The Polish minority in the Republic of Lithuania: internal and external factors
The ethnic makeup of the population significantly affects the domestic policy of any state, and its relations with neighbouring countries. Although interactions with ethnic minorities are not as urgent a problem in Lithuania as they are in the two other Baltic States, ethnicity-related conflicts continue to occur, particularly, as regards the relations between the Lithuanian state and the Polish minority, which is the largest in the country. The Polish minority—Lithuania—Poland ...
The historical aspects and current issues of the development of Russian-Lithuanian economic relations
... ties with the Russian market. However, the initiatives of Lithuanian authorities did not result in successful state building, and the economic situation remained unchanged. The USSR leadership made an effort to improve the living conditions in post-war Lithuania. There were some mistakes made in the relations with the local population that resulted in Lithuanians’ resistance to sovietisation. However, in the conditions of post-war restoration of national economy and acute deficit of material and human ...
The Works of Modern Russian Historians and the Historiography of Medieval Lithuania before and after the Red October
This article examines the views of modern Russian scholars A. Dvornichenko, M. Krom, A. Filyushkin, and S. Mikhalchenko on the pre-revolutionary and Soviet historiography of medieval Lithuania. Chronological problem analysis constitutes the methodological framework of the study. Special attention is paid to the priorities of the Russian scholars in the analysis of the pre-revolutionary and Soviet Lithuanian studies. It is shown that ...
Human Resources of Post-war Lithuania and Their Role in the Rebuilding of Klaipeda
This article focuses on the issues of post-WWII economic restoration effort in the Soviet Lithuania. German occupation of the republic caused significant damage to its industry and agriculture. Pre-war Lithuania was an agrarian state aspiring to embark on an industrial-agrarian path of development. After the war, this aspiration did not only ...
Important Staging Sites of Geese and Swans in the Cross-Border Wetland Complex of the Neman Delta
... (Anser anser), Greater White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons), Lesser White-fronted Goose (Anser erythropus), Bean Goose (Anser fabalis), Whooper Swans (Cygnus Cygnus) and Bewick’s Swans (Cygnus bewickii) in the Neman River delta shared by Russia and Lithuania.The authors indicate the decrease in the population of Bean Geese alongside with the increase in the population of Greylag Geese, Whooper Swans, Bewick’s Swans and particularly Greater White-fronted Geese. This phenomenon is brought about ...
The formation of the political elite in Lithuania at the turn of the 1980s—1990s: the role of “moral politicians”
This article considers the trend of structural changes in the political elite of the Republic of Lithuania in the post-Soviet period through analyzing the role of the so-called “moral politicians” — intellectuals, artists, and cultural figures, who played a decisive role in the period of the communist system disintegration and further development ...
The Role of Small Countries in Post-Soviet Territorial Restructuring: the Baltic Case
... creating “conflict nodes” in the relations between major players. This is especially true in the case of states that do not bear responsibility for global stability.
1. Accord between the political parties represented in the Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania on strategic guidelines for the foreign, security and defence policy of the Republic of Lithuania for 2014—2020, 2014, Parliament of the Republic of ithuania, available at: http://www3.lrs.lt/pls/inter/w5_show?p_r=4028&p_d= 146140&p_k=2 (accessed ...
Lithuania of the 11th—14th centuries in the works of Russian historians of the 1850—1870s
The article analyses the works on the history of medieval Lithuania (11th—14th centuries) by I. D. Belyaev, K. N. Bestuzhev-Ryumin, N. I. Kostomarov and M. O. Koyalovitch. It focuses on Russian scholars’ perception of Lithuania in 1850—870. Employing the comparative historical method and content analysis,...
The Development of International Tourism in Lithuania: a Comparative Analysis of Regional Aspects
The processes related to the development of international tourism in Lithuania are of importance for the growth of economic, social, and cultural welfare. The increasing tourist and recreational attractiveness of such cities as Druskininkai, Trakai, Palanga, Vilnius, and Klaipeda to international tourists, as well as an ...
Geographic context of applying for grants from Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein and the use grant money in Lithuania in the framework of the “European Economic area (EEA)” and the “Norway” programmes
The article presents a geographic analysis of applying for grants and allocation of funds in the framework of the “European Economic Area” and “Norway” programmes in the territory of Lithuania in 2004-2009. Priority sectors of cooperation are identified.
