An Assessment of the Economic Performance of the EU Baltic Region States
... influenced the economies of the Baltic Sea Region states in 1995—2015. The authors investigate changes in the economic performance of the developed (Germany, Denmark, Finland, and Sweden) and Eastern European countries (Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia) during the integration of the latter states into the EU. Performance dynamics is analyzed for eight EU Baltic Sea Region countries. Three Russian Baltic regions constitute a control group. The authors conduct a production-function-based comparative ...
The Baltic states before and during World War II: The dilemma of independence
This article considers the events of the 1930—1940s in the Baltics. The authors analyse changes in the political systems and international priorities of the ruling elites of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. The influence of domestic factors on solving the problem of independence preservation in the conditions of world war is identified.
1. Anušauskas A. Teroras ir nusikaltimai žmoniškumui. Pirmoji sovietinė okupacija. Terror and Crimes against ...
The territorial differentiation of demographic development of the Baltic macroregion
... Bureau of Latvia.
(дата обращения: 10.10.2010).
Statistical Office. URL:
Office of Estonia. URL:
Legal regime for church property in Russia and the Baltic states
... the similarities and differences between the legal regulation of the state/denomination relations regarding church property, as well as the economic component of these relations. We analyse the regulatory documents of Russia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia that enshrine the transfer (return) of the church property, which was seized illegally in the first Soviet years in Russia and during the incorporation of the Baltic republics into the USSR, to the religious organisations. We compare the restitution,...
Inclusive education in Russia and the Baltic countries: a comparative analysis
In this study, we examine the current state and prospects of inclusive education for learners with special needs and disabilities in the countries of the Baltic region (Poland, Sweden, Germany, Denmark, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Norway, and Russia). We present a SWOT analysis of the development of inclusive education in different countries and analyse its strengths and weaknesses, risks, threats, and challenges from a political, economic, and technological perspective....
The The Variability of Bottom Friction Velocity and the Suspended Particle Propagation along the Pathway of Saline Inflow into the Baltic Sea
... propagation pathways.
1. Blumberg A. F., Mellor G. L. A Description of a Three-Dimensional Coastal Ocean Circulation Model. Washington, DC, 1987.
2. Männik A., Merilain M. Verification of different precipitation forecasts during extended winter-season in Estonia // HIRLAM Newsletter. 2007. Vol. 52. P. 65—70.
3. Журбас В. М., Элькен Ю., Вяли Г. и др. Пути переноса взвешенных частиц в придонном слое Южной Балтики в зависимости ...
The theory of peripheral capitalism: on the applicability of the Latin American model to the Baltic States. An attempt at an inter-disciplinary analysis
... consequences of the trends that are just emerging in the Baltics. This article seeks to prove the above thesis.
Maksimtsev, I. A., Mezhevich, N. M., Sirota, N. P.
transit, transformation, modernisation, theory of peripheral Latin American capitalism, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania
After «the collapse of the empire»: British-American his-toriography of the first half of the 1990s on the parallels in the history of formation of the 20th century Lithuanian statehood
... T. A comparison of the struggles for independence of the United States and Lithuania // Lituanus. 1993. Vol. 39, № 3. URL: http://www.lituanus.org/1993_3/93_3_01.htm (дата обращения: 01.03.2013).
4. Lieven A. The Baltic revolution. Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and the path to independence. New Haven ; L., 1994.
5. Nørgaard O. et al. The Baltic States after independence. Cheltenham ; Lyme, 1997.
6. Raun T. V. Baltic independence, 1917—1920 and 1988—1994: comparative perspectives....
On the models of modern research and education pol-icy in the Baltic region states
This article provides a comparative analysis of the mechanisms of education policies pursued by the governments of Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. The authors identify similarities and differences in the funding mechanisms, direction of reforms, the role of education system modernization in the innovative development of the Baltic Sea region, and the mechanisms of technological development ...
Russian foreign trade and integration processes in the Baltic region
... Development of the National Economy of
: Ministry of Economy
Statisticzny. Warszawa, 1995.
of Estonia.URL: www.stat.ee
Sea States. Warszawa, 1995.
Political elite networks in Latvia and their transformation in 1993-2014
... Methodology. 1989. № 19. P. 89—126.
3. Higley J., Burton M. Elite Foundations of Liberal Democracy. Boulder, 2006.
4. Knoke D. Political Networks: the Structural Perspective. Cambridge University Press, 1990.
5. Lieven A. The Baltic Revolution: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and the Path to In¬de¬pendence. New Haven ; L., 1994.
