On the eurysemy of adjectives in the modern English language
The English adjective GOOD is under study in the article. Samples of its meanings found in dictionaries are compared with those from the Oxford English Corpus. As a result of the contrastive analysis, considerable changes were found. This spectrum of differences as well as combinative potential of GOOD gave occasion to rubricate this adjective ...
Images of English giants: at the intersection of mythological traditions
The present paper describes the influence of Scandinavian, Celtic and Classical mythological traditions on the characters of giants in English folk tale discourse. The elements of archaic beliefs are represented in the inner form of nominations and attributes of folk tale giants. Borrowed motifs are subjected to varying degrees of transformation in folk tale discourse and depend upon cultural and historical development of the English ethnos.
1. Голованов И. А. Константы фольклорного сознания в устной...
The functioning of the vladyka lexeme in the Ostromir Gospels of 1056—1057
This article considers the use of the Vladyka lexeme to denote God the Father, Jesus Christ, and human rulers in the Ostromir Gospels with a Greek translation. The author analyses the semantics of the Church Slavonic lexemes as an equivalent to the paired Greek words, the way the matching Greek lexemes were selected, and the effect of semantic inconsistencies on the formation of the idea of the ruler in the consciousness of Slavs. The study employs the methods of etymological, lexicographical, lexical-semantic...
The dream dictionary of G. H. Miller: The structural originality and cognitive models of interpretation
G. H. Miller’s dream dictionary is analysed from the perspective of modern cognitive linguistics. The author examines its cultural characteristics, embeddedness in the context of dreams, the polysemy of the key image, and the possibility of homonymy. Gender dependence and subject-object differentiation are identified as important features of dream interpretations in the dictionary. The author describes three mechanisms of semantic transformation behind the dream interpretation: metaphoric conversion...
Historical development of the Pomor North Lexicography: a comparative analysis of the three translation dictionaries
The article describes three dictionaries compiled by three outstanding mariners who explored the Pomor North: the “Dictionary of Muscovites” compiled by the French navigator Jean Sauvage in 1586, the “Small Russian- Norwegian dictionary” written in 1907 by polar captain ...
On the problem of cultural reference of proverbs (the Russian proverbs with images of clothing)
This article explores proverbs as signs that preserve, transfer, and develop meanings rooted in the ethnic culture. The author investigates the ways cultural semantics is expressed in proverbs featuring clothing items. Another focus is the ways to refer to garment elements. Clothing items are universal realia; they form concepts, mythologemes, symbols, gauges, stereotypes, etc. in the realm of ideas about the world. These ideas are interpreted within different fields of human spiritual life, for...
Reflections on the dictionary of an integral type
The article focuses on the issue of an integral word description in dictionaries. The principle of integrity implies that the most complete information about a word is included in its dictionary entry. The word is an independent two-sided and multifunctional unit of a language, respectively, it raises the issue of the ...
The analysis of modus situations in expressions containing the verb to lack
The author explores the semantics of the verb ‘to lack’ and the way the speaker categorizes situations when perceiving and asseessing them. The verb ‘to lack’ expresses implicit negation embedded in the verb meaning, which actualizes some modus situations. The objective of the article is to identify and analyse situations verbalized in the utterances with the verb ‘to lack’. These situations are the results of mental activity of the modal subject, implicitly present in the meaning of the verb ‘to...
History of the words starina and starik as terms of friendship in Russian
This article explores when and under what circumstances the words starik and starina emerged as terms of friendship in standard Russian language. These terms were often used by male characters in the prose of the Khrushchev Thaw — students, scientists, and engineers. It was initially assumed that these words had become forms of address at that time. Analysis of data from the Russian National Corpus shows that these terms of friendship date back earlier than that. Starik was used to address a male...
The Concept of Soul: A Comparative Study of the Russian and the Armenian Pictures of the World
The author analyses the concept ‘soul’ as a means of representing reality in the brain through comparing two linguistic pictures of the world. It is known that a concept contains important cultural information, harbouring its concrete meaning in a linguistic unit. The study — a combination of cultural linguistic and comparative analysis of the concept — suggests that certain Russian idioms containing the concept ‘soul’ have equivalents in the Armenian language. However, in most Armenian equivalents...
Historical perspective on the word gospoda as a form of address
Using the method of corpus analysis, this article explores the history of the Russian honorific gospoda and related forms of address: damy i gospoda, gospoda-tovarischi, and other noun-noun and adjective-noun collocations (gospoda publika uvažaemye gospoda). It draws on examples from literature to demonstrate that although, contrary to popular belief, the honorific damy i gospoda is not a neologism of the end of the 20th century, it was marginal to pre-revolutionary speech. It is also shown that...