Agency of Project Management, 2008. URL:
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Financial Mechanism and Norwegian Financial Mechanism website. URL:
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An analysis of exisitng research on the entomofauna of the Kaliningrad region
... // Вестник БГУ. 2001. Сер
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Lithuania // Acta Zoologica Lithuanica. 2007. Vol. 17, № 2. P. 105—115.
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Electric energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region and the role of Russia in it
... states despite earlier plans to establish the Baltic energy ring, which would also include Russia and Belarus. The author stresses that one of the most acute problems for the EU today is overcoming isolation of the energy systems of the Baltic States (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia) from that of the major part of the EU. This task has become especially relevant after the closing of the Ignalina NPP (Lithuania), which used to be the primary energy source for the three Baltic States. The article examines ...
Lithuania in Context of Eurointegration Processes: from Luxembourg to Helsinki
... author attempts to analyze the reasons for the division of the Baltic States into two negotiation groups as well as the developed mechanism of the acceleration of the preparation for the EU accession.
— Commission Opinion on Lithuania’s Application for Membership of the European Union. Brussels,15
July 1997. URL: http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/archives/pdf/dwn/opinions/lithuania/li-op_en.pdf
Herd. The Baltic States and the EU enlargement ...
After «the collapse of the empire»: British-American his-toriography of the first half of the 1990s on the parallels in the history of formation of the 20th century Lithuanian statehood
... differences between those movements. These scholars emphasize the ambiguity of the Soviet experience, as well as the internal conflicts within the Lithuanian political elite and demonstrate the productivity of the comparative approach.
1. Ashbourne A. Lithuania: the rebirth of a nation, 1991—1994. Lanham, 1999.
2. Espiritu A. A. Lithuania: from mobilization to revolution, 1988—90: thesis (MA) / University of Alberta. Alberta, 1992.
3. Klimas T. A comparison of the struggles for independence ...
The research and technology development in Lithuania and the prospects of research and technology cooperation between Lithuania and the Russian Federation
This article focuses on the present state and prospects of research and technology development in Lithuania. The authors focus on the main competitive innovation spheres (information technologies, biotechnologies, special purpose laser technologies) and analyse the principal lines of innovation policy and strategy. The article presents the results ...
The interaction between Lithuania and the USSR in 1920: disputable aspects
This article considers the vicissitudes of the Lithuanian — RSFSR negotiations in Moscow in the spring-summer of 1920. The author analyses the circumstances of the signing of the Moscow Peace Treaty between Lithuania and Soviet Russia on July 12, 1920 and focuses on the international response to it. The author pays special attention to the question of the character of Lithuania’s neutrality in the Soviet-Polish war in August-September 1920.
1. Документы ...
Modern Lithuanian foreign policy: the adjustment of traditional policy
... This objective is achieved with the help of an integrated approach with elements of interdisciplinary research. Special attention is paid to the comparative-historical approach, which facilitates the analysis of the relations between the Republic of Lithuania and the neighbouring states and its principal partners. Alongside traditional methods of historical research, this work employs such methods as participant observation, content and event analysis, and simultaneous and comparative analysis. The ...
Political reconsideration of the Soviet past: attitudes and actions of the Lithuanian elites
Different political elite groups of post-communist Lithuania offer different accounts of the Soviet past. Even twenty years later, after the collapse of communism Lithuanian politicians (with the exception of certain conservative anti-nostalgic leaders allied with some populists) still do not have a unified ...
Geopolitical transformation of the Kaliningrad oblast of the Russian Federation
... dienos: acta et commentationes Universitatis Vytauti Magni,
1 (10). P. 43—57.
Lopata R. Žalys V
. Lietuvos geopolitinis kodas //
1 (6). P. 13—21.
Lopata R. Sirutavičius V
. Lithuania and Kaliningrad Oblast: a Clearer Frame for Cooperation //
Lithuanian Foreign Policy Review
3. P. 51—66;
Political Science Yearbook
. Vilnius, 2000. P. 266—276.
Lopata R. Joenniemi P. Sirutavičius ...
The elite interaction in the post-Soviet Lithuania: the constitutional aspect
The article deals with the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania as a result of inter-elite struggles in post-Soviet period of different power groups.