6. The New Democracies in Eastern Europe: Party Systems and Political Cleavages. Aldershot, 1994.
7. Wasserman S., Faust K. Social Network Analysis: Method and Application....
The features of the genesis of modern Lithuanian multiparty system
....) // Политические элиты в старых и новых демократиях // под ред. О. В. Гаман-Голутвиной, А. П. Клемешева. Калининград, 2012.
13. Lieven A. The Baltic revolution: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and the path to Independence. Yale University Press. L., 1994.
14. Zeruolis D. Lithuania // The handbook of political change in Eastern Europe. 1998.
15. Lukošaitis А. Moderniosios partinės sistemos formavimosi etapai ...
The instruments of Russia — EU research and technological co-operation in the sphere of innovations
... September 2012).
3. Baltic Sea Region Programme 2007—2013, available at: http://www.eu.baltic.net (accessed 21 September 2012).
4. Developing EXcellence — DEX, available at: http://www. dex. leontief. net/kolar. htm (accessed 20 September 2012).
5. Estonia — Latvia — Russia Cross Border Cooperation Programme, available at: http://www. estlatrus. eu/eng/programme/about_the_programme/objective_ amp_priorities (accessed 20 September 2012).
6. Lithuania-Poland-Russia ENPI Cross-border Cooperation ...
Some features of external migration processes in the coastal regions of the Western borderlands of Russia
... migration-wise with other russian regions and foreign countries, and are characterized by increased migration efficiency. A distinctive feature of the migration geography is intense migration turnover with neighboring countries: first of all, Finland, Estonia and Norway. The coastal position becomes an attractive factor for all the studied regions, except for the northern ones. The border can also affect the migration adversely both in the northern regions, and in the Leningrad region, St. Petersburg....
The political success of the Baltic People’s Fronts as a result of the 1989—1990 elections
... Douglas R. W. A little corner of freedom: Russian nature protection from Stalin to Gorbachеv. Los Angeles, 1999.
24. Keller B. Lithuanians rally for Stalin victims // New York Times. 1987. 24 Aug.
25. Taagepera R. A note on the March elections in Estonia // Soviet studies. 1990. Vol. 42, № 2. Р. 329—339.
elections, popular front, Perestroika, USSR, Baltics
A comparative assessment of the innovation potential of the Baltic Sea region countries
... lv/index. php?lang= EN&id=186> (Accessed 25 January 2011).
18. Research activities. 2009. Statistical bulletin (in Lithuanian and English).
19. RUSSIAN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AT A GLANCE: 2009. DataBook.Moscow: CSRS.
20. Statistic Estonia. [online] Available at: <http://www. stat. ee/29990>(Accessed 10 February 2011).
21. UNESCO SCIENCE REPORT 2010. 2010. The Current Status of Science around the World. UNESCO.
Baltic region, Baltic region sates,...
Transborder corporate integration in the Baltic Sea Region
The paper examines flows of foreign direct investment within the Baltic region. The author demonstrates close investment ties among the EU members, which are of special importance for Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Transborder corporate integration in the region is characterized by significant imbalances. In many aspects, it can be viewed as Sweden’s economic expansion or development of domestic markets for northern European companies....
The ethnic aspects of demographic processes in the Baltic region states
... (Jestonii, Latvii, Litvy, Kaliningradskoj oblasti Rossii) v XIX—XX vv. (1795—2000 gody). Moskow.
14. Smith, G. 2005. Latvia and Latvians // The Nationalities Question in the Post-Soviet States. London, pp. 147—169.
15. Immigrant Population in Estonia. 2009. Tallinn.
16. Latvijas Statistika. [online] Available at: <http://www.csb.gov.lv>
(Accessed 25 Oktober 2010).
17. Nacional'nyj sostav naselenija RSFSR po dannym VPN 1989 goda. 1990.Moskow.
18. Lietuvos Statistikos departamentas....
The Baltic policy of Germany and current international relations
... region in the 1990s, when the country was establishing political, economic, and cultural ties with the new independent states. In the second half of the 1990s, Germany’s foreign policy became less intense. After the accession of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia to the EU and NATO in 2004, certain disagreements started to arise between Germany and the Baltics. It explains the lukewarm relations between them. The Ukraine events brought about a change in Germany’s regional policy. Despite Russia remaining ...