Basic notes of the conception of the German-Russian dictionary of neologisms
... about structure and contents of the German-Russian dictionary of neologisms, which is positioned by authors as the specialised bilingual dictionary of passive type for the Russianspeaking user and has to supplement the existing general German-Russian dictionaries.
: в 3 т. / авт.-сост. М. Я. Цвиллинг, Е. И.
Лепинг, Н. П. Страхова и др.; под общ. рук. О. И. Москальской....
On a new corpus dictionary of dreams
This article addresses the problem of “prophetic” dreams. It considers the issue of compiling a new dictionary of dreams, which should contain such necessary elements as a corpus and an index of its symbolic images. The index will help perform the following: easily find certain symbolic dream images, conduct their qualitative analysis, and compare them with symbolical forms of culture. The articles of the proposed dictionary can contain information on other aspects of dreams — cognitive, psychological...
On the correlation between the terms poly-discoursivity and inter-discoursivity
... и понятий М., 2008. С. 60.
10. Тюпа В.И. Дискурсные формации. Очерки по компаративной риторике. М., 2010.
11. Фуко М. Археология знания. СПб., 2004.
12. Cambridge Dictionaries Online. URL:
british/inter_2 (дата обращения: 08.10.2015).
poly-discursivity, inter-discursivity, discourse, poly-discourse, discourse formations, text, intertextuality,...
English borrowings in modern mass media
... article is to identify and describe the types of English borrowings by analyzing how they got adapted in the Russian language. The first type includes the borrowings, which date back to the late XX and the early XXI centuries and entered the Russian dictionaries of borrowings. The second type is represented by the borrowings that are used in the Russian spoken and written language, but are not included in dictionaries. The borrowings of the third type are the English words that are rarely used....
The media image of San Escobar in the space of fictional worlds: a socio-semiotic perspective
The article deals with the process of structuring the concept of the fictitious state of San Escobar from the perspective of social semiotics, including the broadly understood context and media environment for constructing the image. The creation of the internet memes was inspired by a lapsus linguae of the Polish Minister of Foreign Affairs Witold Waszczykowski. Major changes in the communicative space, the dominance of digital media resources and multimodal messages, the hegemony of visual culture...
The features of talkativity implementation in the political online discourse (a case study of personal websites of members of the British parliament)
... durch Computer. Opladen, 1997. S. 51—85.
. Kommunikative Normen im Entstehen: Beobachtungen zu Kontextualisierungsprozessen in elektronischer Kommunikation // Sprachwandel durch Computer. Opladen, 1997. S. 23—50.
/ (дата обращения: 15.05.2011).
/ (дата обращения: 20.05.2011).
Associative-semantic network principle of human mental thesaurus organization
... evidence gained from objective neurophysiological methods, certain dictionary articles of the Associative Thesaurus of the Russian Language have thus been analyzed. A comparative analysis of behavioral experiments is offered based on which associative dictionaries have been compiled-alongside with objective experiments of the data of natural sciences. Concomitantly, the paper is an attempt to elicit distinctions between two types of experiments, as well as to install regularities of the organization ...
Lexical explicators of the modality of necessity in the Old and New Testament (the Synodal translation into Russian)
In this article, I explore one of the elements of situational modality, namely, the microfield of the modality of necessity. I consider the use of lexical modifiers of the modality of necessity in the Old and New Testament. The aims of this study are to identify similarities and differences in the use of lexemes explicating the microfield in the biblical texts and to produce a comparative analysis of modal meanings of objective-subjective and objective necessity expressed through relevant lexemes...
‘Many years to the invincible’: The axiological meanings of the spatial and temporal images in Boris Pasternak’s poem ‘Neoglyadnost’/’ Spanlessness’
This article is an attempt to expose and analyse the chronotopical structure of Boris Pasternak's poem ‘Neogliadnost’/’Spanlessness’, written in 1944. The axiological meaning of spatiotemporal images in the poet's Weltanschauung is evaluated within a broader context of Russian language and culture. It is argued that the poem’s key value-laden motif, victory, is introduced in the text in three temporal domains. Two of them — the planes of the historical past and present — belong to the sphere of time...
Language presentation of concepts in Russian and English cultures (using the lexeme “green” in phraseological units as an example)
This article concentrates on the research of concept understanding as a mental and inter-cultural unit in collective perception, represented by means of set expressions and phraseological units. Specific ways of the formation of the phraseological concepts in English and Russian cultures are described
Смысл. Концепт. Интенциональность. Пятигорск, 2003.
