Kant on evil in the human nature
... ‘nature’. It is emphasised that Kant understands ‘human nature’ as mere “subjective grounds” of the exercise of freedom. Further, the author analyses the factors determining the actions of humans as moral beings. First, the article addresses the “predispositions to the good”, which describes a human being as a natural being, cultural being, and a personality. In this connection, different types of reason identified by Kant are stressed and the features of “pure practical ...
Moral inscrutability and self-constitution in Kant (translated from the English by V. Belonogova and D. Khizanishvili, edited by V. Chaly)
... innovations in respect of the fundamental project presented in the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. He emphasises that freedom is not justified and postulates a transcendental structure similar to the unity of transcendental apperception in order to unify all volitions ... .... Hobbes, T., 1994. Leviathan. Ed. by E. Curley. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company.12. Hume, D., 2000. A Treatise of Human Nature. New York: Oxford University Press.13. Kierkegaard, S., 1980. The Concept of Anxiety. Translated from Danish by R. Thomte ...
Wittgenstein’s followers vs Habermas: A solution to I. Berlin’s dilemma
This article analyses Berlin’s negative and positive interpretations of freedom and idea of value pluralism. It is concluded that pluralism of values and liberals’ negative freedom results in the ... ... Democratic Agency. N. Y., 2004.
7. Habermas J. Moral Consciousness and Communicative Action. Cambridge, 1991.
8. Hurley S. Natural Reasons: Personality and Polity. Oxford, 1989.
9. Pettit P. The Common Mind: An Essay on Psychology, Society and Politics....
The philosophical and legal content of Sergey Hessen’s concept of personality
... personality proposed by the prominent exponent of Russian neo-Kantianism Sergey Hessen and its philosophical and legal content. The frame of reference used to achieve this... ... culture existed in a dialectical relationship. Hessen emphasised the primacy of personal freedom and the need to distinguish between freedom and power of choice. Acts of choice... ... that involves the general population. Hessen counterposed law against the notions of nature and morality and interpreted law as an insufficient but necessary prerequisite...
Is Spinoza’s Ethics Heteronomous in the Kantian Sense of the Term?
... Interest, Recognition, Judgment and Choice. The Review of Metaphysics, 52(2), pp. 267-294.
Zammito, J. H., 1992. The Genesis of Kant’s Critique of Judgment. London & Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Kant, Spinoza, autonomy, heteronomy, ethics, nature and freedom, good and evil.
Kant's philosophical ideas in Rober Nozik's political theory
... categorical imperative (“the principle of humanity as an end in itself”) for the justification of his libertarian “minimal state”. This article analyses and criticizes this attempt on the following grounds: a) the anthropological models of Kant's and Nozik's theories are incommensurable; b) different notions of human nature result in different understandings of freedom — for Nozik it is the basic property of human nature, for Kant it is the result of entering the civil condition; c) the incommensurability of anthropological presuppositions and basic notions distorts the meaning of Kantian formula of categorical ...
Problems and prospects of EU — Russia dialogue on visa-free travel
... dialogue, as well as prospects for the introduction of a visa-free regime between the EU and Russia. The authors provide a historical overview of cooperation in this area and... ... blocks of the “Common Steps”, the authors draw conclusions about the political nature of major obstacles to a visa-free regime. This article is based on the proceedings... ... [The problem of confidence in Russia and the EU in the framework of a common space of freedom, security and justice]. In: Potyomkina, О. Yu., Kaveshnikov, N. Yu., Kondrateva...
A man as a “citizen of two worlds”: The development of Kantian themes by Rosenzweig
... Rosenzweig’s interpretation of Kant’s concept of freedom as a hermeneutical cipher to expose some of his considerations on human nature. Rosenzweig acknowledges Kant’s achievement in attributing a human act to the major fundament, which will save a human from the universal claims of philosophy.The intelligible character of human causation and freedom as a miracle of phenomenal world (as they are called in Rosenzweig’s reception of Kant) make it possible to guarantee ...
On a review deliberated by Kant and published under the name of Chr. Kraus
.... Kuehn M. Kant. A Biography. Cambridge University Press, 2001.