Land Use Change and Economics of Land Degradation in the Baltic Region
... of soil erosion risk in Poland, available at:
% 20Poland.pdf (accessed 10.04.2016).
12. Reintam, L., Karblane, H., Petersell, V. 2000, Short report on SOVEUR status in Estonia, Batjes N and Bridges E Implementation of a Soil Degradation and Vulnerability database for Central and Eastern Europe, FAO and ISRIC, Rome, Italy.
13. Reynolds, J. F., Smith, D. M. S., Lambin, E. F., Turner, B. L., Mortimore, M., Batterbury, ...
Construction of transport and energy networks in the Baltic region as an impetus for regional development
... Executive Agency, available at: http://tentea.ec.europa.eu (accessed 14 July 2013).
15. The European Union’s Baltic Sea Region Programme 2007—2013, available at: http://eu.baltic.net (accessed 25 May 2013).
16. The second cable connection between Estonia and Finland, available at: http://www.estlink2.elering.ee/en (accessed 14 April 2013).
Kuznetsov Alexey, Olenchenko Vladimir
Transport networks, energy networks, Baltic Region, EU Cohesion Policy, regional policy, regional development
Political reconsideration of the Soviet past: attitudes and actions of the Lithuanian elites
... Notion of Social Justice is Quasi-Absent from the Public Discourse in Post-Communist Lithuania, Journal of Baltic Studies, Vol. XXXVII, no. 4, p. 388—411.
8. Matonyte, I. 2009, Ex-nomeklatura and ex-dissidents in the post-communist Parliaments of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland, Viesoji politika ir administravimas, no. 29, p. 28—40.
9. Matonyte, I. 2013, «Elites» Games in the Field of Memory: Insights from Lithuania’. In: Mink, G. Neumayer, L. (eds.) History, Memory and Politics ...
Russia’s energy geostrategy in the Baltic Sea region
This article explores Russian energy policy in the Baltic Sea region in the context of the world energy market globalization. The study focuses on the three Baltic States — Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia — which have a similar geographical location and history. The dynamic development of the region as a whole is strongly influenced by the stability of energy supply in each state. The article analyses the role Russia plays in the energy policy ...
Forecasting Actions of Baltic elites: A Scenario Approach
... Future Security Environment Richard, Diplomaatia, no. 113/114.
29. Winnerstig, M. 2014, Tools of Destabilization Russian Soft Power and Nonmilitary Influence in the Baltic States, FOI.
Smirnov V. A.
political elite, Baltic States, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, forecast, scenario approach
Economic and Geographical Structure of the Baltic Sea region
The Baltic Sea region is one of the most developed transnational regions. It comprises the coastal areas of Russia, Germany, and Poland and the entire territories of Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. New spatial forms of international economic cooperation develop in the region. The region is not homogeneous in terms of socioeconomic development, thus there are certain differences in the areas and the intensity of international cooperation....
The Baltic Finnish Peoples Divided by State and Administrative Borders: Territorial Development of the Karelians, Vepsians, and Setos
... peoples living in the Russian North-West and divided by borders of different levels: Karelians (Finland, the Republic of Karelia, and the Leningrad and Tver regions), Vepsians (the Republic of Karelia and the Leningrad and Vologda regions), and Setos (Estonia and the Pskov region). The analysis is based on the cartographic and statistical demographic data, as well as the results of a complex expedition made in summer 2014 in the Pechory district of the Pskov region. The results of the study show that ...
Countries of the Baltic Region in the Global Culinary Space
... influential in the region than the local ones. Some countries of the Baltic Sea region (Russia, Poland, Sweden, Latvia, and Denmark) have culinary sovereignty, since their residents prefer national cuisines. In some other countries of the region (Finland, Estonia, and Lithuania), the public favours the world’s leading cuisines — Italian, Japanese and American — over the local ones. The non-capital Baltic cities of Poland and Germany, as well as St. Petersburg, display a greater sense of culinary ...
Geopolitical and Geo-economic Changes in the Baltic Sea Region at the Turn of the XX—XXI centuries
... (Sweden, Finland, Denmark and Germany). Only two of them were members of NATO and the EU (Germany and Denmark). At present, there are eight EU countries in the region; six of them are NATO members (Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia), and the same two countries, Sweden and Finland, remain outside the bloc. Russia, the legal successor of the USSR, is neither a NATO, nor an EU member. The authors explore similarities and differences between countries of the Baltic Sea region ...
