Moral inscrutability and self-constitution in Kant (translated from the English by V. Belonogova and D. Khizanishvili, edited by V. Chaly)
... to demonstrate the existence of evil disposition (Gesinnung). The author be¬lieves that, in this work, Kant introduces two innovations in respect of the fundamental project presented in the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. He emphasises that freedom is not justified and postulates a transcendental structure similar to the unity of transcendental apperception in order to unify all volitions of an agent and make the initial application of freedom possible. The first innovation gives rise to ...
Kant on evil in the human nature
... closely connected to that of the nature or essence of a human being. The article presents an analysis of Kant’s notion of human ‘nature’. It is emphasised that Kant understands ‘human nature’ as mere “subjective grounds” of the exercise of freedom. Further, the author analyses the factors determining the actions of humans as moral beings. First, the article addresses the “predispositions to the good”, which describes a human being as a natural being, cultural being, and a personality....
Deduction of Freedom vs Deduction of Experience in Kant’s Metaphysics
... metaphysics. First of all it is necessary to examine Kant’s attitude to the metaphysics of his time and the problem of its new justification. Kant in his philosophy explicated not only the theoretical world of cognition, but also the practical world of freedom. Accordingly, the fundamental means of proving metaphysics’ claims are the deduction of pure concepts of understanding (deduction of experience) and the deduction of the principles of pure practical reason (deduction of freedom). The underlying ...
The liberal concept of freedom in the conservative teachings of K. N. Leontyev and L. A. Tikhomirov
This article considers the reception of the liberal concept of freedom in Russian conservatism as exemplified by K. N. Leontyev and L. A. Tikhomirov. Reasoning in the framework of Russian philosophical organicism, each philosopher insists on his own approach to analysing social phenomena. It is shown that Leontyev,...
Wittgenstein’s followers vs Habermas: A solution to I. Berlin’s dilemma
This article analyses Berlin’s negative and positive interpretations of freedom and idea of value pluralism. It is concluded that pluralism of values and liberals’ negative freedom results in the problem of relativism and ‘Hobbes/Berlin dilemma’ — the dilemma between individual and collective reasons. The concepts ...
The philosophical and legal content of Sergey Hessen’s concept of personality
... distinguished between several layers of meaning in the notion of culture — civilizedness, level of education, and civic virtue. He stressed that the personality and culture existed in a dialectical relationship. Hessen emphasised the primacy of personal freedom and the need to distinguish between freedom and power of choice. Acts of choice are random and unpredictable — they do not have a solid foundation, whereas acts of freedom are a prerequisite for creativity — an integral characteristic of personality....
Freedom and Arbitrariness. The Relevance of Kant’s Ethics and the Modern World. Report of the 16th Saratov Philosophical Workshop (Saratov, 14 May 2019)
This review presents the discussion on “Freedom and Arbitrariness. The Relevance of Kant’s Ethics and the Modern World”, which took place at the 16th Philosophical Workshop “I. Kant and the Current Problems of Modern Philosophy” held in Saratov on 14 May 2019. The discussion was organised ...
Some aspects of John Rawls’s first principle of justice
... philosopher John Rawls as universal principles that would be chosen by every reasonable and rational person in an ‘original position’. The work analyses the problematic aspects of the principle’s formulation (the vagueness of the list of key rights and freedoms and the value criterion for ranking them) and of the methods used by Rawls to overcome them in the works published after the acclaimed book A theory of Justice. The author addresses the problem of the correlation between freedom and security ...
Freedom as an axiological category in G. G. Byron’s mystery Cain
... the poet. An analysis of one of the key categories of Romanticism – central to Byron’s oeuvre – helps show that the fictional conflict of the drama manifested in the images of Adam’s sons is based on the antithesis between the true and false freedom, whereas the general literary structure of the mystery is used to direct the reader to the conclusion that it is impossible for a human being to stay beyond good and evil.
1. Байрон Дж. Г. Каин (мистерия) // Байрон ...
The parable motives of “escape from freedom” in F. Kafka’s story ”In the penal colony” and F. M. Dostoevsky’s “The Grand Inquisitor”
... is considered in the light of sociocultural experience of totalitarian system, its later analysis and overcoming. The author address the writers’ interest in the psychological determination of enslavement and the unconscious mechanism of rejecting freedom.
1. Достоевский Ф. М. Братья Карамазовы // Полное собр. соч. : в 30 т. СПб.,1990. Т. 14.
