The thinking of nature and the nature of thinking — Cohen on Spinoza
The author tries to prove the thesis that Cohen's reception of Spinoza's thought is character-ized by a sequence of what we can find in the whole philosophical system of Marburg Neo-Kantian. Fluctuations in Cohen's interpretation of Spinoza's theoretical constructs correspond to a progres-sive refinement of his own philosophical system project. This research does not aim to shed new light on the wide panorama presented approaches and points of view on the attitude of Cohen to Spinoza, which has not yet studied its aspects are ex-tremely diverse, and because of his interpretations more enriched; it is more a question of fact, to shed light on some aspects of this panorama. Thus, the author does not go into details, "the case of Spinoza," as Cohen let himself be called a tough confrontation with Spinoza against Jewish under-standing — about this "case" there are quite a number of studies. Even less in the study will be discussed on the consideration of personal stories. So here it draws attention to the following topics: the nature of thinking and thinking of nature. Conducted by the author analysis allows to understand the main causes of a Cohen’s critical attitude to Spinoza. Spinoza's pantheism, according to Cohen, leads to various unacceptable conse-quences: identification of ethics as metaphysics, which is referred to as an ontology and rests on a false identity, the disappearance of the very possibility of ethics is no difference between being of nature and being of obligation, the opposition against finalism in the name of necessary natural laws. Therefore, we are talking about thinking that even in small things not engaged in scientific idealism and therefore far from the critical philosophy of Cohen. In the philosophy of Spinoza saw Cohen ontological metaphysics, which is based on the erro-neous principle of identity. It cancels the possibility of the ethics as prevents the existence of nature distinguished from being of obligation, and over which dominates the necessity of natural laws. This distinction and the union of logic and ethics for Cohen is equally necessary and complemen¬tary. This fundamental principle of critical idealism overcomes Spinoza's pantheism, the reducing ethics to logic and devastating importance of ethics and logic through the metaphysics of identity of the divine substance.
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