After «the collapse of the empire»: British-American his-toriography of the first half of the 1990s on the parallels in the history of formation of the 20th century Lithuanian statehood
This article explores the parallels between the Lithuanian movements for national independence in 1917—1920 and 1988—1991 as analyzed in the Anglo-American historiography of the first half of the 1990s. Such scholars as A. Lieven and other authors characterize some main similarities and differences between those movements. These ...
The position of international community on the restoration of independence of the Baltic States
... difficult process accompanied by both political and economic conflicts. The third party in the negotiation process was represented by Germany and the USA. This article sets out to identify the role of the USA and Germany in the restoration of Baltic independence. Historicism and objectivity principles serve as the methodological framework for the research. The regional approach was applied in order to integrate the features of regional development into the overall picture of world politics. The scientific ...
The Baltic states before and during World War II: The dilemma of independence
... considers the events of the 1930—1940s in the Baltics. The authors analyse changes in the political systems and international priorities of the ruling elites of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. The influence of domestic factors on solving the problem of independence preservation in the conditions of world war is identified.
1. Anušauskas A. Teroras ir nusikaltimai žmoniškumui. Pirmoji sovietinė okupacija. Terror and Crimes against Humanity. The First Soviet Occupation. Vilnius, 2006.
2. Biezais ...
Lithuania on the way to energy independence: an experience or a lesson?
The article considers the steps taken by Lithuania towards gaining energy independence in the interbellum and the Soviet periods. The author analyses the peculiarities of the republic's energy policy after achieving independence in the early 1990s and estimates the methods of diversifying energy supply in Lithuania.
The political elite recruitment in the Baltic: the role of the ethnic factor
The role of the ethnic factor in political processes in Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia has been rather significant since these countries’ independence. The author investigates the assumption that after the completion of major Eurointegration procedures, the ethnic factor — which became especially important in the Baltics after independence — relegated to the periphery of political life....
The dynamics of development of cities and local budgets
... federal districts helps analyse the standing of large cities serving as “growth poles” identified with the help of two methodologies. The article offers a geographical analysis of three aspects of financial standing of municipalities:
financial independence, social orientation, territorial equity. The dynamic of development and financial standing are compared in order to identify the role of budgets in the development of cities (stimulating and inhibiting ones).
1. Martin P., Ottaviano G. Growth ...
The aderoid factors in the development of the Kaliningrad region
This article analyses the factors of the development of the Kaliningrad region. Expanding G. M. Fedorov’s complex analysis, the author identifies a new independent class of factors (aderoid factors) that have a significant impact on the regional development and are subject to an independent study. The analysis of aderoid factors makes it possible to create a management system that would
change the sign ...
Instead of the preface: an illusion of the independence of the thinking
Modern educational technologies in the development of cognitive independence of technical and humanities students
... использования. М., 2002.
Информационная культура и способность к рефлексии // Высшее образование. 1995. №
Kochanovskaya Ye. V., Zhadobko Ye. B.
cognitive independence, competence, interactive, computer, testing, presentation, Kaliningrad State Technical University.
Bread supply issue and the food independence of the Novgorod land
This article deals with the issue of the food supply problems on the territory of the Novgorod land in the 11th-16th centuries. Despite permanent bread budget deficit, Veliky Novgorod managed to maintain political and economic independence and avoid purchasing significant amounts of grain. The reconstruction of a budget of a peasant agricultural farm shows that, in the then conditions, it could not rest solely on own-grown corn and livestock products in the Novgorod land. For ...
The EU Vs. Russia: Legal Nature and Implementation of the Union’s Restrictive Measures
....wordpress.com/2013/03/eu-guidelines-on-sanctions-2012.pdf (accessed 23.09.2014).
3. Council Decision 2014/145/CFSP of 17 March 2014 concerning restrictive measures in respect of actions undermining or threatening the territorial integrity, sovereignty and independence of Ukraine, 2014, OJ ,L 78, 17.03.2014, p. 16—21.
4. Council Regulation (EU) No 269/2014 of 17 March 2014 concerning restrictive measures in respect of actions undermining or threatening the territorial integrity, sovereignty and independence ...
Nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region: the history of emergence and the political and economic features of its development
..., and application of nuclear power. In the Baltic States, nuclear power dates back to the Soviet times, but its development was suspended pursuant to the EU regulations (the Ignalina NPP). Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia have been striving for energy independence from Russia — the principal supplier of energy carriers to these countries. For a long time, the three Baltic States have been proclaiming their unanimity on the general European path of development. However, the reality proved to be different....
The development of municipal authorities' financial independence
... identifies the problems of formation of local budget revenues. The author described the methods to improve budgetary policy, which could level the differences in economic and social development of municipalities and solve the problem of stability and independence of local budgets.
1. Об областном бюджете на 2010 год и плановый 2011 и 2012 годы : закон Калининградской области № 402 от 21.12.2009. [Электронный ресурс]....
The ethnopolitical movement as a vehicle for nationalism institutionalisation in modern Latvia
This article investigates the Popular Front of Latvia, a public ethnopolitical movement that substantially contributed to the independence of the modern Republic of Latvia. The study aims to identify how much the movement influenced the development of ethnic nationalism, which has become essential to statehood and the identification of politics. It continues to reinforce group ...
The restoration of the political independence of Lithuania in the late 1980s-early 1990s: a historiographical review
This article presents a historiographical review of the restoration of Lithuanian independence in the 1980s-early 1990s and the establishment of Lithuania-Russian interstate relations in the early post-Soviet years. The topic of the article serves as a context for the analysis of the sources and general trends characteristic of Russian ...
The formation of the political elite in Lithuania at the turn of the 1980s—1990s: the role of “moral politicians”
... the basis of the methodological structure of the so-called Stanford model developed by G. Almond and P. Bourdieu's theory of capital. This article reconstructs the course of political changes in the Republic of Lithuania at the initial stage of its independence, in the framework of which the key role was played by «moral politicians», most of whom subsequently retired from politics. Focusing on the situation in Lithuania, this research sets out to show the continuous dependence of today's policies ...
The features of the genesis of modern Lithuanian multiparty system
... Comparative party system analysis in Central and Eastern Europe: the case of the Baltic states // Studies of transition states and societies. Vol. 3, iss. 3.
3. Симонян Р. Х. Россия и страны Балтии. М., 2009.
4. Lithuania’s independence: the litmus test for democracy in the U. S.S. R. // Lithuanian quarterly journal of arts and sciences. 1991. Vol. 37, № 3.
5. Крупавичюс А. Партии и партийные системы в Балтийских государствах ...
Kant’s aesthetic theory in the light of H. G. Gadamer’s hermeneutic project
This article considers H.-G. Gadamer’s hermeneutics in the context of Kant’s aesthetic theory laid down in the Critique of Judgement. Kant facilitated the development of aesthetics as an independent science, for the first time addressing the problem of the cognising and perceiving subject. Gadamer, a prominent 20th century philosopher, builds his aesthetic concept based on Kant’s theory. However, their theories differ in some aspects....
The «(Un)Encapsulation» of the Political Elites of Latvia and Estonia and Russian-speaking Minorities
... in Transition. Cambridge, 1996.
2. Political Representation and participation in Transitional Democracies: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania / Loftsson E., Choe Y., eds. Sodertoerns hoegskola, 2003.
3. Rozenvalds J. Latvia After Twelve Years of Renewed Independence: the Search for Normality // Latvijas Universitātes Raksti. 663. sēj. Rīga, 2004.
Ekphrasis as a structural element of the world of art and a marker of modern society’s attitude to it in the novel by D. Tartt «Goldfinch»
... It’s Tartt —But Is It Art? // Vanity Fair. 2014. June 30. URL:
(дата обращения: 06.01.2016).
20. Tonkin B. Book review: The Goldfinch, By Donna Tartt // Independent. 2013. 18 Oct. URL:
(дата обращения: 06.01.2016).
Ischenko E., Popova M.
ekphrasis, D. Tartt, «The Goldfinch», artistic ...