2. Кафка Ф. В исправительной колонии // Собрание соч. : в 5 т....
Georges Gurvitch and Sergey Hessen on the Possibility of Forming Social Unity
... Sovremenniye zapiski (Contemporary Notes). Although they differ radically in their definitions of the status of the state they concur in defining society as a set of social institutions and communities existing as instruments for expressing personal freedom. The social regulations they propose are already legal situations. Hessen and Gurvitch believe that the individual can fully exercise his/her freedom only in conditions of such legal pluralism. However, the concept of legal pluralism involves ...
Is Spinoza’s Ethics Heteronomous in the Kantian Sense of the Term?
... motivation, ii) distinction between human nature as rational and affective, ascribing different sets of laws to each, iii) endowment of reason with moral content, iv) recognition of the non-subjective notion of goodness. Added to this is my discussion of freedom and necessity in Kant and Spinoza in which I show that Spinoza’s overarching determinism is not an impediment for autonomy in the Kantian sense of the term. I end the article by presenting possible explanations of the fact that Spinoza’s ethics ...
Property Right and Expropriation in Proceedings of the European Court of Human Rights
This article analyses property right protection in the framework of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and gives the definition of property subject to protection from offences according to the Article 1 of the Protocol No. 1 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and frames the concept of expropriation and ...
Don Carlos by F. Schiller in the translation of A. Mickiewicz and in the context of the Legend of the Grand Inquisitor by F. M. Dostoevsky
... analyzes genetic connections and typological convergences of the drama «Don Carlos» by F. Schiller and the works of A. Mickiewicz and F. Dostoevsky. In the intertextual aspect, the author comes to a conclusion about the key role of the ideology of freedom and power in F. Schiller’s drama «Don Carlos», in «The Great Improvisation» by A. Mickiewicz and the legend of The Great Inquisitor by F. Dostoevsky. It is shown that F. Dostoevsky reduces the ideology of freedom and power, typical of F....
The justification of legal punishment in Kant’s philosophy
... М., 1992.
7. Шопенгауэр А. Мир как воля и представление / пер. с нем. Ю. И. Айхенвальда. М., 1992.
8. Bahnam G. Kants’s Practical Philosophy. Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.
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10. Hill Th. E. Punishment, Conscience and Moral Worth // Kant’s Metaphysics of Morals: Interpretative Essays / ed. by M. Timmons. Oxford, 2002. P. 233—254.
11. Höffe O. Categorical Principles of Law // transl. by M. Migotti....
The criminological and psychological profile of persons sentenced to restriction of freedom
This article is devoted to the investigation of forensic and psychological features of persons sentenced to restriction of liberty on the basis of a psychological and sociological analysis of persons sentenced to restriction of freedom registered at penal institutions of the Kaliningrad region. An analysis of the results of the study suggest that, during the sentence period, those sentenced to restriction of freedom either do not reject the commonly accepted norms, values, and ...
Kant and the Crusians in the Debate on Optimism
... theses. I address Weymann’s polemic with Kant to show that, in the pre-critical period, the early Kant advocated beliefs in sphere of practical philosophy that he later radically changed in the critical period, in particular those with regards to freedom and human dignity. The obvious bias of most Kantian scholars against Kant’s opponents prevented researchers from seeing the validity of Weymann’s criticism of Kant for ignoring the problem of freedom. To prove his point, Weymann addressed ...
Affection of Law: Fichte on the Place and Boundaries of Pure Ethics of the Imperative
... refined interest in preserving and indulging the sensual self and hence the idea of God as the warrantor of empirical happiness / bliss. Accordingly, the “overturn in the state of mind” sought by the Kantian himself implies “the highest act of freedom”, which is inaccessible to him and beyond which the perspective of the world as law is replaced for the subject by the perspective of the Kingdom of the Spirit in which the “selfhood” of each moral agent is practically overcome.
The Holy ...
Immanuel Kant: freedom, sin, forgiveness
... other hand, a permanent and universal one. Although the familiarity with the categorical imperative does not always result in a moral action, the familiarity itself alongside the idea of forgiveness may be considered as a manifestation of morality and freedom.
1. Гегель Г. В. Ф. Феноменология духа. СПб., 1992.
2. Гулыга А. В. Кант. М., 1977.
3. Гусейнов А. А. Долг; И. Кант. «Основоположение к метафизике нравов» ...
Kants Freiheitsargument. Diskussion von Heiko Puls: Sittliches Bewusstsein und Kategorischer Imperativ in Kants Grundlegung: Ein Kommentar zum dritten Abschnitt. Berlin und Boston: De Gruyter, 2016. 318 S.
