A ‘Secret alliance’ or ‘Freedom from any alliances’? NATO accession debate in Sweden and Finland, 1991—2016
The authors analyze the policy of NATO towards Sweden and Finland, the neutral states of Northern Europe, in 1991—2016. The authors emphasize that Finland and Sweden have always been of high strategic importance for NATO and the EU defence policy. The authors investigate the main areas of cooperation between NATO and the ...
The interaction between Lithuania and the USSR in 1920: disputable aspects
... analyses the circumstances of the signing of the Moscow Peace Treaty between Lithuania and Soviet Russia on July 12, 1920 and focuses on the international response to it. The author pays special attention to the question of the character of Lithuania’s neutrality in the Soviet-Polish war in August-September 1920.
1. Документы внешней политики СССР. М., 1958. Т. 2.
2. Laurinavičius Č. Ar buvo “Slaptas protokolas” prie 1920 m. liepos 12 d. taikos sutarties ...
The Neuchâtel Crisis of 1856—1857 and the British position
... and the Conservative Party. Journals and memoirs of Edward Henry, lord Stanley 1849—1869 / ed. by J. Vincent. N. Y., 1978.
8. Imlach A. G. Britain and Switzerland 1845—1860. A Study of Anglo-Swiss relations during some critical years for Swiss neutrality. L., 1966.
Neuchâtel, Prussian-Swiss relations, peace mediation of European countries, English diplomacy
Polish-Russian relations as reflected in the programmes of right-wing political parties in Poland: a quantitative and qualitative analysis
... tant element in most political programmes proposed by Poland’s major right-wing political groups. Based on a qualitative analysis, I distinguish between parties that postulate a determined and assertive policy towards Russia, parties committed to a neutral position on Russia, and those that seek the improvement and pragmatisation of Polish-Russian relations. There are two important conclusions from the qualitative analysis. Firstly, international relations have a pronounced influence on the programmes ...
NATO Policies in the Baltics: Objectives and Priorities
... the Baltics shows that the chief pretext for increased military presence in the region is the alleged need to defend the Baltic states from the Russian threat. Special attention is paid to the attempts of Western military strategists to encourage the neutral Nordic states — Sweden and Finland — to accede to NATO. This would lead to the organisation’s northern enlargement. The current situation suggests that to ease tension in the Baltic Sea region Russia has not only to respond adequately to ...
Teoretical nonstationary two-dimensional modal with altitude-longitudinal variations of ionosphere parameters
... concentration that is explained by hobby of ionospheric plasma for a termosphere wind is watched. Thus DYE amplitude is supervised by changes of absolute value, amplitude and a phase of longitudinal profiles of the meridional and zonal components of speed of a neutral wind. To growth of solar activity there is an increase in electronic concentration in a maximum of F2 of a layer, also inc reases hmF2.
1. Фаткуллин М. Н., Клевцур С. В., Латышев К. С. Оператор переноса ...
An oscillatory excited molecular nitrogen in the ionospheric plasma
The mathematical model for research of the non-stationary processes proceeding in ionosphere and plasmasphere of Earth is presented. This model allows to investigate dynamics of interaction charged and neutral components of ionospheric plasma, and also to reveal a contribution of various processes to formation of ionosphere. Results of computing experiment indicate strong dependence of electronic concentration on high-rise distribution of nitrogen. ...
Seme-symbol as a means of novel meaning formation in denominal verbs
... the notion of ‘seme-symbol’. The author reconstructions the semantic structure of motivating nouns and determines the role of different elements in the semantic structure of the verb. It is stressed that context contributes to the actualization or neutralization of particular semes, which leads to redistribution of elements in the semantic structure of the verb. The formation of novel meaning occurs through the actualization of the most relevant feature of the motivating noun in the semantic structure ...
Simulating of non-stationary processes in the ionospheric plasma
A model of distribution of concentration, velocities and temperatures of ions along a geomagnetic flux tube is considered. The model also examines the main processes of chemical kinetics, ambipolar diffusion, influence of horizontal neutral wind and plasma heating by superthermal electrons. The article presents numerical calculation results of variations of charged particles concentration in the ionosphere and the plasmasphere. The comparative analysis of various hydrodynamic approximations ...
