The hagiographic genre of the life of Alexander (Plutarch’s Comparative biographies)
The article describes the main features of the hagiographic genre in the Life of Alexander from Plutarch’s Comparative Biographies. I use the comparative, reverse and structural-semantic methods to analyse the biography of Alexander the Great, the images of the protagonist and the narrator, the unreality and the deification of the protagonist. There is a certain typological ...
Kant studies in Königsberg: 1784—1949
... Sein Leben und seine Lehre. Volkstümlich dargestellt.Königsberg, 1919.
14. Brückmann R. Kants Leben und Wirken. Dem deutschen Volke und seiner Jugend gewidmet. Königsberg, 1925.
15. Butzlaff J. Rosenkranz, Johann Karl Friedrich // Neue Deutsche Biographie 22 (2005). S. 70—71.
16. Dietzsch S. Die Entdeckung des Deutschen Idealismus. Vortrag am Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Gesellschaft am19. Mai 2005.
17. Gause F. Schulz, Johann // Altpreußische Biographie. Königsberg, 1936.
18. Jachmann R....
Specificity of subject-object interactions in novelized biography
The article reveals the specificity of relevant subject-object interactions in novelized biography. Special attention is given to subjectreconstructor
and subject-prototype interference originating in the author’s work on documentary material.
Авторская представленность вставных текстов // Язык и межкультурная коммуникация. Астрахань, 2007. С. 118—120.
А., Гончарова Е.
Текст в парадигмах современного гуманитарного знания. СПб
Königsberger Kant-Forschung: Allgemeine Aufgaben und Popularisierung
... Sein Leben und seine Lehre. Volkstümlich dargestellt, Königsberg.
2. Brückmann, R. 1925, Kants Leben und Wirken. Dem deutschen Volke und seiner Jugend gewidmet, Königsberg.
3. Butzlaff, J. 2005, Rosenkranz, Johann Karl Friedrich, in Neue Deutsche Biographie, Bd. 22, pp. 70—71.
4. Dietzsch, S. 1986, Karl Rozenkranс i ego «Istorija Kantowoj Filosofii» [Karl Rosenkranz und seine „Geschichte der Kantischen Philosophie“], in Kantovskij Sbornik [Kant Collection], no. 11, pp. 98—106.
The game of Daniel Kehlmann’s novel Measuring the World
This article explores the relativity of game rules followed by two out-standing scientists – Alexander von Humboldt and Gauss – in their research. The exhaustiveness of the scientists’ multidirectional game strategies is ex-plained by a change in their roles: they turn from subjects of the game into its objects ruled by the Nature, Time, and Chance. The central metaphor of gam-bling defines the composition of the novel and its genre, which can be defined as a postmodernist novel about the incomprehensibility...
Origins of François Guizot’s philosophy
This article focuses on the early biography and first intellectual experiments of François Guizot (1787—1874). The analysis reveals the circumstances and events that contributed to the formation of political and philosophical ideas of the French thinker. The article reconstructs the inter-textual connections of Guizot’s biography and political theory.
1. Гизо и его «Записки» // Отечественные записки. 1858. Т. 118, № 5—6. С. 690—713.
2. Гизо Ф. Предисловие // Гиббон Э. История упадка и разрушения...
Yuryo Vuorioki: pages of biography
The Lobachevsky Research Library of Kazan Federal University boasts a collection of Yuryo Vuorioki’s letters. Yuryo Vuorioki is one of the leaders of the Finnish national movement of the pre-war period, a member of the board of the Karelian academic society and editor-in-chief of the Suomen Heimo journal. The analysis of this material made it possible to outline the range of his research interests during his study at Helsingfors University, revealing interesting facts of the scientific biography...
THE BALTIC ACCENT: THE BIOGRAPHY AND MEMOIRS OF ANDREY BOLOTOV
CREATION OF KARAMZIN: BIOGRAPHY OF THE INTELLECTUAL IN RETROSPECTIVE
"CREATION OF KARAMZIN": BIOGRAPHY OF THE INTELLECTUAL IN RETROSPECTIVE
The example of humility: The life of St Nicholas the Bishop compiled by Symeon the Metaphrast
The image of St Nicholas in the translated Byzantine biography is analysed in order to identify the type of humble behaviour. The author examines the plot-based means of describing the character of the saint and comes to a conclusion about an equal combination of meekness and audacity in his humble behaviour, which is explained by the personal qualities of the saint and his feat.
