IKBFU's Vestnik

Current issue

State and law

Legal regulation of activities in the Arctic in the context of sanctions

Abstract

The article explores the sanction factor impact on the legislative frame­work regulating Russian and European joint economic activities in the Arctic. The fundamental documents on the joint projects with the European Union get analyzed in the context of the sanction factor. The paper focuses on chang­es in the legislative framework for Russian — EU joint activities, as well as relevant restrictions. The author concludes that the sanction factor is hardly affective as the main restrictions are imposed on the offshore oil production sector, which cannot yet be developed effectively due to its high cost. The con­sidered measures do not seriously challenge any other economic areas, allow­ing the joint projects develop at almost the same level. According to the au­thor, the influence of the sanction factor is exaggerated, which means further joint activities of Russia and the EU may have the same prospects.

Download an article

Some issues of the notary certified transactions

Abstract

The article reveals the concept and place of the notary in certified transac­tions. It considers such problematic issues as transactions, civil law and civil process, electronic transactions, the role of the notary public in the digital space when certifying transactions. Particular attention is paid to transac­tions requiring mandatory notarization, as well as real estate transactions. The general rules for transactions notarization, their features and interaction between the court and the notary public regarding the certification of transac­tions are investigated. The article analyzes the main provisions of the Funda­mentals of the legislation of the Russian Federation on notaries, the Civil Code of the Russian Federation, the Civil Procedure Code of the Russian Federa­tion, makes some suggestions for improving the legislation.
Notarial certification of transactions is primary among other notarial acts; certification of transactions on the alienation of real estate with the pro­posal of their mandatory notarization require a special approach and research; the paper also focuses on the need for electronic notaries in certifying transac­tions, as well as the digital transactions.

Download an article

Current economic problems

Clusters in the system of economic and innova­tion development of agriculture in the Rostov Region and the Krasnodar Re­gion

Abstract

The issue of regional development involves the study of growth drivers in a competitive, innovative and open environment. In these conditions, cluster forms of integration are considered as centers of economic and innovative re­gional development. The article examines a specialized agro-industrial com­plex that is developing at the interregional level on the coast of the Azov and Black Seas — in the Krasnodar Territory and the Rostov Region. The aim of the work is to analyze the actors, prerequisites and trajectory of the cluster-genesis process, factors of its acceleration and inhibition. The study focuses on the comparative efficiency of cluster forms for the development of the agro-industrial complex in the two regions in the global competition context. Given the methodological approaches to classical cluster studies, empirical material of both all-Russian and regional statistics, and data from real sector compa­nies operating in the regions under study, the authors formed a bi-component model of cluster development for the agro-industrial complex (including the "completion" of basic spheres in the agro-industrial complex and the actual cluster development formats). Today the innovative vectors of the complex de­velopment often lay along the large agricultural holdings, which also act as customers of R&D in the industry. The lack (despite the presence of formal strategies for regional and cluster development) of consensus on interaction in the industry and its development strategy was revealed. The cluster develop­ment component runs some certain risks in regulations. The authors indicate actual vectors of the development process. The obtained results can be used in working out the mechanisms for regional economic policy in the agro-industrial clustering.

Download an article

Sustainable development of the city territorial capital: adaptive policy through the geography of knowledge