1. Estonian Human Development Report. Baltic Way(s) of Human Development: Twenty Years On. 2010/2011. Eesti Koostöö Kogu. Tallinn. 2011.
2. Geddes ...
The history of Lithuania in the national historiography of the second half of the 19th — early 20th century
The article discusses developing pre-revolutionary national academic schools which studied of the history of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In the 18th — the first half of the 19th century the history of Lithuania was perceived by Russian scholars as “alien” and did not receive much interest. The situation changed after the “January Insurrection” (1863—1864): the ...
The image of medieval Lithuania in the historiography of the first half of the 19th century
This article considers the image of medieval Lithuania in the historiography of the first half of the 19th century. The author identifies the key components of the formation of perception of Lithuania in the historical discourse of the first half of the 19th century.
The features of the genesis of modern Lithuanian multiparty system
... Saarts T. Comparative party system analysis in Central and Eastern Europe: the case of the Baltic states // Studies of transition states and societies. Vol. 3, iss. 3.
3. Симонян Р. Х. Россия и страны Балтии. М., 2009.
4. Lithuania’s independence: the litmus test for democracy in the U. S.S. R. // Lithuanian quarterly journal of arts and sciences. 1991. Vol. 37, № 3.
5. Крупавичюс А. Партии и партийные системы в Балтийских ...
How did Lithuania draw up its present borders? Part II
The author analyses the process of the formation of Lithuania’s territory during the Soviet period of its history. Facts and factors influencing decisions on the territorial issues of Lithuanian statehood are considered through the prism of relations between the Soviet republics and the central authorities ...
Lithuania's Lonely Leadership 2.0.
... “export democracy”, has a narrow agenda and is implicitly geared towards curtailing the influence of its eastern neighbor. The escalation of violence and further development of social and economic crisis in Ukrane make a European-style reform (where Lithuania is a selfproclaimed expert) even less relevant, and confrontational rhetoric towards Russia may lead to economic losses and contribute to rising political tension in the region.
1. Brunalas, B. 2011, Liderstvo Litvy v regione: vozmozhnosti ...
Smirnov V. A. Political elites of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia: recruitment factors and structural dynamics. Monograph. Kaliningrad. IKBSU Publishing House, 2016
Smirnov, V. A. 2016, Political elites of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia: recruitment factors and structural dynamics. Monograph. Kaliningrad. IKBFU Publishing House.
Mezhevich Nikolai M.
Implementation of the INTERREG program in the Kaliningrad region and neighboring countries: a brief overview
As part of the study, the authors have considered the Interreg Programme as a tool for the cross-border cooperation development. The projects granted from «Russia — Lithuania» Interreg Cross-Border Cooperation (CBC) Programme 2014—2020 and «Poland — Russia» Interreg CBC Programme 2014—2020 have been the research subjects. The authors have identified the most active actors of cross-border cooperation from ...
On the potential and opportunities for cooperation between the Baltics in the field of innovations
This article compares the research and innovation potential of Russia in general, the Northwestern federal district and the Baltics (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia) and explores the opportunities for cooperation between the Russian Federation and the Baltics in the field of innovations. The authors identify possible areas of cooperation and describe its mechanisms.
1. Zverev, Yu. ...
The restoration of the political independence of Lithuania in the late 1980s-early 1990s: a historiographical review
... Vilnius, 1991.
19. Landsbergis V. Kryžkelė. Politiniai tekstai (1992-1994) ir šiek tiek atsiminimų.
20. Laurinavičius C., Lopata R., Sirutavičius V. Military transit of the Russian Federation
through the territory of the Republic of Lithuania. Vilnius, 2002.
21. Laurinavičius C., Sirutavičius V. Lietuvos Istorija. Sąjūdis: nuo ―Persitvarkymo‖ iki kovo 11-osios. 12 t., 1 d. Vilnius, 2008.
22. Lietuva 1940—1990. Okupuotos Lietuvos istorija. Lietuvos gyventojų genocide ir ...
“Russian Lithuania,” as seen by N. Ustryalov
This article analyses Nikolai Ustryalov’s concept of “Russian Lithuania,” which presents the history of medieval Lithuanian as part of the Russian past. The author examines the career of S. S. Uvarov – Minister of National Enlightenment in the 1830 – 1840s, as well as other factors behind the official narrative ...