The use of renewable energy sources in the Kaliningrad region: Current state and prospects
... направления политики повышения энергоэффективности и План действий на 2008—2012 гг. для Калининградской области. TACIS —Technical Assistance for the Commonwealth of Independent States (Техническая помощь Содружеству Независимых Государств). URL: www.tacisinfo.ru (дата обращения: 13.11.2013)
13. Рагузина Г.А. Потенциал, рентабельность ...
Russia and the European Union: an elusive quest for common values?
14. Lukin, V. 2008, Russia’s Global Role and European Identity, Russia in Global Affairs, no. 1, available at: http://eng. globalaffairs. ru/number/n_10352 (accessed 3 March 2011).
15. PA, 2012, David Cameron to fight prison voting plan, The Independent, 23 May, available at: http://www. independent. co. uk/news/uk/politics/david-cameron-tofight-prison-voting-plan-7781521.html (accessed 17 June 2012).
16. Parfitt, T. 2012, European Court of Human Rights reforms could have 'devastating' effect ...
Post-Soviet space in contemporary curricula and cooperation projects
... processes in the former Soviet Union, globalization and the development of international cooperation.
Guschin Alexander, Levchenkov Andrei
countries of the Baltic Sea region, interdisciplinary approach, education, post-Soviet space, the Commonwealth of Independent States, "Russian World", cooperation, forum
Schopenhauer and I. Kant in A. A. Fet’s philosophical and political worldview (conclusion)
The concluding part of the work focuses on the independence of A. A. Fet’s philosophical worldview strongly emphasised by the poet himself and his close friends. Although he quotes Schopenhauer and Kant, he criticised them and demonstrates an independent worldview. The author analyses the critique ...
The regional approach in the policy of the Russian Federation towards the Republic of Estonia
... Affairs of Russia S. Lavrov for the BBC, Moscow, March 7.
13. Rossija i Pribaltika: doklad Soveta po vneshnej i oboronnoj politike [Russia and the Baltic States: Report of the Council on Foreign and Defense Policy], 1997, Nezavisimaja gazeta [The Independent newspaper], October 28.
14. Rossija i Pribaltika II: doklad Soveta po vneshnej i oboronnoj politike [Russia and the Baltic II: Report of the Council on Foreign and Defense Policy], 1999, Nezavisimaja gazeta [The Independent newspaper], October ...
The EU strategy for the Baltic region: where are we now?
... article is dedicated to the EU strategy for the Baltic Sea region approved by the European Commission in October 2009. The Strategy expresses the intention to strengthen regionalisation in the framework of the EU. It distinguishes the Baltic region as an independent priority target of the complex strategy for the EU development and gives an additional incentive to the resolution of the problems related to the formation of this macroregion.
Baltic Sea region, EU, European Commission,...
Current problems in Russian-Latvian relations
... state. However, unlike the above mentioned countries, its relations with Russia are developing at a more pragmatic level. Numerous political differences often result in economic losses both for Latvia and Russia. Despite the fact that Latvia has been an independent state for more than 20 years, there are still some unresolved issues in its relations with Russia. Today, relations between the two countries are often viewed through the prism of EU — Russia relations. Nonetheless, they often do not fit ...
Clusters in the institutional perspective: on the theory and methodology of local socioeconomic development
... technological connection of adjacent units. The author comes to a conclusion that, without the inclusion of institutional factors, alongside localising and technological ones (demonstrated through different variables), it is virtually impossible to develop an independent cluster theory, different from the general agglomeration theory. For the first time, a hierarchy of institutions affecting the formation of local economic systems is considered against the background of the identification of institutional ...
The transmitting antenna system of moving object
Presents the development of the transmitting antenna system has advantages when used in a ship: the constancy of the antenna current is independent of the operating frequency, reduced size and weight, reduce the impact of radiation on the electromagnetic environment of the ship, simplifying the coordination of feeder to the antenna; increase in the radiation power transmitting system....
Motivations of Russian firms to invest abroad: how do sanctions affect Russia’s outward foreign direct investment?
... Investment Reports, 2015, UNCTAD (2000-2015), available at: http://unctad.org/en/pages/diae/world%20investment%20report/wir-series.aspx (accessed 11.06.2015).
