem partiya. Chto pokazali vybory v Gollandii [More than a party. What the elections in Holland showed]. Available at:
Discursive practices of the Russian diaspora in Estonia: language contacts
... discourse generated by an exemplary member of the diaspora. Such a discourse has formal (borrowings, code-switching, etc.), semantic (referential shifts, semantically re-oriented vocabulary, etc.), and pragmatic features. The results of the diasporic speech analysis show that the key components of a typical diasporic discourse are the following ones: spatial-temporal localization (space: Estonia — Russia —the West relations; significant locations, space in the past and today (the empire, the Republic of Estonia, the Soviet Union); information space; time: historical ...
Realisation of the pragmatic potential of intertextuality in political discourse
... лингвистика : учеб. пособие. М., 2006.
5. Gov. UK Announcements: Speeches. 407 announcements by Prime Minister’s Office, 10 Downing Street. URL: https://www.gov.uk/government/announce-ments (дата обращения: 16.08.2014).
discourse analysis, intertextuality, allusion, precedent text, precedent knowledge.
Current processes in the stylistic system of the Russian language: style vs discourse
... теорий) // Язык. Текст. Дискурс. Ставрополь, 2005. Вып. 3. С. 13—21.
24. Чернявская Е. В. Лингвистика текста. Лингвистика дискурса. М. 2013.
25. Fairclough N. Critical discourse analysis as a method in social scientific research // Methods in critical discourse analysis. Sage. L., 2001. Р. 121—138.
26. Gajda S. Tekst / dyskurs oraz jego analiza i interpretacja // Współczesne analizy dyskursu. Kognitywna analiza dyskursu ...
The distinguishing characteristics of the existential LONELINESS verbal implementation in the authorial narrative discourse of F. Kafka
... credence is given to their relevance to linguistic researches and correlation with the basic notions of cognitive linguistics. More specifically, this article exposes the kernel and the peripheral concepts of the existential LONELINESS. It also reveals the analysis of their representation peculiarities in the nonfictional and the fictional discourse of F. Kafka.
1. Беньямин В. Франц Кафка. М., 2000.
2. Бланшо М. От Кафки к Кафке. М., 1998.
3. Гагарин А. С. Экзистенциалы человеческого бытия: одиночество,...
The intertexteme as an instrument in the past — present — future dialogical space of urbanism practices: an intersemiotic analysis of graffiti and inscriptions in Gdansk and Kaliningrad
Cobel-Tokarska, M., 2011. Przestrzeń społeczna: świat — dom — miasto. In: A. Firkowska-Mankiewicz, T. Kanash and E. Tarkowska, eds. Krótkie wykłady z socjologii. Przegląd problemów i metod. Warsaw. pp. 45—62.
Fairclough, N., 1995. Critical Discourse Analysis: the Critical Study of Language. London.
Golka, M., 2009. Pamięć społeczna i jej implanty. Warsaw.
Hutcheon, L., 2007. Teoria parodii. Lekcja sztuki XX wieku. Krakow.
Jalowiecki, B., 2000. Encyklopedia socjologii. Vol. 3. Warsaw.
The symbolic complexes of mass culture and the semiosis of political discourse
In this article, I address the influence of modern mass culture (MC), its symbolic system, narratives, and protagonists on the political discourse. I emphasise that an analysis of the images of mass culture protagonists can give a complete picture of the society that continuously reproduces these protagonists and seeks to resemble them. Therefore, the mode of the production of effective political discourse (PD) in modern ...
Cognitive and pragmatic aspects of German social-political discourse
Analysekonzepte. Teil 1 // Politische Semantik: Bedeutungsanalytische und sprachkritische Beiträge zur politischen Sprachverwendung / J. Klein (hrsg.). Opladen, 1989. S. 3—105.
cognitive discourse analysis, concept, concept sphere, context, lexical-semantic groups, evaluation,
communicative modus, evaluation standard.
Text localization as a task of translation
... of translation, adaptation and localization. The focus on the three key characteristics of the localization process and the analysis of localized texts placed on multilingual websites allow concluding that it is important to integrate localization concept ... ... Localization. Routledge. 233 p.
5. Mityagina V. A., 2014. Translation as the stage of the formation of the tourist Internet discourse. Media and intercultural communication in the European context: Materials of the International Scientific and Practical ...