Когнитивная лингвистика как разновидность интерпретирующего подхода //
Вопросы языкознания. 1994...
The representation of the concept “family” in English conceptual sphere: a case of children poems
The article focuses on the representation of the concept «family» in English poetry for children. Particular attention is paid to the national and cultural component of the concept under study.
Страна детей. СПб., 1998.
когнитивных терминов / под ред. Е.
С. Кубряковой. М., 1996.
Тайна национального характера. М., 2003.
Семья во французском обществе: XVIII — начало XX века. СПб., 2005.
The philosophy of the text as texts of philosophy
The conceptualization of the philosophy of the text requires a preliminary idea about the ways of the textual presentation of philosophy as such. At the same time, philosophical views per se are difficult to classify and systematize — at best, they are arranged by eras and cultural-ethnic factors. In this regard, it seems fruitful and justified not to build various rationalistic constructions but to take an open look at the very existence of philosophizing. From such perspectives, philosophy appears...
Axiological prototype of the conceptual metaphor 'lifetime is a journey'
The article focuses upon cognitive basis and lexical manifestations of the axiological aspect of the spatial time metaphors in the English and Russian languages.
1. Акты Святейшего Тихона, Патриарха Московского и всея России, позднейшие документы и переписка о каноническом преемстве высшей церковной власти. 1917—1943 гг. / сост. М. Е. Губонин. М., 1994.
2. Алексий II, Патриарх Московский и всея Руси. Церковь и духовное возрождение России. Т. 2. Слова, речи, послания, обращения. 1998—2000...
‘Term memory’ and its varieties in the history of the genre nomination of English novel
... государственного университета. Сер. 8. 2005. Вып. 4. С. 54—62.
7. Соловьева Н.А. Англия XVIII века: разум и чувство в художественном сознании эпохи. М., 2008.
8. Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias : [сайт]. URL:
. academic.ru/188606/romance (дата обращения: 27.12.2015).
9. Beer G. The Romance. London, 1986.
10. Busato, Cristian De Olivera. John Fowle’s «The Magus» as a Postmodern ...
On fate and/or providence in Pushkin’s short story ‘The blizzard’
It has been repeatedly noted that there are similarities between Pushkin’s short story ‘The blizzard’, Zhukovsky's ballad ‘Svetlana’, from which Pushkin borrowed the epigraph, and Burger's ‘Lenora’, which was twice used by Zhukovsky in different contexts. Differences in the functioning of the traditional plot are considered against the background of the interrelation and interdependence between fate, chance, and free will. In a Christian reading, the attitudes of the main characters of the three...
Energy and the Ways of its Conceptualisation in Cognition: an Attempt at an Epistemological Analysis
Thе article examines the connection between conceptualisation and transfer of knowledge in the humanities and analyses the role of these processes in the formation of conceptual and terminological framework for different types of discourse. The study draws on an analytical description of the development of the concept of energy in the Christian Orthodox discourse. The description was provided from the perspective of transferology — a new metadiscipline aimed to study the meaning-focused transformations...
The intertexteme as an instrument in the past — present — future dialogical space of urbanism practices: an intersemiotic analysis of graffiti and inscriptions in Gdansk and Kaliningrad
This paper discusses intertextual and intervisual tools for creating the past — present — future dialogic axis in urban practices, using the example of graffiti and inscriptions in Gdansk and Kaliningrad. The authors describe the urban space as an object of research, give a definition of the urban inscription, characterize the semiotic nature of the latter, consider terminology problems relating to the category of intertextuality, and broadly interpret the intertexteme as a tool in the ‘past —...
Lexemes with the stem –БОГ- (GOD) in hagiographic texts of the 15th—17th centuries
The article explores lexemes stemming from Rus. бог- (god), which were used in the texts of the XV—XVII centuries. This stem expressed the concept of God and was used as a means of characterization of objects, phenomena, etc. The material of the analysis was taken from the texts of the XV—XVII centuries, which are a valuable source of information for the study of the system of values of Slavs, based on the axiology of Christian dogmas. The aim of this research is to identify the specificity of these...
On the Semiotic Model of Image
The article is devoted to the development of a fundamental semiotic model of images that is based on the categorical apparatus of Ch. S. Peirce (on the concepts of Firstness, icon, hypoicon and metaphor). The image is proposed to be defined as a complex sign (two-level hypoicon- metaphor), which has a certain “primary” sign as its sign vehicle that represents the object constituted by all the facts (cases of semiosis) that are similar to that primary sign. Three key functions of the image are defined:...