8. Menzer P. Kraus’ Recension von Ulrich’s Eleutheriologie // Kant’s gesammelte Schriften. Berlin ; Leipzig, 1923. Bd
eleutheriology, J. A. H. Ulrich, C hr. J. Kraus, antinomy of freedom and determination by natural laws, primacy of pure reason
[html]1. Kalinnikov, L. A. 1978, Problemy filosofii istorii v sisteme Kanta [Problems of the ph-losophy of history in Kant's system], Leningrad.2. Kant, I. 1963, ...
Тhe legal state over time: the nature and the main approaches to the definition
The article focuses on different approaches to the definition of the legal state nature that has existed over time. The research is aimed at identifying the modern frames ... ... legal state that functions as a necessary counterbalance to the state monopoly on power and governance. The cope of research methodology is very wide, including the dialectic... ... compliance with the law, as well as on the government’s ensuing the individual rights and freedoms.
1. Алексеев Р. А. Эволюция концепции правового...
The notion of necessity in the German philosophy of the¬ Enlighten¬ment
... them, necessity is related not only to logic but rather to the disciplines of general and special metaphysics. It is explained by that the principle of sufficient reason... ... types, for example, conditional and unconditional,absolute and hypothetical, moral, natural and others. The article considers the concept of necessity in the major philosophical... ... authors, as well as their attempts at harmonizing the principle of sufficient reason with freedom. It is demonstrated that, in the 18th century, necessity was understood very...
I. Kant’s and E. Husserl’s practical philosophy
..., will, and action as the crucial point for understanding the relationship between theoretical and practical reason in Kant’s and Husserl’s practical philosophy. Relying on the explanation of the relationship between transcendental and practical freedom given in Kant's practical philosophy, the author problematizes Kant’s thesis about the primacy of practical reason. This is the starting point and leitmotif in analysing the nature of revision of Kant’s ideas, premises, and problems in the first draft of Husserl’s practical philosophy (scientific ethics). Comparative analysis reveals terminological and conceptual similarities and differences between Kant’s and Husserl’s ...
Arguments against Redistributive Justice based on Kant’s Doctrine of Private Right
According to Kant, “right in a state of nature is called private right” (MS, AA VI, S. 242). It is my claim that there is ... ... benefits in the private right. Firstly, I will show how the concept of an innate right to freedom provides no conceptual foundation for a right to enforcement of alleged duties... ... will be helpful here. Secondly, I will argue that the concepts of original acquisition and voluntary transfers are also at odds with the idea of a redistributive justice....
Philosophy of images of nature in the “eastern” poems of G.G. Byron and “southern” poems of A.S. Pushkin
The images of nature in the poems of the two national geniuses are considered within the opposition of the horizontal/vertical, which is laden with philosophical and metaphorical semantics. Both poets show that, in the absence of spirituality, the true internal freedom sought by the main characters cannot be attained
1. Азадовский К. М. Пейзаж в творчестве К. Д. Фридриха // Проблемы романтизма. М., 1971. Вып. 2.
2. Байрон Дж. Г. Корсар ...
Darwinism as the Missing Link in Kant’s Critical Philosophy
... ontological basket with things in themselves at “the top,” to another level of the pyramid of ontologies, by changing dualism to pluralism because dualism is too narrow to accommodate all the autonomous components of critical philosophy. Thus spirit and freedom find a new place separate from the sphere of physical nature; the category of adaptation explains how different ontologies can coexist; while the problem of two interpretations of transcendental idealism (two-world vs. two-aspect interpretation) finds a solution through their reconciliation.
The problem of meaning in Social Semiotics: deep semiotics as a conceptual extension of Social Semiotics
... 108—127 (in Russ.).
Tul'chinskii, G. L., 1987. Normativno-tsennostnaya priroda osmysleniya deistvitel'nosti [The normative value nature of the understanding of reality]. Leningrad (in Russ.).
Tul'chinskii, G. L., 1986. Problema osmysleniya deistvitel'nosti [Problem understanding of reality]. Leningrad (in Russ.).
Tul'chinskii, G. L., 2001. Freedom and meaning. A new shift in the humanitarian paradigm. In: Rossiiskie issledovaniya v gumanitarnykh naukakh [Russian studies in ...