... in the second Critique. More precisely, Puls claims that, like in the Critique of Practical Reason, the Groundwork operates with some kind of fact of reason-theory, which means that our consciousness of the moral law is the ratio cognoscendi of our freedom of will. Accordingly, there is no conclusion from a kind of non-moral consciousness of freedom to the freedom of will and from here to the objective value of the categorical imperative, as many interpreters assume. Due to the ambitiousness of ...
Problems and prospects of EU — Russia dialogue on visa-free travel
... EU-Russia Civil Society Forum, Prague.
5. Potyomkina, О. 2011, Problema doverija Rossii i ES v ramkah obshhego prostranstva svobody, bezo-pasnosti i pravosudija [The problem of confidence in Russia and the EU in the framework of a common space of freedom, security and justice]. In: Potyomkina, О. Yu., Kaveshnikov, N. Yu., Kondrateva, N. B. (eds.), Evropejskij Sojuz v XXI veke: vremja ispytanij [European Union in the XXI century: the test], Moscow, Ves’ mir.
6. Golunov, S. 2013, EU-Russian ...
Kant’s way to the perpetual peace in the XXIst century
... being has a right to pin their hopes on the future; the task of establishing perpetual peace rests with the human being themselves; as a result, everything depends on the development of personality, since it is that acts in the real world as an agent of freedom and ratio essendi of morality, whereas freedom is the ‘cornerstone’ for people striving for peace with all their hearts. The author of the article believes that the idea of perpetual peace formulated by Saint-Pierre, Rousseau, and Kant is ...
Kant's philosophical ideas in Rober Nozik's political theory
Robert Nozik's political theory contains an attempt to utilize Kant's notion of individual freedom and the second formula of his categorical imperative (“the principle of humanity as an end in itself”) for the justification of his libertarian “minimal state”. This article analyses and criticizes this attempt on the following grounds: ...
A man as a “citizen of two worlds”: The development of Kantian themes by Rosenzweig
... major work The Star of Redemption. The author attempts to answer the principal question as to whether Rosenzweig’s thought belongs to the tradition of Kantian philosophy.The author addresses the Rosenzweig’s interpretation of Kant’s concept of freedom as a hermeneutical cipher to expose some of his considerations on human nature. Rosenzweig acknowledges Kant’s achievement in attributing a human act to the major fundament, which will save a human from the universal claims of philosophy.The ...
Donelaitis and Kant: to the issue of the hermeneutic of survival in the era of the “mystery of iniquity”
... hermeneutic rather than Einstein’s sense — time is a function of understanding. In this respect, Donelaitis’s and Kant’s temporologies are similar in terms of personal responsibility for time, which both authors associate with the possibility of freedom. The ‘mystery of freedom’ is a means to combat the ‘mystery of inequity’.
1. Vostochnaja Prussia [Eastern Prussia]. 1996, Kaliningrad.
2. Gulyga, A. 1977, Kant, Moscow.
3. Donelaitis, K. 2005, Vremena goda [Seasons], Kaliningrad....
The right to freedom: Outline of a democratic morality
Honneth A. (A. J. Shachina, S. V. Shachin)
Moral law and freedom. A study into Kant’s theory of free will
Timmerman J. (translated from German by A. S. Zilber)
Kant and Hegel, an alleged right and the ‘inverted world’
... unity incorporating an idea of the play of powers, whereas power is a category that makes it possible to understand the supersensible as a realm of laws. This interpretation is inherent in the system of not only theoretical but also practical reason. Freedom is the ‘substance’ of human existence. The unity of freedom is an idea, whose unity is presented in the diversity of actions in the sensible world. A condition for cognising freedom is the categorical imperative. Apparently, applying the moral ...
The image of Svyatopolk in the Tale of Boris and Gleb: predestination or freedom of choice?
... духовной культуре : в 2 т. М.,1995—1998. Т. 1 : Начало христианства на Руси.
5. Федотов Г. П. Святые Древней Руси. М., 1990.
hagiography, anthropology, image, will, freedom of choice
Формы реализации свободы личности через юридическую ответственность в информационно-техногенном обществе
... положительных явлений негативные последствия, связанные с отчуждением личности от свободы и ответственности.
This article analyses the forms of realization of personal freedom and the mechanism of its embodiment through legal responsibility. The author pays attention to the trends relating to the penetration of the Internet into all spheres of public life, which has not only positive, but also negative consequences ...
