Land Use Policy and Land Management in Estonia
... policy has led to the adoption of a new reform aimed at the municipalisation, privatisation, and denationalisation of real estate. The article describes mechanisms of the Romano-Germanic land management model, which has replaced the Soviet model in Estonia. It is shown that the model’s introduction has contributed to the development of the Republic’s land market and increased land use efficiency, in particular, in agriculture. There are positive trends towards land market development and an ...
Russian-Estonian relations: a medium-term forecast
This article shows why the non-existent political dialogue between Russia and Estonia will hardly develop in the next five years and why Estonia can lose its significance for the Russian foreign policy rhetoric and Russian mass media. This conclusion is drawn from a medium-term forecast about the changing role of Estonia in Russian ...
Discursive practices of the Russian diaspora in Estonia: language contacts
In this article, I use the concept of discursive practices to consider the speech practices of the Russian diaspora of Estonia. The findings of the study suggest the existence of an invariant discourse generated by an exemplary member of the diaspora. Such a discourse has formal (borrowings, code-switching, etc.), semantic (referential shifts, semantically re-oriented ...
The political elite recruitment in the Baltic: the role of the ethnic factor
The role of the ethnic factor in political processes in Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia has been rather significant since these countries’ independence. The author investigates the assumption that after the completion of major Eurointegration procedures, the ethnic factor — which became especially important in the Baltics after ...
Estonian Political Parties in the mid-2010s
The article provides an analysis of political party system of the Republic of Estonia in the mid-2010s. The analysis is based on the works of Moris Duverger. As one might expect, the establishment of proportionate electoral system in Estonia has resulted in the formation of a multi-party system, in which no single party dominates ...
The regional approach in the policy of the Russian Federation towards the Republic of Estonia
This author uses regionalism as a theoretical framework for analyzing the foreign policy of the Russian Federation towards the Republic of Estonia. Regionalism is interpreted as a situation, when a political leader’s beliefs change depending on what region of the world is considered. Leaders of great powers often assume that, for example, small European countries are subject to a treatment ...
Estonia’s party system today: electoral turbulence and changes in ethno-regional patterns
A well-developed party system has emerged in Estonia over the decades of independence. There are, however, distinct geographical patterns of voting. A number of new political parties have appeared in the country; the regional and ethnic patterns of voting (the latter matter much in Estonia) have ...
Russian-Estonian Economic and Investment Cooperation During the Crisis: Dynamics and Possibilities
... political and economic factors in the decision-making by Estonian government. A number of special aspects, trends and problems in trade and investment ties are detected. The aim of the study is to uncover key motivation behind the actions of both Russia and Estonia, to identify the drivers for economic and political development in the region, and to work out recommendations to adjust them. The questions put forward by the authors of this article could not be more topical at the time, when Russian economic ...
Party system nationalization in Estonia
... Estonians and ethnic Russians vote for the same political parties in comparable proportions or there are ‘Estonian’ and ‘Russian’ parties in the country. The analysis of the outcomes of four local and four parliamentary elections that took place in Estonia in 2005—2019 shows that by the mid-2000s Estonia achieved a considerable level of political party system nationalization at both national and local levels. At the national level, political party system nationalization remained high in 2007—2019 ...
The Development of International Tourism in Lithuania: a Comparative Analysis of Regional Aspects
... competitiveness on the international tourism market. Service standards applied in Lithuania at the international tourism market uphold and improve the image of Lithuania in the Baltic Sea region. The interregional cooperation between Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia in the field of international tourism development is based on the principle of public private partnership. It has been recently acknowledged that the three Baltic States form an integrating region in the field of international tourism and thus ...
Smirnov V. A. Political elites of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia: recruitment factors and structural dynamics. Monograph. Kaliningrad. IKBSU Publishing House, 2016
Smirnov, V. A. 2016, Political elites of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia: recruitment factors and structural dynamics. Monograph. Kaliningrad. IKBFU Publishing House.
Mezhevich Nikolai M.
The «(Un)Encapsulation» of the Political Elites of Latvia and Estonia and Russian-speaking Minorities
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The Baltic economic model: some results of the 1990—2015 transformations
... Argument o sovetskih migrantah v spore o kvotah na Evrokomissiju ne dejstvuet [Rumm H: The argument of Soviet immigrants in the debate about quotas for the European Commission does not act], Eesti Rahvusringhääling, available at: http://rus.err.ee/v/estonia/5c909cfb-3d92-4fa5-822e-8580d742d7bc (accessed 03.06.2015).
4. Sokol, Ju. 2015, Kristina Kallas: ne sleduet putat' bezhencev s immigrantami [Christina Kallas: refugees should not be confused with migrants], Eesti Rahvusringhääling, available ...