The Vilnius issue in international relations: the historiography of the problem
... violation of the Suwałki Agreement. The author pays special attention to the positions of western powers, the decision of the Conference of Ambassadors on March 15, 1923, and the mediation of the League of Nations in the territorial dispute between Lithuania and Poland. The article considers the existing historiographical concepts and evaluations of the role of the Soviet diplomacy in the Vilnius issue. The author identifies new trends in the contemporary historiography of the Vilnius problem.
The political elite recruitment in the Baltic: the role of the ethnic factor
The role of the ethnic factor in political processes in Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia has been rather significant since these countries’ independence. The author investigates the assumption that after the completion of major Eurointegration procedures, the ethnic factor — which became especially important ...
Major infrastructure projects and the foreign policy of the Baltic states in 2010—2014
... litovskih gazet, Vil'njus [Overview of Lithuanian newspapers, Vilnius],2013, 30 October, Leta, available at: http://www.leta.lv/rus/news/baltics/1332CD69-70DE-CF33-7799-AC8414939868/ (accessed 22.08.2013).
4. Korrupcija v Litve nepobedima [Corruption in Lithuania invincible], 2008,News.TTS.LT, available at: http://news.tts.lt/?r=bootstrap%2Farticle§ion_id=4&article_id=3166 (accessed 23.12.2008).
5. Leo LT uhodit v proshloe [Leo LT thing of the past], Savaitės ekspresas, 2009,available at: http://www....
How did Lithuania draw up its present borders?
The article describes the formation of the national territory of Lithuania during the interwar period. The author compares factors, which affected the formation of the Lithuanian statehood, analyses the country’s relations with the neighbouring states and describes the Soviet-Polish and the Soviet- German relations....
Depopulation of coastal rural Lithuania: do regional parks stabilise the situation?
Regional parks in Lithuania preserve the most valuable physical and cultural components of the landscape, NATURA 2000 habitats, etc. Usually, they are located in natural or semi-natural landscapes of rural areas. These territories, however, have a higher depopulation rate ...
Local Border Traffic as a Form of Visa Liberalisation and Territorial Development
... The authors have conducted a brief historical analysis of this area of relations. The visa “regionalisation” is considered in the context of identifying the key actors of the EU — Russia negotiations: the Kaliningrad region, Germany, Poland, and Lithuania. In their analysis, the authors rely mostly on primary sources: intergovernmental agreements on simplified border traffic, border-crossing statistics for the Kaliningrad region in the framework of the local border traffic, expert interviews,...
On the prospects of cooperation between Russian and Lithuanian innovative sectors
... industrial potential of the country and aimed at creating the conditions for the development of science intensive industries, which extract a high surplus value, the authors consider the research and education and innovation sectors of the Republic of Lithuania — the closest neighbour of the Russian Federation in the North-West region. The analysis of competences of Lithuanian research and education sectors helped identify promising research and technology development areas in terms of innovation ...
The historical and national sources of the development of the modern Polish-Lithuanian conflict
This article analyzes the origins of the contemporary conflict generating Polish-Lithuanian relations. The authors consider the features of the Polonization of Lithuania and ensuing Russification in the second half of the 19th century, the problems of Polish-Russian relations during the interbellum (1918—1939) and the period of the post-war development of the two states. The authors come to a conclusion that ...
School education in Lithuania and the Lithuanian SSR (1920s—1950s)
The author considers the problems of schooling in the bourgeois Lithuania and later, in the Lithuanian SSR. On the basis of archival documents and statistical data that were unavailable in the Soviet period, the author analyses historiographical materials and studies the peculiarities of the education system, as well ...
Disinformation (fake news, propaganda) as a threat to resilience: approaches used in the EU and its member state Lithuania
... taken by the European External Action Service, is to expose fake news and the media spreading it. In combining adaptive and paternalistic paradigms of action in the information space, this approach employs a more static interpretation of resilience. Lithuania has adopted a third approach, which is dominated by the paternalistic paradigm and homeostatic resilience. This approach consists of the state isolating citizens from certain information. Thus, the popular use of the term ‘resilience’ in ...