1. Византийские легенды / отв. ред. Д. С. Лихачев. Л., 1972.
2. Иоанн Лествичник, преподобный Лествица. Псков, 1994...
From Marburg to Odessa: A contribution to a scientific bio-graphy of S. L. Rubinstein
This article reconstructs certain episodes of the early intellectual biography (1889—1960) of S. L. Rubinstein — a Russian Neo-Kantian, philosopher, and psychologist — and presents the fol-lowing archive documents: the letter of Martha Cohen (1918), the widow of the German neo-Kantian Hermann Cohen, S. L. Rubinstein’s teacher; two Rubinstein’s autobiographies of the early 1920s; a review of Rubinstein’s thesis, which was supervised by H. Cohen and P. Natorp and de-fended at Marburg University, prepared...
Russian Kantianism and Neo-Kantianism of the beginning of the 20th century in the unpublished memoirs of A. A. Borovoi
The unpublished memoirs of the anarchist writer Alexei Borovoi (1875—1935) contain crucial information on Russian Kantianism and Neo-Kantianism. The article describes philosophical societies, discussions and philosophical biographies on the basis of archive records.
1. Боровой А. Париж был и остается замечательнейшим фактом моей биографии (Публикация С. В. Шумихина) // Диаспора: ...
On a review deliberated by Kant and published under the name of Chr. Kraus
]his article analyses the circumstances that resulted in the situation when the review of J. A. H. Ulrich’s eleutheriology, which would be published today as a work co-authored by I. Kant and Chr. J. Kraus, was first published under the name of the philosopher’s friend and student and later in collections of Kant’s works.It is shown that the review criticises the naturalism of Unlrich’s theory of freedom and stresses the major reason behind its failure, namely, that its author did not distinguish...
Kant and the “internal colonisation of Russia” (on the book In¬ternal Colo-nisation. Russia’s Imperial Experience by A. Etkind)
... Writings on Optimism
12. Kant I. Brief an J. G. Lindner vom 28. Oktober 1759 // AA. Bd. 10. Berlin, 1922. S. 19. №. 13
13. Refl. 3703, 3704, 3705 // AA. Bd. 17. Berlin, 1926. S. 229—239
14. Salewski W. Kants Idealbild einer Frau. Versuch einer Biographie der Gräfin Truchsess von Walburg (1727–1791) // Jahrbuch der Albertus-Universität zu Königsberg/Pr. 1986. № 26—27
15. Масловский Д. Ф. Русская армия в Семилетнюю войну. Вып. 1. М., 1886....
The rhetoric and logic of the representations of the Russian-Turkish War of 1877–1878 in Russian public discourse
The Balkan crisis of 1875—1876 and the ensuing Russo-Turkish war of 1877—1878 were the first major foreign policy challenges for the Russian Empire in the entirely new public sphere situation. The military reform of 1784, which replaced recruitment with conscription, translated in the involvement of the general public in the current events. The new public sphere, which had been developing from the 1850s, required new languages both to describe and to transform reality, as well as to produce a collective...
Kant, Königsberg, and the Albertina. Excerpts from the letters of a Polish student
... Goldbeck. Königsberg, 1804.
15. Nowy Korbut. T. 8: Romantyzm. Warszawa, 1969.
16. Preuß A. E. Preußische Landes- und Volkskunde: oder Beschreibung von Preußen. Königsberg, 1835.
17. Unsiger R. Auerswald, Hans Jakob von / / Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie. Leipzig, 1875. Bd. 1.
18. Uniwersytet Albrechta w Królewcu. Archiwum Państwowe w Olsztynie [=АPO], zespół nr 1646; sygn. XXVIII/1/61.
19. Vorlesungsverzeichnisse der Universität Königsberg (1720 bis 1804) / hrsg. von M. Oberhausen ...
God’s Law or Categorical Imperative: on Crusian Issues of Kantian Morality
... Religion]. Moscow, Kanon+, pp. 299-309. (In Rus.)
Marquard, A., 1885. Kant und Crusius: Ein Beitrag zum richtigen Verständnis der Crusianischen Philosophie. Kiel: Lipsius & Tischer.
Richter, A., 1876. Crusius, Christian August. In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Volume 4. Leipzig: Duncker und Humblot, pp. 630-631, [online]. Available at: <
; [Accessed 5 February 2019].