Local government reforms in Estonia: institutional context, intentions and outcomes
The local government reforms of 1989 and 1993 were intended to establish a dual pattern of central-local relations in Estonia. The choice of this model was inspired and supported by the Nordic states. Although the legal framework for local government has remained untouched since 1993, the introduction of institutional mechanisms for strong local autonomy was not a success....
On the potential and opportunities for cooperation between the Baltics in the field of innovations
This article compares the research and innovation potential of Russia in general, the Northwestern federal district and the Baltics (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia) and explores the opportunities for cooperation between the Russian Federation and the Baltics in the field of innovations. The authors identify possible areas of cooperation and describe its mechanisms.
1. Zverev, Yu. М., Batorshina, I. А....
On crisis trends in the legitimacy of the political regimes of the Baltic States
... analysing three major parameters: confidence in political institutions, level of corruption, and the development of their party systems. The author identifies the major crisis trends in the legitimacy of the political regimes of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. The article stresses the problem of legitimacy reproduction resulting from the limited representation of the national party systems. Special attention is paid to compensatory mechanisms used by political elites to ‘artificially’ reproduce ...
The potential for expanding inter-cluster cooperation between the ship-building industries of Estonia, Finland, and North-West Russia
The shipbuilding industry clusters in the Eastern Baltic Sea region, i. e. Estonia, Finland and North-West Russia, may benefit significantly from increased mutual cooperation; however, the international networks between the clusters are still poorly developed. The aim of this article is to analyse the preconditions for cluster ...
Kiseleva L. Estonian-Russian cultural space Foreword
1. Zverev, Yu. M., Mezhevich, N. M. Podhody k tipologii malykh evropeyskikh stran na primere Estonii, Latvii, Litvy [Approaches to the Typolocy of European Small Countries (Case of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania); — in Russian] // Polis (Russian Federation). — 2019. — No. 5. — P. 181—191.
2. Lanko, D. A. Istoricheskaya pamyat’ v epokhu globalizatsii: primer rossiysko-estonskih otnosheniy [Historical Memory in the Age of ...
Major infrastructure projects and the foreign policy of the Baltic states in 2010—2014
... integrated into both western and eastern dimensions.
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2. Korrumpirovannaja Pribaltika: Brillianty vlasti, samyj dorogoj most v mire i "skuchnaja" Jestonija [Corrupt Baltics: ...
Russia and the Baltic States: Some Results and a Few Perspectives
... Ülikooli Kirjastus.
10. Ilmyarv, М. 2012, Bezmolvnaja kapituljacija: Vneshnjaja politika Jestonii, Latvii i Litvy mezhdu dvumja vojnami i utrata nezavisimosti (s serediny 1920-h godov do anneksii v 1940) [Silent surrender: The foreign policy of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania between the two world wars and the loss of independence (since the mid-1920s to the annexation in 1940)], Moscow, ROSSPEN, 806 p.
11. Laar, М. 2005, Krasnyj terror: Repressii sovetskih okkupacionnyh vlastej v Jestonii [Red ...
Russian school in Estonia: is there a possibility to save it?
Gas infrastructure development in the countries of East Baltic as a way to increase energy security
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Multidimensional poverty in the Baltic States in the EU context: theoretical and practical aspects
... services. Despite the versatility and severity of multidimensional poverty in some European countries, this phenomenon has not been sufficiently explored in socio-economic studies carried out in the Baltic countries of the EU — Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia. This article aims to identify the characteristics of multidimensional poverty in the Baltic countries and the EU. Its objective is to examine the spread of multidimensional poverty in the Baltic countries and compare it to the situation on a ...
Nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region: the history of emergence and the political and economic features of its development
... rather young branch of national economy. However, over recent decades, it has already seen rises and falls, and a number of states have had tragic experiences of nuclear emergencies. Nevertheless, many countries — including the three Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania — express a strong interest in development, generation, and application of nuclear power. In the Baltic States, nuclear power dates back to the Soviet times, but its development was suspended pursuant to the EU regulations ...
Estimating the Development of the Latvian - Estonian - Russian Transboundary Tourism and Recreation Region
In 2004, the Pskov — Livonia Euroregion was established across the borders of Estonia, Latvia and Russia (the Pskov region). Tourism became a cooperation priority in the Euroregion. This necessitated research on the local tourism and recreation areas. This study aims to estimate the development prospects of transboundary microregions ...
The Role of Small Countries in Post-Soviet Territorial Restructuring: the Baltic Case
This author analyses the 2013 Lithuanian presidency of the EU in the context of the Ukrainian crisis and evaluates the contribution of Latvia and Estonia (the former Soviet republics set to preside over the EU in 2015 and 2018) to the shift in the power balance in the post-Soviet space. Through assessing the actions of small countries in promoting the Eastern Partnership programme with an emphasis ...
