Baltic accent

2019 Vol. 10 №4

Back to the list Download the article

The text in the context of the Tartu Semiotic School: problems and prospects



In this article, I discuss problems associated with the emergence and development of the concept of text, which is central to the Tartu-Moscow Semiotic School (TMS). The first prob­lem is the interrelation between statics and dynamics. From the perspective of classical struc­turalism, the language system is a static entity. The generation of a text, however, is a dy­namic process. Therefore, language should contain the possibility of dynamics. The TMS of­fered a twofold solution to this dilemma. Firstly, the text was assumed to have a polysemiotic nature: the verbal text is encoded not by one, but by several sign systems. Secondly, there was an idea of the activity, memory, and responsibility of the text. The two major lines of research within the TMS developed accordingly. The first one focused on polysemiotic systems and mechanisms: the theory of poetic language, translation theory, and intersemiotic interactions in various fields of biosemiotics. The second one explored interactions between the text and the discourse, the semiotics of history, ideology, etc.


Baevskii, V. S. 1994. Kommentarii. In: A. Koshelov, ed. Yu. M. Lotman i tartusko—moskovskaya semioticheskaya shkola [Yu. M. Lotman and the Tartu — Moscow semiotic school]. Moscow: Gnozis (in Russ.).

Bart, R., 1989. Izbrannye raboty: Semiotika: Poetika [Selected works: Semiotics: Poet­ics]. Moscow: Progress (in Russ.).

Benvenist, E., 1974a. Levels of linguistic analysis. In: E. Benvenist, ed. Obshchaya lingvistika [General linguistics]. Moscow: Progress (in Russ.).

Benvenist, E., 1974b. The formal apparatus of utterance. In: E. Benvenist, ed. Ob­shchaya lingvistika [General linguistics]. Moscow: Progress (in Russ.).

Gasparov, B. M., 1975a. The principles of syntagmatic description of the level of sentences. In: B. Gasparov, ed. Trudy po russkoi i slavyanskoi filologii XXIII. Seriya lingvisticheskaya [Proceedings of Russian and Slavic Philology XXIII. A series of lin­guistic.]. Tartu: TGU. pp. 3—29 (in Russ.).

Gasparov, B. M., 1975b. The structure of the formal connection of sentences in modern Russian. In: B. Gasparov, ed. Trudy po russkoi i slavyanskoi filologii XXIII. Seri­ya lingvisticheskaya [Proceedings of Russian and Slavic Philology XXIII. A series of linguistic.]. Tartu: TGU. pp. 30—63 (in Russ.).

Zolyan, S. T., 2016. Yuri Lotman on the text: Ideas, problems, prospects. Novoe lit­eraturnoe obozrenie [New Literary Review], 3(139), pp. 63—96 (in Russ.).

Zolyan, S. T., Chernov, I. A., 1977. On the structure of the language of the descrip­tion of behavior. Trudy po znakovym sistemam [Transactionses on Sign Systems], 8, pp. 151—163 (in Russ.).

Levin, Yu. I., Segal, D. M., Timenchik, R. D., Toporov, V. N., Tsiv'yan, T. V., 1974. Russian semantic poetics as a potential cultural paradigm. Russian Literature, 7(8), pp. 47—82 (in Russ.).

Levi-Stross, K., 1985. Structural analysis in linguistics and anthropology. In: K. Levi-Stross, ed. Strukturnaya antropologiya [Structural Anthropology]. Moscow: Glavnaya redaktsiya vostochnoi literatury (in Russ.).

Leuta, O. N., 2009. Yu. M. Lotman on the three functions of the text. In: V. Kan­tor, ed. Yurii Mikhailovich Lotman [Yuri Mikhailovich Lotman]. Moscow: ROSSPEN. pp. 294—309 (in Russ.).

Lotman, M. Yu., 1984. The semantics of context and subtext in the poetry of Mandelstam. International Journal of Slavic Linguistic and Poetics, 19, pp. 133—142 (in Russ.).

Lotman, M. Yu., 1988. Semanticheskaya struktura svyaznogo teksta i problemy ee pred­stavleniya v AIPS [The semantic structure of a coherent text and the problems of its presentation in AIPS]. Tallinn: Eesti Informatsiooni Instituut (in Russ.).

Lotman, M. Yu., 1995. Behind the text: notes on the philosophical background of Tartu semiotics. In: Lotmanovskii sbornik [Lotman collection]. Vol. 1. Moscow: Its-Ga­rant (in Russ.).

Lotman, Yu. M., 1964. Lectures on structural poetics. I Introduction. Theory of verse. Trudy po znakovym sistemam [Transactionses on Sign Systems], 1 (in Russ.).

Lotman, Yu. M., 1972. Struktura khudozhestvennogo teksta [The structure of the lit­erary text]. Moscow: Iskusstvo (in Russ.).

Lotman, Yu. M., 1973a. About two models of communication in the cultural sys­tem. Trudy po znakovym sistemam [Transactionses on Sign Systems], 6, pp. 227—243 (in Russ.).

Lotman, Yu. M., 1973b. Theater and theatricality in the culture of the early 19th century. In: Semiotyka i struktura tekstu: studia poświęcone VII. Międzynarodowemu Kon­gresowi Slawistów. Warszawa — Wrocław: Ossolineum. pp. 337—355 (in Russ.).