Some aspects of time verbalisation in the English and Russian languages
The article focuses upon basic means of the 'time' category explication in the English and Russian lexicon and grammar; special emphasis is laid upon linguistic instantiations of axiological sense.
1. Балашова Л. В. Метафора в диахронии (на материале русского языка XI—XX веков). Саратов, 1998.
2. Бондарко А. В. Временные категории (на материале русского языка) // Категоризация мира: пространство и время. М., 1997. С. 31—34.
3. Бондарко А. В. Теория значения в системе функциональной грамматики:на...
The correction of university students’ knowledge as a subject of pedagogical studies
This article is devoted to the little-studied pedagogical problem of correcting higher university students’ knowledge. The authors offer a definition of the concept of “knowledge correction” and identify its essence, objectives, orientation, structure, functions and results within the training process. Тhe article considers the system of knowledge correction methods, including personalized knowledge correction tests. The authors focus on the interrelation between didactic control and knowledge correction...
Slovar narodnoy dukhovnoy kultury bolgar (Z. Barbolova, M. Simeonova, M. Kitanova, N. Mutaficheva, P. Legurska) [The Dictionary of the Folk Spiritual Culture of the Bulgarians]. — Sofia: Nauka i izkustvo, 2018
Concept integration modelling as a means of phraseological unit formation
The paper focuses on cognitive processes of phraseological units (colour terms) formation based on the theories of the conceptual metaphor and conceptual integration. Special attention is given to the modified units the meaning of which cannot be inferred from their components. Cognitive mechanisms underlying this type of phraseological units are identified.
О теории концептуальной интеграции // Изв. РАН, СЛЯ. Т. 60. №
3. М., 2001.
Философия риторики //...
Historical realia in teaching Russian as a foreign language
This article deals with the historical realia as markers of the national and historical identity of the country of the target language. Realia make it possible to reconstruct selected aspects of the national character and study the axiology of modern native speakers. The analysis of non-equivalent, background and connotative lexis in the course of language acquisition stimulates reflection on extralinguistic (historical) information and thus contributes to cultural competences.
National conceptual picture of the world and the political nation
The article shows a link between culture-specific concepts and the phenomenon of political nation. The author reveals political conditionality of national mentality by intercultural communication. All these phenomena and processes are examined from the point of view of a system of synergies. The author identifies the bifurcation points in the history of national states, which determine their development.
1. Белоцеркивець Н. Кривенька качечка, или Еще раз о «трагедии Центрально-Восточной Европы»...
The study of legal terminology lacunae in the dynamic relations of languages and cultures
The paper reviews the issues of eliminating gaps (lacunae) in legal terminology in dynamics, describes certain stages in gradual introduction of some borrowed terms into professional and common language, and specifies the role of translation as an instrument of eliminating lacunae. Deeper insight into the process of borrowing new terminology results in a more adequate translation, and, consequently, contributes to a better understanding of terms by both lawyers and ordinary users.
1. Акопова Э...
The illocutionary aims of the positive-evaluative speech acts (in English artistic discourse)
The article analyses functional-semantic characteristics of the speech acts of positive evaluation in English artistic discourse. The article represents the taxonomy of the speech acts of positive evaluation and it includes the analysis of their illocutionary aims.
1. Апресян Ю. Д. Интегральное описание языка и система лексикографии // Избранные труды. М., 1995. Т. 2.
2. Арутюнова Н. Д. Типы языковых значений: Оценка. Событие. Факт. М., 1988.
3. Вольф Е. М. Функциональная семантика оценки. М., 2006...
Axiology of the everyday in language
The article focuses upon metonymic and metaphtonymic means of ‘the everyday’ category verbalization in the English and Russian languages.
(Крестьянкин). Проповеди 1973—1994 годов: в 2 т. М.; Псков, 1994. Т. 2.
. Грамматика цивилизаций. М., 2008.
Христовой Церкви цвет благоуханный. Жизнеописание преподобномученицы Великой Княгини Елисаветы Феодоровны. М.
. Толкование Евангелия. Свято-Троицкая Сергиева Лавра. 1913 (...
The Text and Discourse in the Light of Communicative Meaning Formation
This article analyses differences between the static and dynamic interpretations of the text and discourse. The concept of a communicative action (a semiotic act) is considered as the main distinguishing factor that is crucial for the communicative model of text but is ignored within the language model. The communicative (dynamic) model postulates the following: 1) the text is a sequence of verbal elements of communicative actions; 2) the verbal manifestation of an utterance differs fundamentally...