Abstract

When knowledge is a paramount resource, the effective management of its accumulation, use, and transfer becomes the most important function, which enables to assess and monitor the ability of territorial innovation sys­tems to generate new scientific knowledge. While the commercialization of knowledge in the territorial context is primarily considered at the regional level as part of the production process, it is more appropriate to consider the knowledge generation at the level of a city where the city is the most im­portant urbanized scientific regional centre. This study aims to assess the ter­ritorial distribution of Russian cities by their ability to generate new scientific knowledge with the subsequent development of recommendations for manag­ing their territorial capital as the basis of competitiveness. For Russia, the so­lution to this problem is most relevant in the view of a wide variety of cities and the impossibility and even danger of using unified approaches to their de­velopment. The large territory of the country, the remoteness of individual cit­ies from each other, their diversity in size, development level, knowledge spe­cialization makes it important to manage the diversification of knowledge. In this study, a science-related approach was used to assess the knowledge gener­ation based on the publication activity analysis of 2013—2017 according to the international abstract database of Scopus scientific citation. The study in­cludes 440 cities with at least 1 publication. Based on the results of the study, Russian cities fall into three types and individual subtypes, considering their specific features. The first type of cities “above average” is specified with high indicators of academic productivity, while for the first subtype they are sup­plemented by high indicators of scientific connectivity, citation and quality of publications. For the second subtype, these indicators are significantly lower. The second type of cities, “medium” or “transitional” have significant publi­cation experience. However, the insufficient average citation level and very few publications in high-ranking journals do not allow them to be attributed to the leading national scientific centres of the first group. The third type “be­low average” with the lowest values of all indicators is divided into three sub­types: the first group includes cities whose scientific groups publish a small number of articles with a high level; the second group brings together the cit­ies with a low level of scientific productivity having scientific connections at the national and international level; the third, the “silent” cities, which do not show any activity in any way.

Download an article

Historical sciences

The issues of the post-war demobilization of military officers (1945—1948)

Abstract

The article analyses demobilization of officers of the USSR armed forces after the Great Patriotic war in 1945—1948. Six mobilization rounds were carried out to reduce the size of the Armed Forces during this period, and more than 1.3 million officers were dismissed. The original idea was to retain the officers special for their moral and professional qualities, who have no re­strictions on health and age. All demobilized were given remuneration, the necessary documents, and the relocation was paid by the state. Meanwhile, the unprecedented and immense demobilization led to certain challenges in social­ization for the returned front-line soldiers. Archive documents and oral sources demonstrate a military impact on employment, attitude to studies, the state, creating an image of the desired future. It is shown that in terms of em­ployment, returning officers had clear advantages being appointed to leader­ship positions in various institutions, young officers could return to universi­ties and technical schools. The article emphasizes the difficult fate of those who were dismissed for injuries and disabilities, many of whom turned to begging. The influx of shell-shocked people greatly worsened the criminal situation in the country. The state devastated by the war was simply unable to socially provide for and employ such a large number of demobilized people in a single step. Gradually, over time, a significant part of the demobilized was able to adapt socially to a peaceful society.

Download an article

Origins and historical background of German federalism

Abstract

The number of federal states in the modern world is extremely small. The Federal Republic of Germany is the largest and most famous federation in Eu­rope. However, German democracy and German federalism are often perceived as externally imposed political values as a result of the country's defeat in World War II. Such an attitude needs revising. Of course, Germany did not have the same deep tradition of parliamentarism as France or Great Britain, or federalism like the United States of America, but German history was not de­prived of certain prerequisites for both democracy and federalism. Of course, the state-territorial structure of Kaiser Germany was significantly different from the United States and had its own specifics. In this article, the author at­tempts at illuminating the historical origins of German federalism that devel­oped at the end of the 19th century during the formation of the North German Union and the German Empire in 1871.

Download an article

The history of Lithuania in the national historiography of the second half of the 19th — early 20th century

Abstract

The article discusses developing pre-revolutionary national academic schools which studied of the history of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In the 18th — the first half of the 19th century the history of Lithuania was per­ceived by Russian scholars as “alien” and did not receive much interest. The situation changed after the “January Insurrection” (1863—1864): the atten­tion of politicians to Lithuanian history predetermined the establishment of pre-revolutionary lithuanistic research centers at the universities of Kiev, Moscow and St. Petersburg. Due to the efforts of such historians as Nikolay Ivanishev, Mikhail Vladimirsky-Budanov, Fyodor Leontovich, Vladimir An­tonovich, Konstantin Bestuzhev-Ryumin et al., Lithuanian history became a specific research area, naturally inscribed in the context of pre-revolutionary national historiography. The works of Matvey Lyubavsky and Alexander Presnyakov, whose conclusions in many aspects are still relevant, achieved the paramount importance in Lithuanian historical studies.