A triune community: Fichte’s family law against the background of Kant’s practical philosophy (II)
... law. The second part of the study considers Fichte's theory of marriage law as compared to Kant’s legal doctrine. Both the union and separation of marriage partners is viewed by Fichte as a phenomenon of the internal life and an element of personal freedom, hence the role of clergy in this field. In Fichte’s theory, special attention is paid to the nature and legal effects of a legitimate divorce interpreted based on his moral anthropology of sexes as a moral fact and a legal status. A divorce, once accomplished in the moral substance, transforms the personal union of family partners into a concubinage,...
Feyerabend’s Natural Law Notes and their significance for Kant studies. Preface
... sowie in der „Metaphysik der Sitten“ von 1797, Göttingen.
19. Kuehn, M. 2010, Kant’s Metaphysics of Morals: its history and significance of its deferral, Kant’s “Metaphysics of Morals”. A Critical Guide, ed. by L. Denis, New York, p. 9—27.
20. Wildberger, H. 1972, Jesaja, Biblischer Kommentar. Altes Testament. Bd. X. Tl. 1. Neukirchen-Vluyn.
natural law, moral, ethic, categorical imperative, moral law, freedom, object, will, motive
The metaphysics of science
... ‘metaphysics of science’. 20th century philosophy of science acknowledged empiricism and it was anti-metaphysic and positivistic. However, all forms of empiricism and positivism... ... conceived as a project to redeem philosophy in the era of burgeoning precise empirical natural science and exact sciences. Kant turned science into a foundation of new metaphysics... ... in view of metaphysics of self-consciousness and the doctrine of practical reason, freedom, identity, and dignity of a human being as a personality. It should also embrace...
Doctrine of Absolute and Ordered Power of God in Medieval Natural Theology
... introduced by medieval philosophers. The author presents the historical background of the development of the notion of absolute and ordered power of God in medieval natural theology.
Сочинения. М., 1995.
Коплстон ... ... Undo the Past // Recherches de théologie ancienne et médiévale. 1972. Vol. 40.
Necessity and freedom in Anselm’s concept of God // Covenant and Causality in Medieval Thought.
Kant’s lectures on natural law: Justice and conscientiousness
The lectures on natural law delivered by Kant in the winter semester of 1784/85 have recently attracted ... ... are of equal importance to understanding certain problems of Kant’s ethical concept and interpretation of the connection between ethics and law. An important role is played... ... Bordoni. Milano, p. 9—50.
natural law, moral, ethic, morality, law, imperative, freedom, equity (Billigkeit), justice, disposition (Gesinnung)
Kant and the Problem of Optimism: The Origin of the Debate
... several good worlds. God’s choice of the actual world owes therefore to the freedom of contradiction (libertas contradictionis) and to the freedom of contrariety (libertas contrarietatis), which are eliminated in the teaching of optimism.
Anonym. 1753, Leipzig,... ... zufälligen entgegen gesetzet werden, Leipzig.
Crusius, Chr. A. 1767, Anweisung vernünftig zu leben, Darinnen nach Erklärung der Natur des menschlichen Willens die natürlichen Pflichten und allgemeinen Klugheitslehren im richtigen Zusammenhange vorgetragen ...
Semantics of P. B. Shelley’s artistic imagery in the Marque of Anarchy poem
... characters are a reflection of the poet’s views on reality and the sociopolitical situation in the country. The mythological and poetic image of the Earth is one of the central in the poem; the Earth calls for the people of England to regain their freedom. The authors reveal a special function of the Shape as a combination of natural and mystical phenomena, opposing evil.
1. Вовк О. В. Энциклопедия знаков и символов. М., 2006.
2. Елистратова А. А. Наследие английского романтизма и современность....
Lessing’s Hamburg Dramaturgy in the “codes of hope” discourse of the Enlightenment
... theatre aimed at founding a “school of morality” in Hamburg. In the 18th century, Hamburg was considered a stronghold of freedom in the opposition between the two forms of being — the feudal and burgher’s ones — having become a capital of the new system of values. Philosophy and arts served as a means in this struggle ... ... rested on reason, virtue, justice, and tolerance, which reflected the common attitudes of burgher Germany towards apparently natural human inclinations. It contradicted both Augustine’s teaching of human corruption and Hobbes’s misanthropic anthropology....