The Image of Contemporary Russia n Language and Culture: the Thematic Issue of «Russian Review»
... its image in national and intercultural communication. The issue provides a multidimensional coverage of various theoretical and practical aspects of the image-making from the perspective of the theory of communication, linguistics, social psychology, discourse studies, cognitive poetics, linguistics and culture studies.
Galumov, E. A., 2004. Mezhdunarodnyi imidzh sovremennoi Rossii (Politologicheskii analiz) [International image of modern Russia (Political Analysis)]. PhD Thes. Moscow (in Russ.).
Borisenko, I. V., 2008. Natsional'nyi obraz Rossii: filosofsko-kul'turologicheskii analiz [National image of Russia: philosophical and cultural analysis]. PhD Thes. Southern Federal University (in Russ.).
Ethno-confessional immigrant ghettos as a national security problem in Denmark’s social and political discourse
..., and One Denmark without Parallel Societies: No Ghettos in 2030 (2018). The escalation of the social conflict calls for the Danish authorities to take decisive action against the enclavisation of segregated immigrant communities. This study employs discourse analysis to evaluate the efficiency and identify the shortcomings of government action to integrate ethno-confessional minorities into society. Particular attention is paid to analysing public reaction to the criteria for identifying ghettoes as well ...
Algorithm for creating conceptual metaphors
... политической метафоры (1991—2000). Екатеринбург, 2001.
10. Cameron L., Deignan A. The emergence of metaphor in discourse // Applied Linguistics. 2006. № 27/4. P. 671—690.
11. Charteris-Black J. Corpus approaches to Critical Discourse Analysis. N. Y., 2004.
12. Fabiszak M. A Conceptual Metaphor approach to war discourse and its implications. Poznań, 2007.
13. Geary J. I is an Other: The Secret Life of Metaphor and How It Shapes the Way We See the World. N. Y., 2012.
14. Knowles ...
Energy and the Ways of its Conceptualisation in Cognition: an Attempt at an Epistemological Analysis
Thе article examines the connection between conceptualisation and transfer of knowledge in the humanities and analyses the role of these processes in the formation of conceptual and terminological framework for different types of discourse. The study draws on an analytical description of the development of the concept of energy in the Christian Orthodox discourse. The description was provided from the perspective of transferology — a new metadiscipline aimed to study the meaning-focused ...
Polish-Russian relations as reflected in the programmes of right-wing political parties in Poland: a quantitative and qualitative analysis
... postulate a determined and assertive policy towards Russia, parties committed to a neutral position on Russia, and those that seek the improvement and pragmatisation of Polish-Russian relations. There are two important conclusions from the qualitative analysis. Firstly, international relations have a pronounced influence on the programmes of political parties. Secondly, as to the right-wing parties considered in the Polish political discourse as pro-Russian (the National Revival of Poland, the National Radical Camp), they are either far from being pro-Russian or Russia is quite low on their agenda.
Poland, political programmes, right-wing parties, Polish-Russian ...
The linguistic-pragmatic features of the realization of speech acts of threat in the political discourses of Germany and Spain
... yesterday, today and tomorrow. 2018. Vol. III, № 2. P. 204—250.
19. Safwat S. Speech acts in political speeches // Journal of Modern Education Review. 2015. Vol. 5, № 7. P. 699—706.
Bagdasarov S. A., Lenets A. V.
threat, speech act, political discourse, componential analysis, linguistic pragmatics
Formal terms of reproach in Russian discourse
... of pragmatic factors on the linguistic embodiment of the communicative intention of reproach in English-language dialogical discourse. In: I mezhdunarodnaya Internet-konferentsiya «Аktual'nye problemy gumanitarnogo obrazovaniya» [The 1
International ... ... A Construction Grammar Approach to Argument Structure. Chicago.
Hanson, K. C., 1996. How Honorable! How Shameful! A Cultural Analysis of Matthew's Makarisms and Reproaches. Semeia, 68, pp. 83—114.
Klein, D. B., 2001. A Plea to Economists Who Favour ...