The facilitation of freedom of movement between Russia and the European Union: prospects and legal issues
... gosudarstv Rossii i stran ES na sammite Rossija — ES, 31.05.2003 [Statement by the Russian and EU-Russia summit — EU 05/31/2003], available at: http://www.eur.ru/neweur/user.php?func=sum7 (accessed 11 April 2005).
5. Road Map on common space of freedom, security and justice, available at: http://eeas. europa. eu/delegations/russia/documents/eu_russia/road_maps_en.pdf (accessed 19 August 2010).
6. Rossija i Evrosojuz nachnut reshat' problemy bezvizovogo rezhima [Russia and the EU will solve ...
The position of international community on the restoration of independence of the Baltic States
... Vytautas Landsbergis, available at: http://www.lfpr.lt/uploads/File/2001-8/Letter. pdf (accessed 3 June 2011).
4. Škapars, Ja. (ed.), 2006, Baltijskij put' k svobode. Opyt nenasil'stvennoj bor'by stran Baltii v mirovom kontekste [The Baltic Way to Freedom. The experience of non-violent struggle of the Baltic States in a global context], Riga, Zelta grauds, 511 p.
5. Beschloss M., Talbott S. 2010, Izmena v Kremle: protokoly tajnyh soglashenij Gorbacheva s amerikancami [Treason in the Kremlin: the ...
The principle of sufficient reason in German philosophy of the Enlight-enment
... century, a major dispute about it was triggered by Christian Wolff who had considerable influence on the German philosophy of Enlightenment. In German Metaphysic, he presented the “strong” definition of the principle and its proof. As a result, freedom was restricted, because the principle of sufficient reason implies the unlimited necessity of all things and excludes the possibility of any happenstance, at least in the real world. It had an adverse effect on philosophy in general and ethics ...
The notion of necessity in the German philosophy of the¬ Enlighten¬ment
... considers the concept of necessity in the major philosophical works of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Christian Wolff,Immanuel Kant, August Christian Crusius and other authors, as well as their attempts at harmonizing the principle of sufficient reason with freedom. It is demonstrated that, in the 18th century, necessity was understood very broadly, it held a special place in metaphysics in general and, in particular, in such metaphysical disciplines as cosmology, psychology, theology, and also ethics.
The image of Russia in 2010—2011 international indices: positioning crisis
... http://www.transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/cpi/2010/results (accessed 17 December 2010).
4. Vision of Humanity Global Peace Index, available at: http://www.visionofhumanity.org/ (accessed 17 December 2010).
5. Heritage/WSJ Economic Freedom Index, available at: http://www.heritage.org/index/ (accessed 22 February 2011).
6. Maplecroft's new Political Risk Atlas, available at: http://www.maplecroft.com/themes/pr/ (accessed on 22.02.2011).
7. Freedom of the Press, available at: http://www....
I. Kant’s and E. Husserl’s practical philosophy
This article focuses on the problem of reconciling a priori and empirical dimensions of freedom, will, and action as the crucial point for understanding the relationship between theoretical and practical reason in Kant’s and Husserl’s practical philosophy. Relying on the explanation of the relationship between transcendental and practical ...
A ‘Secret alliance’ or ‘Freedom from any alliances’? NATO accession debate in Sweden and Finland, 1991—2016
... 1991—2016. To achieve this goal, the authors use a comparative analysis to explore the stance of the governments of Sweden and Finland on the cooperation with NATO or membership in it. The authors reflect on the concepts of “Finlandisation”, “freedom from alliances”, “neutrality” and “secret alliance”, which are often used in academic descriptions of the evolution of the position of both countries towards NATO. The authors hold that Finland and Sweden may become NATO members only ...
Тhe legal state over time: the nature and the main approaches to the definition
... that has been undertaken shall be the definition of the legal state, which is based on the rule of law, the recognition of law, the respect of law and the civil compliance with the law, as well as on the government’s ensuing the individual rights and freedoms.
1. Алексеев Р. А. Эволюция концепции правового государства в истории политико-правовой мысли // Вестник МГОУ. Сер. История и политические ...
The Second Immanuel Kant International Summer School: Kant’s Doctrines of Right, Law, and Freedom
: advanced bachelor students, master students, PhD students, postdocs (with PhD received not before 2016).