Herzen and conservatives: attraction and repulsion
... unique in the views and beliefs of A. I. Herzen (1812—1870) and Christian — both Russian and Western — conservatives. The author emphasizes that the attraction and repulsion between the freedom-loving supporter of revolutionary changes, Herzen, and sincere advocates of spiritual freedom — free conservatives — were only natural.
1. Володин А. И. Герцен и Запад // Литературное наследство: Герцен и Запад. М., 1985.
2. Герцен А. И. Былое и думы. Минск, 1971.
3. Герцен А. И. Собр....
Kant als Mystiker? Zur These von Carl Arnold Wilmans’ dissertatio philosophica
... He claimed a latent similarity between Kant’s enlightened philosophy of religion and the pure mysticism of some so-called separatists — and sent his work to Kant.... ... allows the latter to play an argumentative role that, by serving as ratio cognoscendi of freedom, is also of epistemic value. Kant’s practical philosophy turns out to be based... ... Kohlhammer.
Stamer, G., 2001. Kant. Der intelligible Charakter und die übersinnliche Natur. In: G. Stamer, hg. 2001. Die Realität des Inneren. Der Einfluß der deutschen...
“Kant’s theory of politics” in “existential liberalism” of Gerhardt
... of politics” presented in this interpretation, emphasises the components of interpretation per se and additional reception, and offers a critical analysis of certain conclusion from the general point of view of contemporary discussion on Kant’s political ... ... Frankfurt am Main, 1961.
10. Vollrath E. Grundlegung einer philosophischen Theorie des Politischen. Würzburg,1987.
politics, freedom, nature, reason, publicity, law, peace.
Zilber A. S.
The questions of the poet A. S. Kushner to the philosopher I. Kant regarding the otherworldly
... Эстетика. Литературная критика. М., 1990. С. 35.
15. Соловьев В. С. Кант. // Соловьев В. С. Соч.: в 2 т. М., 1988. Т. 2. С. 478.
existence of God, perfection, autonomy, heteronomy, beauty of nature, postulates of the practical reason, freedom, determinism
Kalinnikov L. A.
Kants Denkraum: Subjektivität als Prinzip. Interview mit Prof. Dr. Jürgen Stolzenberg
... recent critics. According to Stolzenberg, the principle of modern subjectivity proves to be fruitful in understanding the development of the history of modern music, too.
Bomski, F. und Stolzenberg, J. hg., 2018. Genealogien des Geistes und der Natur. Diskurse, Kontexte und Transformationen um 1800. Göttingen: Wallstein.
Dmitrieva, N. А., 2006. Kant’s Philosophy as Philosophy of Freedom: Other Globalisation. Voprosy Filosofii, 8, pp. 169-180. (In Rus.)
Dmitrieva, N. А., 2009. German and Russian Neo-Kantianism in the Past, Present, and Future. Voprosy Filosofii, 3, pp. 165-175. (In Rus.)
Fichte, J. G., 1971. Eigne Meditationen über ElementarPhilosophie, in: Gesamtausgabe der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Band II, 3. Stuttgart-Bad ...
On the Role of Gesinnung in Kant’s Ethics and Philosophy of Religion. Part I
... “virtues”, “sentiments”, “inclinations”, “aspirations”) to the critical works and then in the Critical period in Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason. Further... ... Theory of Ethics. London: Longmans, pp. 323-360.
Alisson, H. E. 1990, Kant’s Theory of Freedom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Anon., 1735. Gesinnet seyn. In: J. H... ... 302-359.
Kant, I., 1992b. Inquiry Concerning the Distinctness of the Principles of Natural Theology and Morality. In: I. Kant, 1992. Theoretical philosophy, 1755-1770...
Kant on Human Dignity: Autonomy, Humanity, and Human Rights
... new frontier within Kantian scholarship which suggests that Kant places so much special importance on the value of rational nature that the supreme principle of morality and the concept of human dignity are both grounded on it. Advocates of this reading argue that the notion of autonomy and dignity ... ...