The linguistic paradigm in Kant studies
... of the linguistic persona theory in the linguistic studies of Kant’s texts. Linguistic Kant studies is a scientific discipline focusing on the language of Kant's works. Such a study can be either independent or integrated int a logicalphilosophical analysis. The author emphasizes Kant’s contribution to the German philosophical and scientific discourse of the Enlightenment and summarizes current findings on the philosopher’s style and language. It is shown that the analysis of Kant’s linguistic creativity (new terms, syntactic models, utterance structures, communicative speech structure,...
Emotional and receptive-axiological aspects of the speech act of threat in everyday conflict communication in Russian
... Voronezh State University. Series: Linguistics and intercultural communication], 2, pp. 69—71 (in Russ.).
Zhuchkov, D. O., 2010. Rechevoi akt ugrozy kak ob"ekt pragmalingvisticheskogo analiza [Threat speech act as an object of pragmalinguistic analysis]. Ph. D. Voronezh State University (in Russ.).
Karaziya, N. A., 2006. Linguistic Pragmatic Study of Conflict Discourse. Vestnik Kamchatskoj regional'noj assotsiatsii "Uchebno- nauchnyj tsentr". Gumanitarnyye nauki [Bulletin of the Kamchatka Regional Association "Educational and Scientific Center" Series "Humanities"], 2(8), pp. ...
The text in the context of the Tartu Semiotic School: problems and prospects
... Castal. pp. 47—95 (in Russ.).
Bühler, K., 1999. Sprachtheorie. Die Darstellungsfunktion der Sprache. Stuttgart: Fischer.
Eco, U., 1979. Lector in fabula. La cooperazione interpretativa nei testi narrative. Milano: Bompiani.
Harris, Z. S., 1952. Discourse Analysis. Language, 28(1), pp. 1—30.
Jakobson, R., 1960. Linguistics and Poetics. In: T. Sebeok, ed. Style in Language. Cambridge (MA): MIT Press. pp. 3590—377.
Kull, K., 1998. Organism as a self—reading text: anticipation and semiosis. International ...
Language specificity of the texts of political speeches of Angela Merkel
This article discusses the concept of discourse, its special form political discourse, the verbal behavior of German Chancellor Angela Merkel, especially her ability to put into practice different speechmeans in political communications. It focuses on the analysis of the linguistic-stylistic and pragmalinguistic resources realized in the texts of her political speeches. In this article is discovered a new tactic called "tactic of pickup statements minded / opponents."
1. Гаджиев К. С....
Linguistic and pragmatic potential of metaphors in political discourse
... the audience. Metaphor is an important tool for determining the role of language means in enhancing the pragmatic potential of a political text. The main aim of the study is to explore the pragmatic potential of metaphor by means of a systematic analysis of different types of metaphors typical of political discourse. Metaphors in political discourse are an effective tool of influencing the addressee's intellectual, volitional, and emotional state. Our research has shown that a wide range of metaphors is used for achieving a powerful information and emotional ...
Discursive features of Russian gender-oriented advertisements
... the advertising message. Two advertisements for the same good aimed at women and men were chosen for a semiotic analysis. The analysis identified the verbal and nonverbal means of exposing implicit messages reflecting gender relations and reinforcing gender ... ... Development. Cambridge, 1982.
8. Goffman E. Gender Advertisements. N. Y., 1976.
9. Harré R. Persuasion and Manipulation // Discourse and Communication: New Approaches to the Analyses of Mass Media Discourse and Communication.Berlin ; N. Y., 1985. P....
Grammatical antithesis as a mean of objectifiction of emotional meaning in the discource
... presented, the role of linguistic category of intensity and it’s influence upon the realization of the emotional axiological connotative meaning in these suffix are exposed. As an example of illustration of the declared propositions the psycholinguistic analysis of grammatical antithesis, taken from the art discourse is undertaken.
1. Арнольд И. В. Стилистика современного английского языка. М., 1990.
2. Балли Ш. Язык и жизнь. М., 2003.
3. Брагина А. А. Синонимия и языковая ...
The concept “people” in A. S. Shishkov’s manifestoes in the discourse of the Patriotic War of 1812
... linguistic components of nationalism. The aim of this study was to identify the content of the concept of ‘people’ in the manifestoes by Shishkov. These texts expressed the official position of the supreme authority on national unity. The method of discourse analysis employed by the author, made it possible to place Shishkov’s texts in a broader historical context, tracing their origins in the discussions on the language of the beginning of the 19th century and determining their impact on the subsequent ...