Modernisation of education and research in Russia, Poland and Lithuania: a comparative analysis
This article compares the dynamics, content and character of education system modernization in Russia, Poland, and Lithuania. It is shown that the education systems of Russia, Poland, and Lithuania differ substantially in the secondary and higher education structure, sources of financing, and strategic development directions.
1. Prognoz nauchno-tehnologicheskogo ...
The Institutional Architecture of Territorial Innovative Systems: Towards a Spatially Targeted Regional Policy
... competitiveness of the entire system. Identifying the key elements of territorial capital is a global challenge faced by modern regional policy. I analyse the background for, and limits to, the development of a spatially targeted regional development policy. Lithuania’s so-called valleys – integrated centres for research and business — are a possible way to embrace the approach that suggests concentrating resources on breakthrough areas, which makes it possible to put local growth points on the international ...
An escape from the embrace of politics. A study into the cultures of remembrance as a means to encourage a historical dialogue in Lithuanian-Russian relations
... communication space as a case, the author emphasizes the need to develop an interest in mutual knowledge of cultures of remembrance in this space. Outlining the strategies specific to the prevailing cultures of remembrance in contemporary Russia and Lithuania, the author addresses the issue of their proper relationship, as well as that of the appropriateness of historical policy. The criminalisation of certain evaluations of the past and the academic dialogue between historians are regarded as two ...
The Role of Political Elites in the Development of Politics of Memory in the Baltic States
... Teleconference with historian Alexei Miller], 2015, Hefter, available at: http://gefter. ru/archive/14325 (accessed 26.02.2015).
18. Safronovas, V. 2009, O tendencijah politiki vospominanija v sovremennoj Litve [About memories policy trends in contemporary Lithuania], Ab Imperio: Studies of New Imperial History and Nationalism in the Post-Soviet Space, no. 3, p. 424—458.
19. Simonyan, R. H. 2009, Rossija i strany Baltii. Dve modeli social'nogo razvitija [Russia and the Baltic countries. Two models of ...
The concept of guerrilla warfare in Lithuania in the 1920—1930s
This article analyses the military and tactical training of the members of the Lithuanian Riflemen’s Union for guerrilla warfare in the interwar period. Small nations, such as Lithuania and other Baltic states, being unable to build up military strength in order to ensure national security, were forced to seek for unconventional methods of warfare, including guerrilla strategies. The study places emphasis on the development ...
Gas infrastructure development in the countries of East Baltic as a way to increase energy security
... Union will provide political and financial support to only one of these projects. The paper explores the role of gas and energy in the economy of the Eastern Baltic countries. The author concludes that the countries mostly dependent on Russian gas are Lithuania and Latvia. The announced LNG terminal projects are being reviewed in detail. Their necessity is estimated from the perspective of the current and future demand for natural gas, including the terms and conditions of contracts concluded with ...
The prospects of nuclear power development in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea region as a factor of the formation of international relations system in the region
... cooperation. The development of nuclear power in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea is indicative of the effectiveness of political and economic cooperation in the region. The author believes that Russia and the three Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have the economic and technological opportunities for building up cooperation in the field of energy. This points to a question whether the traditional patterns of relations that developed among these countries in the past can be changed. A ...
Cross-Border Cooperation in the Kaliningrad region: Problems and Prospects
Since the accession of Poland and Lithuania to the EU, the nature, forms and content of their border cooperation with the Kaliningrad region have fundamentally changed. There is a tendency towards strengthening the neighborhood policy. The already gained extensive and varied experience ...
The «Lithuania-Poland-Russia» neighbourhood programme in the framework of the formation of the cross-border tourism region in the South-eastern Baltic and the promotion of the sustainable development of the territory
The «Lithuania-Poland-the Kaliningrad region of the Russian Federation» (2004—2006) neighbourhood programme implemented in 2004—2009 and the « Lithuania — Poland — Russia: 2007—2013» programme being drawn up in 2010 identify tourism development as one of priorities, which does not only contribute to the increase in competitive advantages of the participating territories but also facilitates ...
Current problems in Russian-Latvian relations
Current relations between Russia and Latvia are still influenced by a series of mutual claims that appeared after the demise of the USSR. Latvia — as well as Estonia and Lithuania — is both an EU and NATO member state. However, unlike the above mentioned countries, its relations with Russia are developing at a more pragmatic level. Numerous political differences often result in economic losses both for Latvia and Russia....