Rozhdestvensky, N. P., 1884. Christianskaja apologetika [Christian Apologetics],...
A Königsberg society of friends without Kant
... merkwürdige Freundschaft Immanuel Kants // Nordost-Archiv. Zeitschrift für Kulturgeschichte und Landeskunde. 1991. Jg. 24, H. 103. S. 169—182.
12. Kohnen J. Theodor Gottlieb von Hippel. Eine zentrale Persönlichkeit der Königsberger Geistesgeschichte. Biographie und Bibliographie. Lüneburg, 1987. Anhang.
13. Kohnen J. Zu Ludwig v. Baczkos Folgen einer akademischen Mädchenerziehung // Abweichende Lebensläufe, poetische Ordnungen. Für Volker Hoffmann. Bd. 1 / Hrsg. v. T. Betz und F. Mayer. München,...
The article recounts the biography and professional activity of the professor of the Department of History of Kaliningrad University, former rector of Kaliningrad Pedagogical Institute, Yakov Pichkurenko (1904—1993)
правда. 2008. 8 мая.
архив Калининградской области (ГАКО). Ф. 65. Калининградский государственный педагогический институт. Оп. 1.
Ф. 1105. Личный фонд Я.
Л. Пичкуренко. Оп. 1.
Ф. 1105. Историческая справка к личному...
Immaturity and the objective of a true reform in ways of thinking. Part II
... Stark W. (hg.) Neue Autographen und Dokumente zu Kants Leben, Schriften und Vorlesungen. Hamburg, 1987.
17. Hippel Th. G. von. Selbstbiographie // Hippel Th. G. von. Sämmtliche Werke. Berlin, 1835. Bd. 12. ND: Berlin, 1978.
18. Immanuel Kant’s Biographie. Leipzig, 1804. Bd. 1.
19. Jachmann R. B. Immanuel Kant geschildert in Briefen an einen Freund. Königsberg, 1804. Königsberg, 1804. ND: Immanuel Kant. Sein Leben in Darstellungen von Zeitgenossen. Die Biographien von L. E. Borowski, R. B....
On the correspondence between Wislawa Szymborska and Kornel Cornelius Filipowicz
The correspondence between Wislava Szimborska and Cornelius Philipovich entitled “Your cat has the best of lives” and published in 2016 can be seen as a biographical account and historical evidence of two writers, a record of life of artistic people in Poland in the 1960s. Stylistic character of Szimborska is studied on the background of her creative poetry.
1. Ворошильская Н. Коллажи Виславы Шимборской // Радио Польша : [сайт]. URL:
He predicted the fate poetically… The book Giordano Bruno as a covert confession of Lev Karsavin
Karsavin’s book Giordano Bruno is considered in the context of its author’s biography. The article explores the hypothesis about the deep ideational and spiritual connection between Karsavin and Giordano Bruno forged by undoing the fetters of rationality through a mystical epiphany. It is shown that, in the book, Karsavin foresaw his own academic fate.
1. Книжная полка // Воронежская коммуна. 1922. № 178 (830).
2. Карсавин Л. Noctes Petropolitanae. Петербург, 1922.
3. Карсавин Л. П. О началах...
The memoirs of Maria Danilewicz-Zielińska as evidence of the era
This article identifies the role of the writer Maria Danilewicz-Zielińska in the Polish exile literature of the 20th century. The author focuses on the biography of the writer, her artistic path, and literature connections. The article analyses the reflection of the cultural context of the Kujawy region of the early 20th century in the works of Maria Danilewicz-Zielińska. Special attention is paid to the autobiographical book Fado o moim życiu, which is considered evidence of the era.
Königsberg’s urbal elites: Between the tradition and innovation (1815—1914)
... industrialists and bankers – trying to take advantage of the former. The author examines changes in the elites in the course of major economic, social, and political changes
1. Albinus R. Königsberger Lexikon. Würzburg, 2002.
2. Altpreußische Biographie / Hrsg. Ch. Krollmann. Königsberg; Marburg, 1939. T. 1.
3. Carrez M. Les grandes villes portuaires de la Baltique au début du XXe siècle: un dynamisme facteur de risques? Les exemples de Königsberg (Kaliningrad), Reval (Talinn) et Helsingfors ...