Twin cities: a new form of cross-border cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region?
... Copenhagen Business School, p. 53—65.
17. Lundén, T. 2007, Border agglomerations in the Baltic area: obstacles and possibilities for local interactions, Geographica Helvetica, Vol. 62, no. 1, p. 22—32.
18. Lundén, T. 2009, Valka-Valga, Narva-Ivangorod. Estonia’s Divided Border Cities. In: Janczak, J. (ed.). Conflict and Cooperation in Divided Cities, Berlin, Logos Verlag, p. 133—149.
19. Pikner, T. 2008, Evolving cross-border urban networks. Case studies in the Baltic Sea area, Nordia Geographical ...
The European Union Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region and accomplishments
... geopolityki. In: Parteka, T. (ed.), Wymiar europejski Regionu Morza Bałtyckiego, Studia KPZK PAN, Tom CXXIX, Warszawa, p. 39—58.
14. Toptsidou, M., Böhme, K. 2018, EUSBSR after 2020: Governance remastered? Final report, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Estonia and Interreg Baltic Sea Region, Publication for the preparation of the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region 9th Annual Forum, The European Union Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region, available at
The Evolution of Settlement Areas of Ingrian Finns in Northwest Russia in the Second Half of the 20th Century
22. Eesti rahvastik rahvaloenduste andmetel, 1995, I. Tallinn, Eesti statistikaamet, 263 lk.
23. Rahvastiku koostis ja korteriolud, 1935, 1.III 1934 rahvaloenduse andmed. Vihk II. Tallinn: Riigi statistika keskbüroo, VIII, 151 lk.
24. Statistics Estonia, available at: http://pub.stat.ee (accessed: 12.04.2014).
25. Statistics Centre of Finland, available at: URL: http://tilastokeskus. fi (accessed: 12.04.2014).
Ingrian Finns, ethnic settlement, Russian Northwest
Saint Petersburg as a Global Coastal City: Positioning in the Baltic Region
The Baltic region consists of coastal areas of nine countries — Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. The region’s hubs are the port cities located along the Baltic Sea coast. However, Peter Taylor and Saskia Sassen’s classification identifies higher status cities and ‘global ...
Latvia in the System of European Territorial Security: a View from the Inside and Outside
... University of Copenhagen, 343 p.
4. Morgenthau, H. 1993, Politics among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace, New York, McGrow-Hill, 419 p.
5. Lanko, D. 2013, The regional approach in the policy of the Russian Federation towards the Republic of Estonia, Balt. Reg., no. 3, p. 37—45. DOI: 10.5922/2079-8555-2013-3-4.
6. Fedorov, G. М. 2010, Region kak territorial'naja sistema [Region as a territorial system], Vestnik Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, no. № 1, p. 20-27.
The restoration of the political independence of Lithuania in the late 1980s-early 1990s: a historiographical review
... atstatymo. 1990.03.11 // Lietuvos Aukščiausiosios Tarybos ir Vyriausybės žinios. 1990. 03. 31. № 9-222. Р. 286.
34. Lietuvos suvereniteto atkūrimas 1988-1991 metais // Anušauskas A. ir kit.Vilnius, 2000.
35. Lieven A. The Baltic Revolution. Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and the Path to Independence.New Haven; London, 1993.
36. Miškinis G. Economic and Commercial Relations between Lithuania and Russia// Lithuanian Foreign Policy Review. 2000. № 2 (6). P. 87—99.
37. Nekrašas E. Kritiniai ...
The Institutional Architecture of Territorial Innovative Systems: Towards a Spatially Targeted Regional Policy
... centres (Valleys). URL:
(дата обращения: 15.04.2018).
34. Mole R. The Baltic States from the Soviet Union to the European Union: identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Routledge, 2012.
35. Pinch S., Henry N., Jenkins M., Tallman S. From ‘industrial districts’ to ‘knowledge clusters’: A model of knowledge dissemination and competitive advantage in industrial agglomerations // J....
The Vilnius issue in international relations: the historiography of the problem
... Grodis, A. 2008, Lietuvos politinių partijų į Lenkiją 1920—1926 metais: nuo modus vivendi paieškų iki nuolatinės konfrontacijos, Lietuvos istorijos studijos, no. 2, p. 37—57.