J. N. Tetens’s ‘transcendental philosophy’ as a basic science¬ and criti¬cal propaedeutics to metaphysics
... from the criticism of systemic knowledge in general and metaphysics in particular. In the argument between the advocates of the Leibniz-Wolff geometric philosophy and their opponents — enlighteners-eclecticists and pietists, Tetens manages to take a neutral position conducting a synthesis of the British observingphilosophy, French ‘reasoning philosophy’, and the Leibniz-Wolff ‘geometric philosophy’. Tetens attempts to show the limitedness of common understanding and the supremacyof scientific ...
Results of simulating of instabilities of the equatorial F-layer of the ionosphere
... экваториальной F-области // Геомагнетизм и аэрономия.
. 31, №
Zalesak S. T., Ossakow S. L., Chaturvedi P. K.
Nonlinear equatorial spread F: the effect of neutral winds and background pedersen conductivity // J. Geophys. Res
Кащенко Н. М., Мациевский С.
Математическое моделирование неустойчивостей ...
Variability of stress in the past tense verbs, short participles and short adjectives
... verb stress variety, and stated the ambiguity of their dictionary fixation. The authors consider the traditional opposition of feminine gender verb forms to the other gender verb forms as a stable trend. The authors also denote a new opposition of the neutral gender verbs, marked as acceptable younger norm, with the type of accent paradigm a/c 2, 3. Wide variatian is also observed in short passive participles, free stress participleforms are also common. A complex and variable system of free stress ...
Die relative Wahrheit der Abbildtheorie in der Interpretation von H. Rickert
... (Abbildtheorie) of Heinrich Rickert, the main representative of the Baden Neo-Kantianism School. The author analyses the key arguments put forward by Rickert against the understanding of cognition as a reflection of reality. Rickert’s standpoint is neutral. He criticises the transcendental theory of reflection, but does not reject the idea of reflection as a model of cognition and acknowledges the immanent theory of reflection as relatively justified. The article also addresses the standpoint of ...
Full and short personal names in Russian: a quantitative study
The paper presents a statistical study of the use of variant forms of Russian personal names. It is shown that Russian names can be divided into two classes: names with full and short forms contrast with names that only have one neutrally used form. For names that have a distinct short form, the frequencies of full and short forms can relate to each other in different ways. This depends on various factors, such as the length of the full name and the gender of its owner: for ...
The feature of soil mantle in Kaliningrad
This article focuses on the main trends of changing in the morphological properties of urban soils. It was established that urbiquasisoils of a predominant sandy-loam grain-size composition and neutral medium reaction prevail in the Kaliningrad soil mantle. Soddy-podzol, soddy-gley, and brown forest (cambisols) soils are found in some parks and suburban territories.
1. Аветисьянц Э. Л., Паракшин Ю. П. Ландшафтно-экологическое ...
The European idea in Central Europe and Scandinavia as a part of the security and peaceful co-existence policy in the framework of the postwar planning
... europejskiej historii, ResPublica Nowa, no. 5 (176).
20. Zubok, V. 1996, The Soviet Union and European integration from Stalin to Gorbachev, Journal of European integration history, Vol. 2, no. 1, p. 85.
integration, federation, neutrality, Central Europe, Scandinavia
The Baltic policy of Germany and current international relations
... relations between them. The Ukraine events brought about a change in Germany’s regional policy. Despite Russia remaining one of the key economic and political counteractors, Germany, being a partner of the Baltics in the EU and NATO, cannot adopt a neutral position in the conflict of interests between the Baltics and Russia.
1. Dauchert, H, 2008, “Anwalt der Balten” oder Anwalt in eigener Sache? Die deutsche Baltikumpolitik 1991—2004, Berlin.
2. Dauchert, H. 2008, Deutschlands Baltikumpolitik....
Psychological aspects of security rituals in higher education institutions
... rituals aim at ensuring control over certain factors, which are important to maintain security, integrity and ability to achieve a meaningful purpose of life. Other important aims of security rituals in educational environment are ensuring stability, neutralizing factors that may negatively affect it as well as increasing students’ self-esteem.