Literary texts in German classes with PhD students: The interdisciplinary aspect
... scientific paradigm in modern prose and the possibility of using it in discussions in German classes with PhD students. Fragments from Hans Konsalik’s Jour-ney to Tierra del Fuego and Daniel Kehlman’s Measuring the World are used to this end. The biographies of scientists — as shown through literary characters — can serve as a basis for role models for young researchers.
1. Василькова В. В. Междисциплинарность как когнитивная практика ...
Concentration camp prose as primary source
This article considers the possibility of the use of Polish concentration camp prose as a primary source. Its features are analysed on the basis of its genre and subject characteristics. The works of a prominent representative of this literary trend help demonstrate the potential of concentration camp short stories as primary sources.
1. Боровский Т. Прощание с Марией. URL: http://www.belousenko.com/books/ foreign/borowski_maria.htm
2. Блок М. Апология истории. М., 1973.
3. Гумилёв Л. Н. Может ли...
«Which Side are You on, Boy?» Roman Jakobson in the Interwar Pragu
The author describes the private life of Roman Jakobson between 1920 and 1939 when he lived in the former Czechoslovakia, first as a Soviet diplomat and later as a scholar caught in a thick web of political intrigues. Using archival documents, the author illustrates Roman Jakobson’s complex and often contradictory relations with the trio of political institutions within whose orbits he was moving: 1) the Ministry of Interior; 2) the Ministry of Foreign Affairs; 3) and the Soviet Red Cross Mission/Political...
Seeming confusion in interpretation: George Berkeley and Immanuel Kant
... D. Kant und das Problem des metaphysischen Idealismus. N. Y., 1998.
12. Kant I. Kritik der reinen Vernunft. Leipzig, 1944.
13. Knutzen M. Elementa philosophiae rationalis seu logicae. Hildesheim ; N. Y., 1991.
14. Ritzel W. Immanuel Kant: eine Biographie. Berlin ; N. Y., 1985.
15. Sprigge T. L. S. Idealism // Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. L. ; N. Y., 1998.
16. Stadelmann E. Philosophie aus Besinnung des Denkens auf sich selbst: Berkeley und Kant. Frankfurt a/M, 1999.
17. Turbayne ...
Preaching activity of Ludwig Ernst Borowski, a Königsberg pastor, during the Napoleonic wars (1806—1816)
The article explores the life of the Königsberg preacher Ludwig Ernst Borowski (1740—1831). Special attention is paid to his biography and his pastoral activities. A detailed analysis of Borowski's patriotic sermons (1806—1816) is undertaken; the idiosyncrasies of his literary style are emphasized. The main themes and subjects of pastor Borowski's sermons are vcarefully examined. The author emphasizes the significance of Borowski's personality for the intellectual and political life of Königsberg...
Kowalczyk A. S. Sawinkow. Warszawa : Więź, 2017. 232 s.
The review examines a new edition of the book “Sawinkow” by a Polish researcher A. S. Kowalczyk which is devoted to a famous politician and terrorist B. V. Savinkov. It coincides with the anniversary of the Russian Revolution and the fact that one of the streets in Warsaw was named after Boris Savinkov. The book is structured chronologically and covers the entire life of Boris Savinkov. Despite the fact that the information in it is mostly correct, there is a number of inappropriate simplifications...
From ekphrasis to autobiography (Nikolay Kononov’s story “Svetotomia”)
The article reveals peculiarities of representation of the autobiographical topos in N. Kononov’s short story “Svetotomia” that is present implicitly in each work of the writer. In this short story, the autobiographical discourse is represented via the painting and photography code. The authors emphasize the significance of the concepts of “life” and “death” and reveal their mythopoetic semantics of cycle and mutual transition. Ekphrastic descriptions are both explicit and implicit in Kononov’s...
A testimony of the First World War: Käthe Kollwitz’s cycle War (1922—1923)
10. Price D. Käthe Kollwitz. Yale University Press (в печати).
11. Schaefer J. O. Kollwitz in America: A Study of Reception, 1900—1960 // Women’s Art Journal. 1994. Vol. 15. P. 29—34.
12. Schymura Y. Käthe Kollwitz 1867—2000 Biographie und Rezeptionsgeschichte einer deutschen Künstlerin. Essen, 2014.
13. Winter J. Remembering War. The Great War Between Memory and History in the Twentieth Century. New Haven; L., 2006.
14. Winter J. Sites of Memory Sites of Mourning. The Great ...
The phenomenon of twelve-tone music in Samuel Beckett’s short stories
This article considered Beckett’s French short stories through the prism of philosophical and aesthetic foundations of modernist music. The rejection of tonal hierarchies by dodecaphonists to transcend the limits of the traditional sonic semiosis can be compared to Beckett’s aspiration to go beyond the ‘fetish’ of words. The study emphasizes similarities between the creative systems of Beckett and the Second Viennese School/neoclassicists. The commonalities range from the work with patterns, which...