The prospects of nuclear power development in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea region as a factor of the formation of international relations system in the region
... politicisation of economic cooperation. The development of nuclear power in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea is indicative of the effectiveness of political and economic cooperation in the region. The author believes that Russia and the three Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have the economic and technological opportunities for building up cooperation in the field of energy. This points to a question whether the traditional patterns of relations that developed among these countries in the past ...
East Baltics: Economic Dilemmas of Security
This article considers military security in the Eastern Baltic. The research focuses on the economic sustainability of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania in the context of military spending. The authors maintain that an increase in military spending can either strengthen or weaken national economic and technological potential. In Germany or Sweden, military spending accounts ...
Russian soft power in the Baltic States through the lens of research: traditions, competition, confrontation
In this article, we aim to analyse the research discourse in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) as regards Russian soft power, which is considered as hard power, and to compare the theses that dominate this discourse with the actual interactions between Russia and the three states in media, education, and culture....
Economic activity of the leading religious organizations in Estonia
... regions and countries is dynamically changing and acquiring new characteristics. But these changes and the factors that determine them are not fully reflected in academic research. One of the least studied topics is the economic activity of confessions. Estonia is one of the few countries in the Baltic region where religion has not been a public institution until nowadays, therefore it hasn’t provided access to the financial records of its religious organizations.
At the same time, the population ...
The transformation of the Baltic countries’ political elites: general and specific features
... The thesis is put forward that despite some differences between the Baltic States their political elites have undergone very similar transformations since the 1990s. At the time, Baltic elites asserted continuity with pre-war Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia and detachment from the Soviet past. The 1990s elite struggle for power led to sharp ethnic, linguistic and political divides in Baltic societies. These rifts limit competition between power groups and reduce the ability of political systems to ...
The formation of the political elite in Lithuania at the turn of the 1980s—1990s: the role of “moral politicians”
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On the international cooperation of North-West Russia in the field of innovations in the Baltic
This article focuses on the cooperation between the constituent entities of the Northwestern Federal District of the Russian Federation and the Baltic countries (Finland, Estonia, and Norway) in the field of innovations at national and regional levels, as well as at the level of corporate cooperation. The author reviews successful implementation of innovation projects within cross-border and transnational cooperation programmes....
The Role of Political Elites in the Development of Politics of Memory in the Baltic States
... policy tool that not only serves the interests of the Baltic and Eastern European politicians, but also finds ideological supporters in Western Europe and the United States.
1. Astrov, А. 2009, Jestonija: politicheskaja bor'ba za mesto v istorii [Estonia: the political struggle for a place in history], Pro et Contra, no. 3—4, p. 109—124.
2. «Atmoda» skvoz' «perestrojku»: sjuzhety latvijskoj (anti)sovetskoj istorii v period raspada SSSR ["Atmoda" through "restructuring": ...
Key actors of German ‘soft power’ in the Baltics
This article focuses on Germany’s key ‘soft power’ actors promoting the country’s interests in the Baltics. The authors analyse the policies of ‘soft power’ aimed to create a positive image of Germany in Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. The article examines the activity of German political foundations, research institutions, communities, language centres, and scientific and cultural organisations. It is stressed that Germany makes use of the Baltics’ historical familiarity ...
Transformation of global value chains in Russia and the Baltics amid Covid-19: prospects for regionalization and implications for economic policy
... The Baltics-Russian bilateral trade conducted within global value chains (GVC) and operations of multinational companies is much more resistant to geopolitical and economic shocks than traditional international trade. In particular, the accession of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania to the EU and NATO in 2004 and the introduction of reciprocal EU-Russia sanctions in 2014 did not curb GVC activities between Russia and the Baltics. The article discusses factors in the transformation of the Baltics-Russian ...
The development of nationalist identities in the Baltics: The Latvian aspect
... component occupies a central place in today's political identification in Latvia. It is proved that major political groups and parties recognize and proclaim nationalist principles regardless of their basic ideology.
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2. Park A. Turning-points of post-communist transition: Lessons from the case of Estonia // Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences ...
Electric energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region and the role of Russia in it
... plans to establish the Baltic energy ring, which would also include Russia and Belarus. The author stresses that one of the most acute problems for the EU today is overcoming isolation of the energy systems of the Baltic States (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia) from that of the major part of the EU. This task has become especially relevant after the closing of the Ignalina NPP (Lithuania), which used to be the primary energy source for the three Baltic States. The article examines key projects of the ...