Pritchard, M. S., 1972. Human Dignity and Justice. Ethics, 82(4), pp. 299-313.
Sangiovanni, A., 2012. Can the Innate Right to Freedom Ground a System of Rights? European Journal of Philosophy, 20(3), pp. 460-469.
Sangiovanni, A., 2017. Humanity Without ...
Absoluter Wert in Kants Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten
... Commentary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Allison, H. E., 1990. Kant’s Theory of Freedom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dean, R., 2006. The Value of Humanity... ... 35-53.
Schönecker, D. und Schmidt, E. E., 2018. Kant’s Ground-Thesis. On Dignity and Value in the Groundwork. The Journal of Value Inquiry, 52, S. 81-95.
Sensen, O... ... Theismusstreites (1811—1821). Hamburg: Meiner, S. 51-70.
Stolzenberg, J., 2018b. Die Natur der Freiheit. Kant und Fichte. In: V. L. Waibel, M. Ruffing und D. Wagner, Hg...
Kant’s and Fichte’s ethics as sources of Schopenhauer’s philosophy
This article aims to demonstrate the centrality of Kant’s and Fichte’s ethics to the development of Schopenhauer’s ideas of 1811—1813. The ... ... as the primary essence of all things and the idea of its absolute and unconditional nature and its primacy over cognition. Sixthly, some of the key aspects of Schopenhauer’s... ... formulated the supremacy of the better consciousness over the empirical as noumenal freedom and truly moral behavior and defined the category of negation as its opposite...
Condorcet interpretation of probability’s theory: the use of a mathematical construct to the field of social action
Probability theory, which emerged as early as the 17th century thanks to the works of Pascal and Fermat, served for a long time as a tool of professional mathematicians. It was ... ... history of probability calculus as a method to describe historical chronology. The nature of Condorcet’s thoughts on the wide interdisciplinary opportunities of mathematics... ... with Kant’s works, his general ideas on the autonomous subject, their reason and freedom, and history and social progress bear strong similarity to Kant’s views. However...
The Role of the Sublime in Kant’s Religion: Moral Motivation and Empirical Possibility
... this figure functions in two essential ways: as a representation of a maximum of morality that can ground our moral disposition and in so doing acts as a standard for morality. More precisely, the following argument is made: 1) the sublime nature of the image of Christ — as an image of universal respect for the law — awakens the moral feeling of subjects in the ... ... Always, and for Anyone, to Believe Anything upon Insufficient Evidence. In: J. Jordan and D. L. Howard-Snyder, eds. 1996. Faith, Freedom and Rationality. Lanham and London: Rowman & Littlefield, pp. 137-153.
Ward, K., 1972. The Development of Kant’s View ...
The political success of the Baltic People’s Fronts as a result of the 1989—1990 elections
... establishment of mass movements and their ideational imperatives, describes the dynamics of changes in the demands of popular fronts, and comes to a conclusion about their significance for the establishment of a multi-party system in the Baltics.
1. Барсенков ... ....agitclub.ru/front/frontsov/frontjaroslavl. htm (дата обращения: 11.01.2013).
23. Douglas R. W. A little corner of freedom: Russian nature protection from Stalin to Gorbachеv. Los Angeles, 1999.
24. Keller B. Lithuanians rally for Stalin victims // New York ...
1+1-Dimensional Yang — Mills Equations and Mass via Quasiclassical Correction to Action
... nonlinear Klein — Gordon — Fock equations. It is shown that the Nahm reduction does not work, another, novel choice is proposed and investigated. A quasiclassical quantization of the models is based on Feynmann — Maslov path integral construction and its zeta function representation in terms of a Green function diagonal for an auxiliary heat equation with an elliptic potential. The natural renormalization use a freedom in vacuum state choice as well as the choice of the norm of an evolution operator eigenvectors. A nonzero mass appears as the quasiclassical correction, that is expressed via hyperelliptic integral.