The “living” word in the light of modern cognitive studies (Dedicated to the anniversary of Alexandra Zalevskaya)
This article considers the key provisions relating to the nature and structure of the word in human mental space. The author distinguishes between the word as an asset of an individual (the “living” word) and the word as found in a dictionary. It is concluded that there is a dramatic difference between the mental lexicon and a dictionary as a lexico¬graphic unit.
1. Анохин К. В. Когнитом: в поисках общей теории когнитивной науки // Шестая международная конференция по когнитивной науке : тез. докл...
Metaphoric vectors of time
The article focuses upon cognitive foundations underlying the metaphoric conceptualization of time in the Anglo-American Weltanschauung. Special emphasis is put on basic image schemata underlying time perception and verbalization in the Old English, Middle English and Modern English periods. Lexicographic and textual data are drawn to exemplify cognitive shifts that bring about gradual transformation of the conceptual structure of time metaphors in the Modern English period. The pragmatic shift in...
Variability of stress in the past tense verbs, short participles and short adjectives
The study established a wide verb stress variety, and stated the ambiguity of their dictionary fixation. The authors consider the traditional opposition of feminine gender verb forms to the other gender verb forms as a stable trend. The authors also denote a new opposition of the neutral gender verbs, marked as acceptable younger norm, with the type of accent paradigm a/c 2, 3. Wide variatian is also observed in short passive participles, free stress participleforms are also common. A complex and...
Evolution of the special question in English (based on examples from the Gospel of John)
The article deals with the evolution of the special question in the English language of the 10th—16th centuries. The study is conducted using examples from three versions of the Gospel of John — the Wessex Gospels of the late 10th century, the Gospel of the Wycliffe Bible (the end of the 14th century) and the Gospel of Tyndale Bible (the beginning of the XVI century). The analysis focuses on the structural and formal aspects of the problem. To demonstrate language dynamics the author identifies specific...
Full and short personal names in Russian: a quantitative study
The paper presents a statistical study of the use of variant forms of Russian personal names. It is shown that Russian names can be divided into two classes: names with full and short forms contrast with names that only have one neutrally used form. For names that have a distinct short form, the frequencies of full and short forms can relate to each other in different ways. This depends on various factors, such as the length of the full name and the gender of its owner: for longer names and female...
Daniel Everett and Cultural Linguistics
This paper deals with the views of Daniel L. Everett as exemplified in his major works Don’t Sleep, There Are Snakes and Language: The Cultural Tool. The aim of this study is to analyse the connection of these works to various schools of thought and to examine the possible link with linguistic cultural studies. Everett’s definitions of language and culture are contrasted with those of various schools in linguistics. It should be noted that Everett does not appear to use the term linguistic worldview...
V. The hagiographic topic in I. S. Shmelev’s novel The Inexhaustible Chalice
In this article, we discuss the hagiographic topics in I. S. Shmelev’s novel The Inexhaustible Chalice, which are expressed through different components of the novel’s literary structure — ranging from the individual traits of the main character, Ilya Sharonov, to twists of the plot and the milestones of his biography. We maintain that in terms of the genre this novel resembles both the lives of the righteous and the lives of the venerable. The novel conforms to the canons of hagiographic texts because...
On the employment status of Andrei Bolotov in Königsberg
This article deals with Andrey Bolotov’s official employment status during his time in Königsberg (April 1758 — March 1762). The work considers the historiographic tradition originating from Bolotov’s memoirs, the Königsberg pages of which were written more than 30 years after the events described. Bolotov’s memoirs are compared with his correspondence of the time and the archival materials of the Russian administration of East Prussia during the Seven Years’ War. It is concluded that Bolotov’s status...
“The point of departure of peoples determines their fate”: Peter Chaadaev and Alexis de Tocqueville
In 1836, Peter Chaadaev in his private letter to Alexander Turgenev mentioned that the French thinker Alexis de Tocqueville had stolen from him a “deep thought” that the point of departure of peoples determined their fate. Russian and foreign scholars interpreted these words differently, trying to assess the seriousness of Chaadaev’s reproach. The article explores the history of the expression ‘le point de départ’ and the use of it in the works by Tocqueville (“Democracy in America”) and Chaadaev...
Discursive practices of the Russian diaspora in Estonia: language contacts
In this article, I use the concept of discursive practices to consider the speech practices of the Russian diaspora of Estonia. The findings of the study suggest the existence of an invariant discourse generated by an exemplary member of the diaspora. Such a discourse has formal (borrowings, code-switching, etc.), semantic (referential shifts, semantically re-oriented vocabulary, etc.), and pragmatic features. The results of the diasporic speech analysis show that the key components of a typical...