International cooperation in ecology and environmental protection
Russian-German research and academic cooperation in the ArcticAbstract
This article is dedicated to the stages of development of international research cooperation in the framework of research and education projects focusing on the study of marine and polar territories of the Russian Federation and the Federative Republic of Germany. The largest and most stable projects are the establishment of the Russian-German laboratory of polar and marine research named after the Russian polar explorer of German origin, Otto Schmidt, — OSL — on the premises of AARI, the Russian-German education project — the Applied polar and marine studies master's programme (POMOR) — implemented by the Russian and German partners at Saint Petersburg State University, and the Laptev Sea system research programme bringing together around 20 Russian and German organisations.
A methodology for research on international cooperation on marine environment protection: application of the Baltic Sea practices to the northern seasAbstract
This article is dedicated to the methodology for the study of international cooperation on marine environment protection. The author suggests applying the practices of marine environment protection in the Baltic Sea to the northern seas as well as examining earlier projects for the effective implementation of interdisciplinary initiatives bringing together international law, international relations and world politics.
The problem of biodiversity: the geohistorical approachAbstract
This article tackles the problems of the biodiversity parameter evolution from the geo-historical perspective. The authors come to a conclusion about the prevalence of global terrestrial and cosmic factors in the development of biosphere processes. On the basis of the biogeochemical approach to the biosphere evolution, the authors could identify the principal stages of its development from the ancient times to the modern epoch and refute the postulate of Leibniz (‘nature makes no leaps’).
The response of different plant life forms to natural environment changesAbstract
This paper contains test results revealing norm and stress reactions of various life-form plants: trees — Betula pendula Roth, Tilia platyphyllos Scop., Pinus sylvetris L; water-plant -Galium palustre L.; grass — Solidago Canadensis; cereal — Secale cereal L. Collection and processing of the material was made in the area of Berlin/Brandenburg, Germany. Clark sensor-based method made it possible to determine the amount and rate of the oxygen evolution by plants in the dark and light phase. Under the reaction norm the average amount of the oxygen evolved and the average rate of metabolism processes during dark and light phases are changing simultaneously. Parabolic and periodic dependences of these changes during the vegetation period has been found. Under the stress reaction (drought, illness) the rate of metabolism dark reactions is increased by 2—3 times as compared with light reactions. The obtained results may be use for bioindication of the climate change in the Baltic Region.
The environmental problems of the Baltic Sea basin
The main environmental problems of the Baltic Sea and the ways to solve themAbstract
The Baltic Sea is a unique ecological system, an integral part of the global ecological system, which is in urgent need of protection from destructive anthropogenic impact stemming from the production and consumption of nuclear energy and artificial radionuclides, agriculture, oil and oil product transportation, and sewage and solid waste treatment. The article outlines the main environmental problems of the Baltic Seas and the ways to solve them.
An assessment of the potential impact of the construction of a deepwater seaport on the hydrological regime of the Vistula lagoonAbstract
This article focuses on the level fluctuation in the Vistula Lagoon. In view of the planned construction of a deepwater seaport in its waters, the author emphasizes the negative impact on its hydrological regime: rise in the levels which could lead to the flooding of the territories adjoining the mouth of the Pregolya river, increase in salinity, extinction of hydrobionts, and destruction of the ecological systems.
Anthropogenic transformation of the ecosystem
The basic patterns of the distribution, migration and accumulation of radionuclides in the bottom sediment of the Baltic SeaAbstract
This paper focuses on the impact of certain factors on the contemporary distribution of natural (226Ra, 232Th, 40К) and anthropogenic (137Cs, 60Co) radionuclides in the sediments of the Baltic Sea. The results of the study suggest that the distribution of 137Cs is determined by the content of hydromica of silty-clay and clay grain-size fractions, while radiocaesium is mainly accumulated by silty fractions. The accumulation of 226Ra by bottom sediments is mainly determined by the pH geochemical barrier at the water-seafloor boundary. The accumulation of 232Th occurs mainly in clayey fractions of the sediment. The distribution and accumulation of 40K is predominantly determined by the ratio of potassium contained in hydromica minerals. Significant 60Co activity was registered only in a few samples.
The characteristics of the biogenic element of the runoff fr om the drainage areas of the Gulf of Finland basin experiencing a lim ited anthropogenic impactAbstract
This article analyses characteristics of 25 rivers of the Gulf of Finland basin where the monitoring of the streamflow chemical composition was performed. The authors consider the dynamics of biogenic element content in the streamflow, the relation of the drainage areas to certain landscapes, the share of agricultural lands and tillage in the drainage areas, the forest-land percentage, a rural population density, and the forest age and type.
The geochemical characteristics of the bottom sediment in the pockmark area of the eastern part of the Gulf of FinlandAbstract
It is the first time pockmark-like structures have been detected in the south-eastern part of the Gulf of Finland with the help of a side-scan sonar and a profile recorder. The analysis of the distribution of microcomponents in the bottom sediment indicates that the pockmark area is located in the geochemical barrier border zone where the reducing medium of the incoming mineralized solution meets the highly oxidizing sea water medium. The hydrodynamic and geochemical processes in the pockmark zone create focal areas of anomalous microenvironment and affect the composition and development of benthos.
The groundwater monitoring in the Novgorod region in the system of regional nature managementAbstract
This article examines the current state of the groundwater system monitoring in the Novgorod region. The groundwater monitoring observations serve as the basis for prediction assessment of water resources. The efficiency of water resource management largely depends on the comprehensiveness and reliability of information on the groundwater condition.The existing groundwater monitoring system has proven to be incapable of fully implementing its functions. It requires a fundamental reorganization and further development at the contemporary scientific and technical level, since groundwater resource management is impossible without a quantitative forecast of groundwater condition and properties.From the perspective of rational Nature management, the leading ecological function of underground hydrosphere is carried out by fresh underground waters. Rational Nature management underlies the sustainable development of the Northwest region, which is economically viable for the European territory of the country.
Socioeconomic aspects of sustainable territorial development
The territorial cohesion as the basis for a balanced territorial policy in the Kaliningrad regionAbstract
The territorial cohesion concept became a key priority of the European spatial development policy due to the growing awareness of the role of geography in ensuring sustainable regional development. The article is focused on the way of adapting this concept to the Kaliningrad region as a foundation for a sustainable spatial development policy in the context of the EU and the Baltic Sea Region cohesion policy.
The factors affecting the development of the South-eastern Baltic tourism and recreation regionAbstract
The territories of Vistula and Curonian lagoons, centrally located in the cross-border region, have numerous remarkable nature sites as well as monuments of history and culture. The article analyses the internal and external factors affecting the development of the Russian segment of the transborder "Southeastern Baltic" tourism and recreation region.
Opportunities for studying cultural landscapes in the Kaliningrad regionAbstract
This article focuses on opportunities for studying cultural landscapes in the Kaliningrad region and offers methodology for it. The author outlines types of the information required: genetic types of natural landscapes, spatial settlement and land use features, and the network components of the landscapes environment.
The role of small and semi-medium-sized towns in solving the problems of regional developmentAbstract
The article focuses on the problems related to the disparities in the settlement system of the Kaliningrad region, the problems of small and semi-mediumsized towns, and the role of such towns in solving the regional development problems of the Kaliningrad region. The author analyses the Lithuanian experience of revitalizing small towns. The article outlines the ways to apply this experience to the Kaliningrad region.