On the correlation between the terms poly-discoursivity and inter-discoursivity
Based on a word formation analysis of the ‘poly-discursivity’ nomination, the author stresses its superiority over other synonymous terms used in the ... ....org/dictionary/
british/inter_2 (дата обращения: 08.10.2015).
poly-discursivity, inter-discursivity, discourse, poly-discourse, discourse formations, text, intertextuality, poly-code
Historical memory in the age of globalization: the case of Russian- Estonian relations
... scholars from Russia, the Baltic States and the Nordic countries. It assesses the relationship between globalization and historical memory, thus contributing to the discussion on globalization and the roles and applications of history. On the basis of an analysis of academic discourses on globalization and historical memory, the author arrives at two conclusions. On the one hand, the proponents of globalization use historical memory as one of their arguments: they claim that the history of globalization in international relations ...
Representation of the conceptual and value components in the concepts HOME and HOME / HOUSE in advertising discourse
... Философский словарь. М., 1987.
14. Jackson N. Home in Russia: Cultural Values Embedded in Russian Homes // Moving Forward / Looking Back : Materials of NCA National Convention. Chicago, 2004. P. 111—123.
Marina A. V.
conceptual analysis, advertising discourse, concept ДОМ, concept HOME / HOUSE
Embedding imagology in Translation Studies
... Journalistic texts have for instance been included in research that was previously almost exclusively dealing with literary discourse. Moreover interest in imagological research, sometimes related to the distribution of a promoted national or cultural ... ... Amsterdam & New York: Rodopi.
Bielsa, E., 2013. Translation and the international circulation of literature. A comparative analysis of the reception of Roberto Bolaño’s work in Spanish and English. The Translator, 19(2), pp. 157—181.
Russian soft power in the Baltic States through the lens of research: traditions, competition, confrontation
... and Lithuania) as regards Russian soft power, which is considered as hard power, and to compare the theses that dominate this discourse with the actual interactions between Russia and the three states in media, education, and culture. Each Baltic country ... ... partly, educational services are in demand from both Baltic Russian speakers and ethnic Lithuanians, Latvians, and Estonians. Our analysis shows that the views of Baltic researchers that Russian soft power is politics-driven and foreign to the region are exaggerated ...
Speech behaviour of Internet users in conflict communication
... threads. This approach involves the identification of speech aggression markers typical of a certain type of discourse. This makes it possible to define the roles and attitudes of participants in the conflict interaction. The authors employed methods of discourse analysis and corpus tools of data collection and marking. Seven confrontational threads in the communities of the social network "Vkontakte" were analysed. The authors identified language markers of the switch from cooperative to confrontational ...
Social identity in the conditions of cultural diversity: A search or imposition? (the case of the Kaliningrad region)
This article discusses the development of social identity in the modern Russian society in the case of the Kaliningrad region. Based on an analysis of the regional public discourse and the data of surveys and case studies, the author considers the process of promoting and imposing a model of normativity and social identity marked as one characteristic of the “overwhelming majority” of citizens, “traditional” for ...
Linguistic focus of territory branding
The study of territory branding as a part of communicative process requires the detailed analysis of advertising and PR-texts placed on accessible Web-portals. The current study presents a linguistic analysis of means of the territory management optimizing and of defining the role of linguistic means in the branding discourse. The material of the study is the number of texts (original and translated) in Russian, English and German placed on accessible Web-portals of different regions or on accessible official Web-portals of different touristic regions and cities....
The illocutionary aims of the positive-evaluative speech acts (in English artistic discourse)
The article analyses functional-semantic characteristics of the speech acts of positive evaluation in English artistic discourse. The article represents the taxonomy of the speech acts of positive evaluation and it includes the analysis of their illocutionary aims.
1. Апресян Ю. Д. Интегральное описание языка и система лексикографии // Избранные труды. М., 1995. Т. 2.
2. Арутюнова Н. Д. Типы ...