27. Rauch, G. 1987, The Baltic States: The years of independence. Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, 1917—1940, London.
28. Cesarz, Zb. K. 1993, Polska a Liga Narodów: kwestie terytorialne w latach 1920—1925: studium prawno-polityczne, Wrocław.
29. Čepėnas, P. 1986, Naujųjų laikų Lietuvos istorija, P. 2, Chicago....
The Baltics on Their Way towards a Circular Economy
... into the transition stage the Baltic States are undergoing today on their way to circular economy. It is stressed that the Baltic countries are not fully using the opportunities offered by a circular economy. For example, Latvia’s, Lithuania’s, and Estonia’s recycling rates are significantly below those of other European countries. The Baltics depend heavily on EU financial support. An increase in funding will contribute to the implementation of circular economy technologies.
1. Avramenko, ...
Project approach in transboundary tourism-and-recreation region building: the case of Karelia
... Latvian-Estonian-Russian cross-border tourism and recreation region, Pskovskii regionologicheskii zhurnal, no. 3 (31), p. 104—118 (in Russ.).
3. Manakov, A. G., Golomidova, E. S. 2018, Cross-border tourist and recreational regions in the adjacent territories of Russia, Estonia and Latvia, Geograficheskii vestnik [Geographical Bulletin], no. 2 (45). 156—166 (in Russ.).
4. Manakov, A. G., Golomidova, E. S. 2018, Estimating the Development of the Latvian-Estonian-Russian Transboundary Tourism and Recreation Region, Balt....
Security in the Baltic region as a Projection of Global Confrontation between Russia and the USA
....ru/what/mann/ (accessed 21.11.2016). (In Russ.)
5. Grėsmių nacionaliniam saugumui vertinimas, 2016, available at:
6. Estonian Information Board «International Security and Estonia, 2016, p. 9, available at:
7. Stent, A. 2015, Pochemu Amerika i Rossiya ne slyshat drug druga. Vzglyad Vashingtona na noveishuyu istoriyu rossiisko-amerikanskikh otnoshenii ...
Geography of inbound tourism and transboundary tourism-and-recreation region-building in Sweden
... Borders in tourism: the transformation of the Swedish-Finnish border landscape, Current Issues in Tourism, vol. 13, no. 3, p. 223—238. doi: 10.1080/13683500902990528.
24. Manakov, A. G., Chuchenkova, O. A., Ivanov, I. A. 2019, Geography of tourism in Estonia in the context of cross-border tourism and recreation region formation, Pskovskij regionologicheskij zhurnal [Pskov Journal of Regional Studies], no. 4 (40), p. 80—95. doi: 10.37490/S221979310010191-3 (In Russ.).
25. Manakov, A. G., Kondrateva,...
Innovation Capacity of Russia and the Baltics: a Comparative Approach
... development in Russia and the Baltic Sea countries based on the calculation of an integral research and technological potential index for the Russian Federation, the Northwestern Federal District of Russia, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Germany, Poland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia. The paper describes the level of research and technological development of Russia in 2008—2010 in terms of human resources, R&D, material and technical components, and the transformation capacity of innovative potential....
Coalition Within a Coalition: The Baltics in the European Union
... asymmetric strategy makes it possible for small powers to advance their interests within alliances and save resources. The authors test this hypothesis on the behaviour of the Baltics in the European Union. It is demonstrated that Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia have created a stable small coalition within the EU and actively form ad hoc alliances with the leading states to push union-level decisions, as it was the case with settling the migrant issue. In other areas, these states tend to benefit from ...
Cross-Border Tourist Routes: The Potential of Russia’s North- West
... Economic Development ofRussia, available at:
(accessed 14.02.2017). (in Russ.)
35. Rumyantsev, P. Marshruty druzhby: Latviya EHstoniya Rossiya [Routes of the friendship Latvia Estonia Russia], available at:
(accessed 18.11.2016).(in Russ.)
36. Stepanova, S. V. 2016, General Trends and Features of Tourism Infrastructure Development in Russia’s ...
Approaches to the Definition of the Baltic Sea Region
... a broad one, each serving a different purpose and being characterised by a different density of internal connections. According to the narrow definition, the region comprises the whole territories of Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia and the coastal parts of Russia, Germany, and Poland. The extended definition adds the remaining part of Poland, most Russian and German regions, and Belarus and Norway. The broad definition of the Baltic region incorporates Iceland, some territories ...