Population Ageing as a Sociodemographic Problem in the Baltic Region
... countries will continue to drive the dependency ratio up. This research aims to forecast dependency ratio in the Baltic region until the end of the century. A more detailed population analysis and forecast is provided for the case of the Baltic States — Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. The authors use Bayesian probabilistic predictions based on data from the Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Principle research methods include multi-factor simulation ...
Management of Trans-boundary Water Resources: Comparing Russian and American Experiences
... Pravitel'stvom Jestonskoj Respubliki o sotrudnichestve v oblasti ohrany i racional'nogo ispol'zovanija transgranichnyh vod. Soversheno v Moskve 20 avgusta 1997 g. [Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Estonia on cooperation in the conservation and management of transboundary waters. Done in Moscow on August 20, 1997], available at: http://voda.mnr.gov.ru/part/?act=more&id=459&pid=961 (accessed 11 December 2012).
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The features of EU energy strategy in the Baltic region
... formulate a common European energy policy. The 2004 EU enlargement posed the problem of taking into account the features of energy supply of Eastern European countries and, especially, the Baltic States. The energy industries of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, as well as other Eastern European and CIS countries, are closely related to the energy industry of the Russian Federation. Trying to allow for this circumstance, EU leaders and energy structures took a number of organizational measures aimed,...
Historical memory in the age of globalization: the case of Russian- Estonian relations
... actually made decision. The author expresses his gratitude to his counterparts from St. Petersburg State University and the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, as well as those from the Universities of Lund (Sweden), Tampere (Finland), and Tartu (Estonia) for their comments on the earlier versions of the article. At the same time, the author alone bears all the responsibility for the conclusions drawn in the article.
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The structure of political elite networks in the Republic of Poland in 1993—2013
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13. Agh, A. 1998, The Politics of Central Europe. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi, Sage Publications.
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15. Kirchanov, M. V. 2007, Latvija i strany Baltii: problemy diplomaticheskoj i politicheskoj istorii [Latvia and the Baltic States: the issue of diplomatic ...
Innovative economy in the Baltic Sea region
Innovative activity is carried out at three levels — those of the state, region and a company or a university. This article considers the level of development of knowledge-based economy in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland at each of the three levels, as well as descripes the spatial differentiation of innovative activity within the Baltic region. The analysis is done on the basis of national and international research, as well as ...
Current problems in Russian-Latvian relations
Current relations between Russia and Latvia are still influenced by a series of mutual claims that appeared after the demise of the USSR. Latvia — as well as Estonia and Lithuania — is both an EU and NATO member state. However, unlike the above mentioned countries, its relations with Russia are developing at a more pragmatic level. Numerous political differences often result in economic losses both for Latvia ...
The Russian language in modern Estonia: functioning, learning, features
This article summarises the observations of different authors about the modern condition of the Russian language in Estonia, outlines the emerging areas of research on the use of the Russian language and the features of language policy. The features of diaspora speech are described from the perspective of words and phrases, grammar indicators, language reflection, ...
Disease control and border lockdown at the EU’s internal borders during Covid-19 pandemic: the case of Finland
... ‘non-essential’ travel from non-Schengen countries such as Russia, China and Thailand but, with some exceptions, it also restricted travel-to-work commuting and everyday cross-border encounters between Finland and its Schengen neighbours of Sweden, Norway and Estonia. The restrictions hampered tourism and migrant-dependent industries as well as complicated the lives of migrants’ families. While the lockdown of the Estonian and Russian border does not cause any debates in Finnish society, the closure of the ...
Natural Increase in the Baltic South and South-West
This article analyses the natural population increase (decrease) in the postcommunist part of Baltic Europe (the federated state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, West Pomeranian, Pomeranian, and Warmian-Masurian Voivodeships, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, the Kaliningrad and Leningrad region, and the federal city of Saint Petersburg) in 2002—2011. The study uses standard methods of demographic analysis, the data provided by national statistical services and Eurostat. All regions analysed are ...
Economic Aspects of Russian-Baltic Relations in 2007—2008
Иванов испугал Латвию // Бизнес & Балтия. 2008. № 127 (3498).
2. Журнал «Балтийский курс».
Baltic States, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Russian-Baltic relations, Russian cargo transit, ports of the Baltic States.
An Assessment of the Economic Performance of the EU Baltic Region States
... influenced the economies of the Baltic Sea Region states in 1995—2015. The authors investigate changes in the economic performance of the developed (Germany, Denmark, Finland, and Sweden) and Eastern European countries (Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia) during the integration of the latter states into the EU. Performance dynamics is analyzed for eight EU Baltic Sea Region countries. Three Russian Baltic regions constitute a control group. The authors conduct a production-function-based comparative ...