1. Благодырь Е. М. Формирование представлений о безопасном поведении человека как ...
Edmund Husserl’s phenomenology and a cognitive-semantic interpretation of Kant’s transcendentalism
18. Gabriel, M. 2014, Der Neue Realismus, Frankfurt am Mein, Suhrkamp.
19. Drummond J. J. 2003, The Structure of Intentionality, In: The new Husserl: a critical reader, Bloomington, Indiana University Press, pp. 65—92.
20. Gabriel, M. 2016, Neutraler Realismus: Jahrbuch-Kontroversen 2, Freiburg, Alber Karl.
21. Rang, B. 1977, Repräsentation und Selbstgegebenheit: Die Aporie der Phänomenologie der Wahrnehmung in den Frühschriften Husserls. In: Phänomenologische Forschungen, Vol. 1, pp....
Crime situation as an object of criminal law and criminological impact
... level of regular practice and the legislation. The situational crime prevention was chosen as the optimal theoretical framework for practical and legislative measures that affect the crime situation. The purpose of situational crime prevention is to neutralize or reduce the external factors which let the criminal commit crimes more easily and introduce some barriers to it (ensuring protection, limiting the availability of funds and tools) or reduce the benefits from the criminal act (identification ...
On the less obvious manifestations of the poetic function: a translator’s view
... capable of producing a much stronger effect, which can be discerned in rhythm and punctuation, in the absence of rhyme to induce an implicit rhymed word, in “elaborately monotonous” language, in textual opposition of synonyms, in expressly neutral and unemotional final phrases to evoke a train of emotive or intellectual reactions. The authors also suggest a functional approach to the notion of “poetic device”, which gives the translator more freedom in selecting expressive means without ...
The Vilnius issue in international relations: the historiography of the problem
37. Vilkelis, G. 2006, Lietuvos ir Lenkijos santykiai Tautų Sąjungoje, Vilnius.
38. Mankevich, M. A., 2009, Narushila li Litva nejtralitet v sovetsko-pol'skoj vojne? Dokumenty i materialy o pol'sko-litovskih peregovorah 1920 g. [Violated the neutrality of whether Lithuania in the Soviet-Polish war? Documents and materials of the Polish-Lithuanian negotiations in 1920], Baltijskie issledovanija. Vostochnaja Prussija i Kaliningradskaja oblast' v XX veke [Baltic Studies. East Prussia and the ...
Moral und Dogma: Alois Riehls Neukantianismus im Spannungsfeld zwischen Religion und Politik
... Erklärung gegen die Besetzung philosophischer Lehrstühle mit Vertretern der experimentellen Psychologie. Logos. Internationale Zeitschrift für Philosophie der Kultur, IV, S. 114-116.
Banks, E., 2014. The Realistic Empiricism of Mach, James, and Russell. Neutral Monism Reconceived. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Beiser, F. C., 2014. The Genesis of Neo-Kantianism, 1796–1880. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Benjamin, W., 1940. Über den Begriff der Geschichte. In: R. Tiedemann, H. Schweppenhäuser,...
On the Role of Gesinnung in Kant’s Ethics and Philosophy of Religion. Part I
Weber, M., 2004. Politics as a Vocation. In: M. Weber. The Vocation Lectures. Edited by D. Owen, T. B. Strong, translated by R. Livingstone. Indianopolis & Cambridge: Hackett Publishing Company, pp. 32-94.
Weber, M., 1949. The Meaning of “Ethical Neutrality” in Sociology and Economics. In: M. Weber. The Methodology of the Social Sciences. Glencoe, Illinois: The Free Press, pp. 1-49.
Wieland, C. M., 1916. Grundlegung der Christlichen Religion. Von Herrn Wieland seinen Schülern diktiert. In: ...