Time and eternity in the literary image of the church procession: Pushkin’s Boris Godunov and Shmeleff’s The Year of the Lord
This article considers the depiction of the church procession to examine the literary interpretation of time and eternity in Alexander Pushkin’s historical drama Boris Godunov and Ivan Shmeleff’s novel The Year of the Lord. The two texts share fundamental similarities in literary images. The church procession is portrayed as a manifestation of eternity in the tangible reality of this world. Despite their common temporal nature, images in Boris Godunov and The Year of the Lord differ in terms of...
Internal migration as studied by political science
Studying the features of research by political science into internal migration requires a reassessment of theoretical ideas about the essence of this social phenomenon, which are offered by other paradigms. This way, it becomes possible to consider internal migration as a significant social determinant. In analysing theoretical and methodological approaches, I determine the scope of their applicability in political science. I conclude that the features of research into internal migration depend...
The Image of Contemporary Russia n Language and Culture: the Thematic Issue of «Russian Review»
The article is an overview of the thematic issue of the Polish research journal "Russian Review" dedicated to the image of modern Russia in political, media, poetic, marketing and didactic types of discourse. Both national and international research works are taken into consideration. Nowadays researchers become increasingly interested in the category of image. A noticeably stronger position of anthropological, communicative and pragmalinguistic approaches to the analysis of linguistic...
‘Many years to the invincible’: The axiological meanings of the spatial and temporal images in Boris Pasternak’s poem ‘Neoglyadnost’/’ Spanlessness’
This article is an attempt to expose and analyse the chronotopical structure of Boris Pasternak's poem ‘Neogliadnost’/’Spanlessness’, written in 1944. The axiological meaning of spatiotemporal images in the poet's Weltanschauung is evaluated within a broader context of Russian language and culture. It is argued that the poem’s key value-laden motif, victory, is introduced in the text in three temporal domains. Two of them — the planes of the historical past and present — belong to the sphere of time...
The Battle of the Ice: On the ‘Svinfylking’ or ‘flying wedge’
... древнейших времен. Рига, 1884. Т. 1.
21. Шмурло Е. Ф. Курс Русской истории. Возникновение и образование Русского государства (862—1462) СПб., 2000.
22. Altpreußische Biographie // hrs. von Ch. Krollmann. Königsberg, 1941. Bd. 1.
23. Arbusow L. Grundris der Geschichte Liv, Est und Kurland. Riga, 1908.
24. Bookmann H. Konrad v. Thüringen // Die Hochmeister Des Deutschen Ordens 1190—1994. Marburg, 1998.
25. Jähns ...
Textonics: an introduction to electronic philology
Digital philology studies texts and textuality in electronic networks and the ways of their reading, writing and transformation. Electronic texts are much more fluid and transformable than paper texts and oral utterances. Textonics is a combination of theoretical and practical work with digital texts, the use of the Internet and all the capabilities of computer technology to create new sign ensembles, to develop new genres of intellectual creativity, and to rethink and reorganize existing textual...
The content and vectors of the reforms in the higher education system of modern China
This article presents the results of research on the reforming of higher education system in modern China.The article aims to analyse the institution of public higher education in order to develop guidelines on employing the positive Chinese experience in the modernization of higher education in Russia. In conclusion, the author offers multiple-factor models of the education process management.
Проблема генезиса китайского государства. М., 1983.
Janusz Głowacki yesterday and today
This article is devoted to the last, posthumously published, book by Ja-nusz Głowacki – the collection of essays Bezsenność w czasie karnawałui. The focus is on the texts that were translated and published in Russian. They are compared to essays comprising another book by Głowacki, Z głowy, which resembles Bezsenność in terms of genre. The works of the author are considered in the context of 20th-century European history from World War II to the present day as well as of Głowacki’s biography, worldview...