: 29 July — 5 August 2018
Arguments against Redistributive Justice based on Kant’s Doctrine of Private Right
... to Kant, “right in a state of nature is called private right” (MS, AA VI, S. 242). It is my claim that there is no room for a right to enforce the offer of benefits in the private right. Firstly, I will show how the concept of an innate right to freedom provides no conceptual foundation for a right to enforcement of alleged duties of cooperation. Since my argument is much more conceptual than hermeneutical, Isaiah Berlin’s analysis of negative liberty in “Two Concepts of Liberty” will be ...
Kategorische Rechtsprinzipien in Zeiten der Postmoderne. Interview mit Prof. Dr Otfried Höffe
... expounds his views on the problems discussed by these authors. He dismisses G. W. F. Hegel’s criticism of Kant and denies the dependence of the fundamental principles of justice on the Zeitgeist and the opinions of the masses. The interviewee calls freedom the supreme human value, advocates the idea of a democratic constitutional state (he considers the principles of a social state as a mission of the state rather than a subjective right of citizens), and argues that dictatorship and tyranny deserve ...
Kant's basic idea
This article puts forward the idea that the basis of Kant’s philosophy is moral ontology dominated by things in themselves, which provide the basis for the moral world order: God, soul, and freedom. Kant's epistemology, teleology and anthropology are determined by the attempt to prove the possibility of such world order. The ultimate end of this order is a human as a moral being, the thinking, experience, and knowledge of which are consistent ...
On a review deliberated by Kant and published under the name of Chr. Kraus
... as a work co-authored by I. Kant and Chr. J. Kraus, was first published under the name of the philosopher’s friend and student and later in collections of Kant’s works.It is shown that the review criticises the naturalism of Unlrich’s theory of freedom and stresses the major reason behind its failure, namely, that its author did not distinguish between the theo-retical and practical functions of consciousness. This circumstance complicates that understanding of that the same act can belong to ...
Evolution of the Regional Religious Policy in the Saratov region (1989—2017)
The article shows the development of political practices of the regional government bodies in the field of protecting the rights of citizens to the freedom of conscience and the freedom of religion. The author analyses the principles of regulating the activity of religious organizations, and monitoring their interaction with different religious confessions in the Saratov region. Special attention ...
The antinomy of political reason. Some deliberations on Kant’s “Answer-ing the Question: What is Enlightenment?”
... illustrate that even “common interests” of the ruler and the citizen leave room for a conflict between them. The author analyses Kant’s paradox stating an inversely proportional connection between the level of civil liberties and that of spiritual freedom. The article proposes a hypothesis about the dissident movement as a possible political form of implementingthis paradox. This dilemma helps to formulate the idea of antinomy of political reason, as well as develop its solution based on the notion ...
The problem of meaning in Social Semiotics: deep semiotics as a conceptual extension of Social Semiotics
... deistvitel'nosti [The normative value nature of the understanding of reality]. Leningrad (in Russ.).
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Tul'chinskii, G. L., 2006....
The ‘border’ concept in ‘Das Provisorium’ by W. Hilbig
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Истина и откровение. Пролегомены к критике Откровения. СПб., 1996.
Potemina M. S.
concept, boundary, freedom, creative work, West, East.
Kant’s Doctrines of Right, Law, and Freedom. Report of the Second International Summer School
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Gardner S. Kant’s Practical Postulates and the Limit of his Critical System // Bulletin of the Hegel Society of Great Britain. 2011. Vol. 63, no. 4. P. 187—215.
P. R. Bonadyseva, A. S. Kiselev
Revisiting the Maxim-Law Dynamic in the Light of Kant’s Theory of Action
... Kant’s Justification of the Role of Maxims in Ethics. In: K. Ameriks and O. Höffe, eds. 2009. Kant’s Moral and Legal Philosophy. Translated by N. Walker. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 134-155.
Allison, H. E., 1990. Kant’s Theory of Freedom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Atwell, J. E., 1986. Ends and Principles in Kant’s Moral Thought. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Beck, L. W., 1960. A Commentary on Kant’s Critique of Practical Reason. Chicago: The University ...
Darwinism as the Missing Link in Kant’s Critical Philosophy
... functions in accordance with metaphysical deduction and not in self-consciousness as transcendental deduction claims, but “from the bottom up” if one considers things in the evolutionary dimension, i. e. in the instincts. The second reversal shifts the freedom of will which Kant placed in the same ontological basket with things in themselves at “the top,” to another level of the pyramid of ontologies, by changing dualism to pluralism because dualism is too narrow to accommodate all the autonomous ...