Download an article

Society and politics

Exclavity as a challenge and a resource for foreign positioning of the Kaliningrad region

Abstract

The exclusive position of the Kaliningrad region is a fundamental geopo­litical factor in its socio-economic and socio-cultural development. Given the region’s foreign positioning, exclavity is both a challenge and a resource. Guided by the principles of factor analysis, through the method of principal components, the author puts forward several theses regarding the possibilities and limitations of exclavity in overcoming foreign positioning of the region. The economic dependence of the Kaliningrad region on the federal government policies inside and outside the country makes the region “fragile” in terms of promoting its sociocultural image. The article shows the tough dependence on the foreign economic decisions of the federal authorities using the development trends of the manufacturing industry in the region as an example. The in­creased potential conflict around the Russian exclave in the Baltic slows down the convergence of regional interests in the socio-economic sphere with the in­terests of neighboring countries. Intensified relations with other regions of the Russian Federation could make up for the situation. In practice, such intensi­fication is limited in nature, and results in some cooperation benefits in the short and medium term. While the Kaliningrad region is secured geopolitical­ly by the military superiority of the Russian state over a potential adversary in the Baltic, there are no comparable social and economic guarantees Here, paradoxically, the situation can open up opportunities for increasing the co­herence of the narrow, purely peripheral interests of the Russian exclave and the regions of neighboring countries, primarily Lithuania and Poland.

Download an article

Mobility and migration intentions of the Reform Generation and Millennials of the Kaliningrad region

Abstract

This paper focuses on the results of a sociological study of mobility and migration intentions of the Reform Generation and Millennials in the Kali­ningrad region. In this regard, different approaches to the theory of genera­tions are analyzed. The authors define the age groups that make up the Reform Generation and the Millennials and identify features of the designated genera­tions. The article makes an attempt to combine the method of cohort analysis with the theory of generations. A significant number of respondents happen to be in the region while migrating, so they were asked about the reasons for mov­ing, and were asked to compare the standard of living in the Kaliningrad region with other regions of Russia and neighboring countries. The authors defined the most significant attraction factors for the two selected generations. At the same time, questions were asked about the factors of departure from the Kaliningrad region. The responses showed different priorities depending on the age and gen­der of the survey participants. As a result of the study, the au­thors came to the problem of heterogeneity in both the Reform Generation and the Millennials. Therefore, the paper draws attention, on the one hand, to the scientific signifi­cance, on the other hand, to the debatable theory of genera­tions.

Download an article

Resilience of cultural attitudes of local communities to risks: the «group / grid» model

Abstract

The study focuses on the empirical test of the grid/group model applied to the actual perception of the environmental risks by the local community (the case of the potassium mine development in the village of Nivenskoe, the Kali­ningrad region). It tests to what extent the structure of the theoretically con­structed cultural types (hierarchist, egalitarian, individualist, fatalist) being reproduced within the structure of the cultural preferences of the local com­munities. Different scales are being analyzed and tested, the application of the two of them is proven to be good for measuring various parameters. An origi­nal methodology is being applied for the assessment of the cultural types con­sistency in intense communication. The authors give a statistical account for the consistency of the cultural attitudes of the respondents. Using factor anal­ysis, we compare theoretical presuppositions with empirically observed inter­connections between cultural types statements. Out of five factors which have been distinguished, three generally correspond to the theoretically constructed cultural types in their set of variables — hierarchist, egalitarian and individ­ualist, one for the mixed paternalist factor (manifesting features both of hier­archist and egalitarian types) and one less expressed anit-ethatist factor (ex­pressing some features of individualist type but not setting any fixed group ethos).

Download an article