A. V. Makedonov and A. A. Palshkov. The history of an epistolary (based on the correspondence stored in the Literary Museum archive of SmolSU)
... the director of Literary museum in Karl Marx Smolensk State Pedagogical Institute (currently Smolensk State University). The paper considers the history of pre-publishing preparation of an article containing extracts of N. I. Rylenkov's letters. Our analysis of the epistolary discourse has revealed a complicated situation characteristic of those years, when due to the efforts of the SSPI Chair of Literature a serious work was launched to thoroughly study creations of Smolensk poets listed by A. V. Makedonov as members of the ...
On the problem of cultural reference of proverbs (the Russian proverbs with images of clothing)
... Poetika russkogo fol'klora [Russian folklore. Poetics of Russian folklore]. Leningrad. Vol. 21, pp. 13—37.
25. Melerovich, A. M., 1979. Problema semanticheskogo analiza frazeologicheskikh edinits sovremennogo russkogo yazyka [The problem of semantic analysis of phraseological units of modern Russian language]. Yaroslavl.
26. Melerovich, A. M., Mokienko, V. M., 2016. Experiences of phraseological fixation and systematization of phraseology in the literary and journalistic discourses of Russian speech. In: A. P. Vasilenko, ed. Sovremennaya frazeologiya: tendentsii i innovatsii [Modern phraseology: trends and innovations]. Moscow; St. Petersburg, Bryansk, pp. 123—195.
27. Mokienko, V. M., Nikitina, T. G., Nikolaeva, E....
The Concepts of “Appearance” and “Phenomenon” in Transcendental Philosophy (Kant, Husserl, Fink)
... of a distinct phenomenological idiom. I come to the conclusion that the metaphysical-ontological method of phenomenological analysis of appearance proposed by Fink affords a new insight into the a priori principle and the nature of Kant’s “thing ... ... Philosophical Writings. Volume 1. Cambridge, London, New York et al.: Cambridge University Press, pp. 177-291.
Descartes, R., 1998. Discourse on Method. In: R. Descartes, 1998. Discourse on Method and Meditations on First Philosophy. Translated by D. A. Cress....
On the Semiotic Model of Image
... in a certain discourse), b) the transfer function (transmission (synchronic and diachronic) of semiotic experience from one discourse to another), c) logonomic function (prescription and enabling of the future of acts of semiosis, similar to a certain ... ... of signs. International encyclopedia of unified science, 1 (2), pp. 1—59.
Monticelli, D., 2016. Critique of ideology or/and analysis of culture? Barthes and Lotman on secondary semiotic systems. Sign Systems Studies, 44 (3). pp. 432—451.
The Works of Modern Russian Historians and the Historiography of Medieval Lithuania before and after the Red October
... constitutes the methodological framework of the study. Special attention is paid to the priorities of the Russian scholars in the analysis of the pre-revolutionary and Soviet Lithuanian studies. It is shown that the disintegration of the Soviet Union marked ... ... oskolki razbitogo zerkala: Rossijskij diskurs Velikogo knjazhestva Litovskogo [Peering into the pieces of a broken mirror: Russian discourse Grand Duchy of Lithuania], Ab Imperio, no. 4, p. 561—601.
15. Filyushkin, А. 2008, «Drugaja Rus'» v russkoj istoriografii ...
A Critique of Latvian Integration
... lingvistiskā attieksme // Latviešu valoda 15 neatkarības gados. Rīga, 2007.
27. Joma D. Latvijas iedzīvotāju attieksme pret izglītības reformu (1998—2004) //Latviešu valoda 15 neatkarības gados. Rīga, 2007.
28. Jørgensen M., Phillips L. Discourse Analysis as Theory and Method. L., 2002.
29. Kalniņa A., Sūna L. Kultūra un sabiedrības integrācija // Sabiedrības integrācijas tendences un prettendences, Latvijas un Igaunijas pieredze. Etnisko attiecību aspekts. Rīga, 2008.
30. Kļave E....
Linguistics in the 21st Century: Problems, Prospects, and Growth Points
4. Bybee, J., 2007. Frequency of use and the organization of language. Cambridge.
5. Bybee, J., 2010. Language, Usage and Cognition. Cambridge.
6. Hopper, P. J., 2012. Emergent grammar. In: J. P. Gee and M. Handford, eds. The Routledge handbook of discourse analysis. London.
linguistic diversity, quantitative methods, asystem text linguistics, corpus linguistics, usage-based linguistics.
Plungyan V. A.