Karamzin, Kant, and Lavater — Intersecting Biographies
In his “Letters of a Russian Traveller” Karamzin left a detailed account of his visit to I. Kant in Königsberg on June 18, 1789. Published in 1791, his report is important as the first printed mentioning of Kant in Russian. Karamzin was looking forward to meet J. K. Lavater in Zürich, with whom he had already corresponded for three years, but Kant warned him of Lavater’s excessive imagination, which let him believe in dreams and magnetism. Lavater’s ‘Schwärmerei’ was above all attacked by the publishers...
Crimea in the legacy of B. D. Grekov, fellow of the Academy of Sciences
Crimea holds a very special place in the biography of B. D. Grekov (1882—1953), an outstanding Russian historian and a fellow of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. Crimea was his long-standing research interest and a place of work and leisure. Some of his years spent in Crimea were very productive, and others were hard and lean. This article presents archive materials and other publications to analyse the stages and episodes of the scholar’s life and oeuvre in Crimea.
1. Office of the Federal Security...
V. The hagiographic topic in I. S. Shmelev’s novel The Inexhaustible Chalice
In this article, we discuss the hagiographic topics in I. S. Shmelev’s novel The Inexhaustible Chalice, which are expressed through different components of the novel’s literary structure — ranging from the individual traits of the main character, Ilya Sharonov, to twists of the plot and the milestones of his biography. We maintain that in terms of the genre this novel resembles both the lives of the righteous and the lives of the venerable. The novel conforms to the canons of hagiographic texts because...
Schliesslich will man ja Kunst schaffen. Daniel Kehlmanns humoristische Poetik («Finally, there is a need to create art»: Daniel Kehlmann’s humoristic poetics)
... between the ideal and reality, but rather cheerful disposition (consola-tion) in the face of reality.
Kehlmann’s world-famous novel Measuring the World should be con-sidered not as a veracious historical document, but rather as a free play with the biographies of Alexander von Humboldt and Karl Friedrich Gauss. Kehlmann focuses on the ‘magic realism’ characteristic of the 20th century South American authors (for instance, Gabriel García Márquez).
1. Ahrend Th. No more dogs! Erfahrungen ...
The philosophical and legal content of Sergey Hessen’s concept of personality
This article aims to consider the concept of personality proposed by the prominent exponent of Russian neo-Kantianism Sergey Hessen and its philosophical and legal content. The frame of reference used to achieve this aim is determined by the personality-culture-the general will-the state coordinates. The author compares Hessen’s ideas with Bogdan Kistyakovsky’s legal concept. Hessen distinguished between several layers of meaning in the notion of culture — civilizedness, level of education, and civic...
On the employment status of Andrei Bolotov in Königsberg
This article deals with Andrey Bolotov’s official employment status during his time in Königsberg (April 1758 — March 1762). The work considers the historiographic tradition originating from Bolotov’s memoirs, the Königsberg pages of which were written more than 30 years after the events described. Bolotov’s memoirs are compared with his correspondence of the time and the archival materials of the Russian administration of East Prussia during the Seven Years’ War. It is concluded that Bolotov’s status...
Kant’s cryptic notes (Afterword to publication)
... Религия в пределах только разума // Собр. соч. : в 8 т. Т. 6. С. 5—224.
15. Мосс М. Молитва // Социальные функции священного. СПб., 2000. С. 234—333.
16. Flittner Chr. G. Biographie Joh. Gottfr. Christian Kiesewetter’s Dr. und Professor der Philosophie // Kiesewetter J. G. Chr. Darstellung der richtigen Wahrheiten der Kritischen Philosophie. Flittner’sche Buchhandlung. Berlin, 1824. S. XIII—XXII.
17. Kant: Briefwechsel,...
The Battle of Tannenberg: subjective factors
... Schmitz M. 'Als ob die Welt aus den Fügen ginge': Kriegserfahrungen österreichisch-ungarischer Offiziere 1914—1918. Paderborn, 2016.
22. Schwarzmüller T. Zwischen Kaiser und „Führer“. Generalfeldmarschall August Mackensen. Eine politische Biographie. München, 1995.
23. Sigg M. Der Unterführer als Feldherr im Taschenformat: Theorie und Praxis der Auftragstaktik im deutschen Heer 1869 bis 1945. Paderborn, 2014.
24. Uhle-Wettler F. Erich Ludendorff: Soldat — Feldherr — Revolutionär....