46. Usborne, D. 2012, FBI raids suspected hi-tech front company run by ‘Russian agent’, Independent, 04.10.2012, available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/fbi-raids-suspected-hitech-front-company-run-by-russianagent-8196616.html (accessed 20.07.2015).
47. Vahtra, P. 2005, Russian Investments in the CIS: Scope, Motivations ...
Russians in Latvia: Peculiarities of Socio-cultural Adaptation and Identity
... identifies trends and variations of the socio-cultural identity and integration of Russians in Latvia. According to the author, since the middle 1990s, two trends have been recognized - first, the “ingrowing” of ethnic Russians into the life of independent Latvia, and second, forming their new identity. The article presents a number of factors hampering the integration of ethnic Russians into Latvian society. Variations and options of socio-cultural identity and integration (or assimilation) ...
Efficiency of a pedagogical model for preventing unemployment among Russian students: Analysis and data interpretation
... on the proposed model of a pedagogical system for preventing unemployment among Russian students. An interval scale for assessing the development of major profes-sional activities, which was obtained using the WINSTEPS 3.90.0 software, proved to be independent and applicable to performing assessment in similar studies.
1. Linacre M. J. A User’s Guide to WINSTEPS: Rasch-Model Computer Programs. A prog¬ram Manual 3.90.0. URL: http://www.winsteps.com/a/Winsteps-ManualPDF.zip (дата обращения: ...
The influence of center-periphery development on the alteration of CIS territorial structure of industry
... centre and periphery at various levels. The article reveals some factors which cause these stages changing and corresponding spatial processes. The article also describes the features of the contemporary stage of structural changes of the Commonwealth of Independent State's industry.
Экологическая геохимия: учебник. М.: Лотос, 2000.
рекомендации по геохимической оценке ...
Immaturity and the objective of a true reform in ways of thinking. Part II
... forms thereof) consisting in denying the necessity of verifying one’s judgements with the help of the understanding of others.In the Critique of Judgement and Anthropology, Kant describes his position in more detail supplementing the negative maxim of independent thinking with a positive maxim of thinking oneself in the position of others and the maxim of consistent and coherent thinking. Moreover, the re¬quirement of independent thinking is limited by the idea of universal human reason, although ...
Introduction of Competence Approach and Optimization of Education Process in Professional Education Manager Training
... the competence approach introduction as one of the priorities and main features of education modernisation. The author outlines methods and activities aimed at the competence approach introduction to education process, considers a model of students’ independent work. A concrete example is drawn to show the specificity of the competence training of students
of the “Business Administration” field of study in the framework of the “Fundamentals of Management” discipline.
Numerical recovering an absorption coefficient by BC-method
A numerical algorithm for solving inverse dynamical problem recovering an absorption by the boundary control method is developed. The absorption coefficient is determined independently of a speed of sound, which can be an arbitrary smooth positive function. The results of numerical experiments are represented.
1. Lions J.-L. ContrôleOptimale de Systèmes Gouvernés par des Équationsaux Dérivéespartielles....
Individual work at higher education institutions: Theoretical representation
Дидактические технологии в высшей школе: учеб. пособ. для студ. вузов. М.: Юнити—ДАНА, 2002.
higher education, student as an agent, individual work, independence, teacher-student interaction.
The qualimetrics methodology of academic staff certification
... components of the performance and overall ranking of the academic staff. The methodology was developed in the course of a study carried out by the authors at the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University in the framework of the project “The development of an independent qualimetrics system of assessing academic achievements of students and evaluating the academic staff” (the project team included V. V. Nordin, A. V. Yurov, N. V. Belkina, and K. L. Polupan).
1. Неволин В. Н. Актуальные ...
Immaturity and the objective of a true reform in ways of thinking. Part I.
... forms thereof) consisting in denying the necessity of verifying one’s judgements with the help of the understandingof others. In the Critique of Judgement and Anthropology, Kant describes his position in more detail supplementing the negative maxim of independent thinking with a positive maxim of thinking oneself in the position of others and the maxim of consistent and coherent thinking. Moreover, the requirement of independent thinking is limited by the idea of universal human reason, although Kant ...