Lotman, Yu. M., 1975. Decembrist in everyday life. In: V. G. Bazanov, V. Vatsuro, eds. Literaturnoe nasledie dekabristov: (Sbornik statei) [The literary heritage of the De­cembrists: (Collection of articles)]. Leningrad: Nauka. pp. 25—74 (in Russ.).

Lotman, Yu. M., 1977a. Poetics of everyday behavior in Russian culture of the XVIII century. Trudy po znakovym sistemam [Transactionses on Sign Systems], 8, pp. 65—89 (in Russ.).

Lotman, Yu. M., 1977b. Text and audience structure. Trudy po znakovym sistemam [Transactionses on Sign Systems], 9, pp. 51—61 (in Russ.).

Lotman, Yu. M., 1981. The brain — text — culture — artificial intelligence. Semi­otika i informatika [Semiotics and Computer Science], 1, pp. 13—17 (in Russ.).

Lotman, Yu. M., 1993. Death as a plot issue. In: Studies in Slavic Literature and Po­etics. Vol. XX: Literary Tradition and Practice in Russian Culture: Papers from an Interna­tional Conference on the Occasion of the Seventieth Birthday of Yu. M. Lotman. Amster­dam: Rodopi. pp. 1—15 (in Russ.).

Lotman, Yu. M., 1996. Vnutri myslyashchikh mirov [Inside the thinking worlds]. Moscow: Languages of Russian Culture (in Russ.).

Lotman, Yu. M., Pyatigorskii, A. M., 1968. Text and function. In: III Letnyaya shko­la po vtorichnym modeliruyushchim sistemam [III Summer School on Secondary Model­ing Systems]. Kääriku, 10—20 May 1968. Tartu: TSU. pp. 74—88 (in Russ.).

Mints, Z. G., 1973. The function of reminiscences in the poetics of A. Blok. Trudy po znakovym sistemam [Transactionses on Sign Systems], 6, pp. 387—417 (in Russ.).

Mints, Z. G., 1992. “Forgotten Quote” in the poetics of Russian post—symbolism. Trudy po znakovym sistemam [Transactionses on Sign Systems], 25, pp. 123—136 (in Russ.).

Paperno, I. A., 1979. The structure of spoken language and problems of modeling behavior. In: Semiotika ustnoi rechi: Lingvisticheskaya semantika i semiotika [Semiotics of oral speech: Linguistic semantics and semiotics]. Vol. 481. Tartu: TGU. pp. 143—163 (in Russ.).

Pyatigorskii, A. M., 1962. Nekotorye obshchie zamechaniya otnositel'no rassmotreniya teksta kak raznovidnosti signala. Strukturno tipologicheskie issledovaniya [Some general remarks regarding the consideration of the text as a kind of signal. Structural typo­logical studies]. Moscow: Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. pp. 144—154 (in Russ.).

Ronen, O., 1973. Lexical repetition, subtext and meaning in the poetics of Osip Mandelstam. In: R. Jakobson, C. H. van Schooneveld, D. S. Worth, eds. Slavic Poetics: Essays in Honor of Kiril Taranovsky. The Hague — Paris: Walter de Gruyter. pp. 367—388 (in Russ.).

Taranovskii, K. F., 1973. About the closed and open interpretation of the poetic text. In: American Contributions to the Seventh International Congress of Slavists, I: Lin­guistics and Poetics. Warsaw, 21—27August 1973. The Hague: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 333—360 (in Russ.).

Fuko, M., 1996. The Order of Discourse. Inaugural lecture at the College de France delivered on December 2, 1970. In: M. Fuko, ed. Volya k istine: po tu storonu znaniya, vlasti i seksual'nosti [The will to truth: beyond knowledge, power and sexuali­ty]. Moscow: Castal. pp. 47—95 (in Russ.).

Bühler, K., 1999. Sprachtheorie. Die Darstellungsfunktion der Sprache. Stuttgart: Fi­scher.

Eco, U., 1979. Lector in fabula. La cooperazione interpretativa nei testi narrative. Mila­no: Bompiani.

Harris, Z. S., 1952. Discourse Analysis. Language, 28(1), pp. 1—30.

Jakobson, R., 1960. Linguistics and Poetics. In: T. Sebeok, ed. Style in Language. Cambridge (MA): MIT Press. pp. 3590—377.

Kull, K., 1998. Organism as a self—reading text: anticipation and semiosis. Inter­national Journal of Computing Anticipatory Systems, 1, pp. 93—104.

Kull, K., Lotman, M., 2012. Semiotica Tartuensis: Jakob von Uexküll and Juri Lotman. Chinese Semiotic Studies, 6, pp. 312—323.

Lachmann, R., 1987. Value Aspects in Jurij Lotman’s Semiotics of Cul­ture/Se­mio­tics of Text. Dispositio, 7(30—32), pp. 13—33.

Lotman, M., 2011. Linguistics and Poetics Revisited. In: M. Lotman, M.-K. Lot­man, eds. Frontiers in Comparative Prosody. Bern, Berlin etc.: Peter Lang Verlag. pp. 15—53.

Lotman, M., 2012a. Verse as a semiotic system. Sign Systems Studies, 40 (1/2), pp. 18—49.

Lotman, M., 2012b. Sissejuhatuseks. In: M. Lotman, ed. Struktuur ja vabadus I: semiootika vaatevinklist. 1.1. Tartu-Moskva koolkond: tekstist semiosfäärini. Tallinn: TLU kirjastus. pp. 15—46.

Taranovsky, K., 1976. Essays on Mandel'štam. Cambridge (MA): Harvard Univer­sity Press.