1. Savvidy G. K. The Yang — Mills ...
Bogdan Kistiakovy’s Project of “State of the Future” as Synthesis of the Ideas of Liberalism and Socialism
... Kistyakovsky at the turn of the 20th century. The article identifies distinct Marxist analogies and parallels in the contents of this project. The ‘state of the future’ as a rule-of -law socialist state should not only protect citizen’s rights and freedoms, which Kistyakovky supports as proponent of ‘natural rights’, but also ensure social justice. Moreover, he stresses the nonviolent, ‘evolutionary’ way of transition from a bourgeois rule-of-law state to a socialist one. Kistyakovsky’s project demonstrates certain ‘utopianism’, since ...
Kants praktischer Platonismus
... philosophy, particularly his theory of Ideas, in Kant’s moral philosophy, his ethics and his doctrine of right. Kant saw himself as a follower of Platonism insofar as its... ... rationalism differs considerably from Plato’s. This is also true of Kant’s conception of freedom and of human rights. The greatest impact on Kant’s moral philosophy is due... ... Übersetzt von K. Reich. Hamburg: Meiner.
Leibniz, G. W., 1714. Die Vernunftprinzipien der Natur und der Gnade. In: G. W. Leibniz, 2002. Monadologie und andere metaphysische Schriften:...
Duty and Coercion in Kant’s Republican Cosmopolitanism
... political sphere according to Kant stems from the statehood, so that to help other needy and less developed peoples and societies in order to boost that they achieve their autonomy... ..., Kant’s Doctrine of Right. A Commentary, Cambridge.
5. Flikschuh, K. 2007, Duty, Nature, Right: Kant’s Response to Mendelssohn in Theory and Practice III, in: Journal... ... Revista Trans/Form/Açâo 37/1, pp. 127—146.
24. Valentini, L. 2012. Human Rights, Freedom, and Political Authority, in: Political Theory 40/5, pp. 573—601.
Between profession and public engagement: Evolution of the public history movement in America
This article examines the origins and development of the public history movement in America. Special attention is paid ... ... Public Historian. 1999. № 3. P. 167—179.
26. Kelley R. Public History: Its Origins, Nature and Prospects // Ibid. 1978. № 1. P. 16—28.
27. Kijas J. Same Place, Different... ...
52. Young A. F. Revolution in Boston? Eight Propositions for Public History on the Freedom Trail // Ibid. 2003. № 2. P. 17—41.
public history, NCHP, engaged...
The teaching on postulates in Kant’s lectures on philosophical theory of religion
... of the four surviving manuscripts of Kant’s lectures on rational theology. The Lectures include an introduction, two parts, and an appendix. The introduction contains an overview of the basic questions and problems of rational theology, namely: the concept of theology, arts of natural theology, the idea of highest essence, possible types of arguments for the existent of God and their limitations etc. ... ... moralischer Motivation // Kant-Studien. 2008. Bd. 99.
postulates, practical reason, existence of god, immortality of soul, freedom, highest good, axiom, moral theology, belief, happiness, virtue, holiness
Kryshtop L. E.
God’s Law or Categorical Imperative: on Crusian Issues of Kantian Morality
The ethics of Kant and the ethics of Crusius are strikingly similar. This is manifested in a whole range ... ... University Press.
Kant, I., 2011b. Inquiry Concerning the Distinctness of the Principles of Natural Theology and Morals. In: I. Kant, 2011. Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful... ... University Press.
Schiller, F., 1988. On Grace and Dignity. In: F. Schiller, 1988. Poet of Freedom. Washington DC: Schiller Institute, pp. 337-395.
Schmucker, J., 1961. Die Ursprünge...
The Philosophy of Vasily Sesemann and Marburg Neo-Kantianism
... The article focuses on Sesemann’s interest in the concept of the ‘irra¬tional’ and explains his understanding of Neo-Kantianism and the idea of infinity (fieri). Sesemann... ... Berdaev N. А. Filosofija svobody. Smysl tvorchestva [Berdyaev N. A. The philosophy of freedom. Meaning of creativity]. Мoscow, p. 254—535.
7. Gessen S. I. 1998, Mojo... ... Pierwsze okreslenie i istota intuicji. Pier. B. Czardybon [The first qualification and the nature of intuition. Trans. B. Czardybon] // Logos i Ethos [Logos and Ethos]. № 2...