Estonia’s party system today: electoral turbulence and changes in ethno-regional patterns
A well-developed party system has emerged in Estonia over the decades of independence. There are, however, distinct geographical patterns of voting. A number of new political parties have appeared in the country; the regional and ethnic patterns of voting (the latter matter much in Estonia) have changed dramatically. This ...
The technology of formation of learning and research culture in the lessons on the history of Western Russia at a rural school in the Kaliningrad region
... discusses the technology of formation of learning and research culture at schools of the Kaliningrad region in lessons on the history of western Russia. The process of learning and research culture formation will be successful if more attention is paid to independent research of schoolchildren, namely, solving tasks with the help of acquired research knowledge and skills, as well as preparation of individual and group research projects.
1. Батищев Г. С. Введение в диалектику ...
The transformation of ethnic identity in the condition of post-Soviet development of the independent states
This article considers the problem of ethnic identity as a polymodal one and analyses certain social, historical, and psychological aspects of its context. Language is one of the major differentiating features in terms of ethnicity. In some historical situations, ethnic identity is determined by the symbolic role of language in the processes of development of allegiance to the community and intergroup differentiation rather than the actual use of language by all mem-bers of the ethnic group.
A Lax pair for the (1+3) nonlinear equation
Integral systems with four independent variables have special signifi-cance in mathematics and physics. The discovery of inverse scattering method played an important role in reconsidering the place of integrable systems of nonlinear partial differential equations in mathematical ...
The motif of temptation in G. G. Byron’s mystery play Cain
... shows that Byron’s interpretation of the Biblical events makes it possible to conclude that, striving for absolute freedom, the human being is incapable of protecting themselves from the spiritual captivity of passions and their soul cannot remain independent from such opposite forces as the light and the darkness, good and evil, god and the devil.
1. Александрова З. Е. Словарь синонимов русского языка. М., 2001.
2. Байрон Дж. Г. Каин ...
The questions of the poet A. S. Kushner to the philosopher I. Kant regarding the otherworldly
This article proves that when addressing the problem persistent in his oeuvre — whether the humanity exists independently in space or it is a transcendental project — the Saint Petersburg poet A. S. Kushner always consults with I. Kant.
1. Гейне Г. Собр. соч.: в 10 т. М., 1958. Т. 6.
2. Кант И. Всеобщая естественная ...
A qualimetric assessment of students’ academic achievements
This article proposes a methodology for the qualimetric evaluation of students’ achievements developed within IKBFU’s project “The development of an independent qualimetric system of assessing academic achievements of students and evaluating the academic staff” (the project team included V.V. Nordin, A.V. Yurov, N.V. Belkina, and K.L. Polupan). The proposed methodology uses a comprehensive approach ...
Long-term forecast of water surface temperature in the southeastern part of the Pacific Ocean
... forecast of seasonal trend of the sea surface temperature (SST) with the lead time of 8 months and results of statistical method of SST superlong-term forecast, lead time — 1 year. In the first case mean-squared prediction error of SST according to independent data makes 0,5 оС, in the second case — 0,2 оС, that is much less than the reasonable mistake and meets practical requirements.
М., Малинин В.
Крупномасштабная изменчивость ...
Geodemography of the Saint Petersburg Suburbs
... account not only demographic data but also the characteristics of the settlement system. Such studies are particularly important for suburbs. Russian social geography pays little attention to suburban studies, although such territories have become an independent object of research in international geographical science. The Saint Petersburg suburbs are of special interest from the perspective of geodemography, which is explained by the significant size of the area — a result of the territory’s ...
The transformation of the Baltic countries’ political elites: general and specific features
... transformations of power groups and their role in the political life of the societies of the Baltic countries. This article aims to analyse structural and functional changes in the composition of the Baltic political elites after these countries gained independence in the 1990s. The main objective of this research is to reveal the general and the specific in the transformations of Latvian, Lithuanian, and Estonian elites. Changes in the structure of power groups are considered on a sub-regional scale ...