The concepts of citizenship and estate in Russian history — continuity and / or intermittence
The author studied the development of the concept “people” in contemporary history taking into account its possible interpretation as a bearer of sovereignty. This concept goes back to the time of early bourgeois revolutions. The author holds that there are certain parallels between the ideology of citizenship, the development of the concept “people / nation” and the interpretation of the concept “citizenship”. Contemporary theoretical debates about citizenship are fully applicable to the history of the interpretation of citizenship in Russia. The United States or Great Britain have a century-long tradition of citizenship. Unlike them, Russia has gone through several stages of radical changes associated with deep political and social transformations, hence a variety of understanding of the concept analysed. A paradoxical interpretation of the concept "citizen" in Russia became evident in the 18th century. Then a citizen and a subject tended to be used either as synonyms or “citizens” were understood as a social group related to nobility. Thus, the concept analysed was used in a variety of meanings and contexts. The same duality in the interpretation of citizenship within the class society manifested itself on the eve of the 1917 Revolution. The class-based duality of citizenship was also noticeable during the Soviet period. After the radical break with the past proclaimed by the Bolsheviks, the old class stratification system had to be changed. In the first month after the Revolution, the Bolsheviks officially abolished estates, titles and ranks. Under the 1918 Constitution of the RSFSR, the concept “class” became a legal term in Soviet Russia. Only “workers” received political rights and thus full citizenship. The official civil status or citizenship was an integral part of the ideology of workers and “exploited” classes as opposed to “non-working, bourgeois elements”. The idea of citizenship ceased to depend on territory and nationality. As a result, a group of people was legally deprived of citizenship while permanently residing in the state. Paradoxically, in Soviet Russia citizenship was defined through its absence, through what it was not. The concepts of citizenship and classhood during the Imperial and Soviet periods often coexisted, complementing each other and forming a bizarre synthesis of traditional and modern approaches to the interpretation of the concept of citizenship.
Pevzner, M. B., 2003. Abbat Siies: ot Burbonov k Bonapartu [Abbot Sieyès: from the Bourbons to Bonaparte]. St. Petersburg (in Russ.).
Babel, I. Rech na pervom Vsesoyuznom s’ezde sovetskikh pisateley [Speech at the First All-Union Congress of Soviet Writers]. In: Babel I. E., ed. Sochineniya v dvukh tomakh [Works in two volumes]. Vol. 2. Moscow, pp. 379—382 (in Russ.).
Kutafin, O. E., 2004. Rossiiskoe grazhdanstvo [Russian citizenship]. Moscow (in Russ.).
Lohr, E., 2017. Rossiiskoe grazhdanstvo. Ot imperii k Sovetskomu Soyuzu [Russian citizenship. From Empire to the Soviet Union]. Translated from English by M. Semikolennykh. Moscow (in Russ.).
Malakhov, V. S., 2014. Kul’turnye razlichiya i politicheskie granitsy v epokhu global'nykh migratsii [Cultural differences and political boundaries in the era of global migration]. Moscow (in Russ.).
Marasinova, E., 2017. “Zakon” i “grazhdanin” v Rossii pervoi poloviny XVIII veka. Ocherki istorii obshchestvennogo soznaniya [“Law” and “citizen” in Russia in the first half of the 18th century. Essays on the history of public consciousness]. Moscow (in Russ.).
Marshall, T. H., 2011. Citizenship and social class. In: B. G. Kapustin, ed. Grazhdanstvo i grazhdanskoe obshchestvo [Citizenship and civil society]. Translated from English by Yu. Dergunova. Moscow. pp. 145—220 (in Russ.).
Radaev, V. V. and Shkaratan, O. I., 1996. Sotsial’naya stratifikatsiya [Social stratification]. Moscow (in Russ.).
Alexopoulos, G., 2006. Soviet Citizenship, More or Less: Rights, Emotions, and States of Civic Belonging. Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History, 7 (3), pp. 487—528.
Brubaker, R., 1992. Citizenship and Nationhood in France and Germany. Cambridge (Mass.): Cambridge University Press.
Burbank, J., 2006. An Imperial Rights Regime: Law and Citizenship in the Russian Empire. Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History, 7 (3), pp. 397—431.
Canovan, M., 2005. The People. Сambridge: Polity Press.
Chamberlain-Creanga, R., 2006. The Transnistrean People: Citizenship and Imaginings of the State in the unrecognized Country. Ab Imperio, 4, pp. 371—399.
David-Fox, M. and Holquist, P., 2006. M. Tiutchev versus Foucault? Citizenship and Subjecthood in Russian History. Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History, 7 (3), pp. 391—395.
Fitzpatrick, Sh., 1993. Ascribing Class: The Construction of Social Identity in Soviet Russia. The Journal of Modern History, 65(4), pp. 745—770.
Isin, E. F. and Turner, B. S., eds., 2002. Handbook of Citizenship Studies. SAGE Publications.
Kymlicka, W. and Norman, W., 1994. Return of the Citizen: Recent Work on Citizenship Theory. Ethics, 104, pp. 352—381.
Lohr, E., 2012. Russian Citizenship: From Empire to Soviet Union. Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press.
Lohr, E., 2013. Russian Citizenship Modernization and Population Policy in Historical Perspective. Problems of Post-Communism, 60 (6), pp. 3—15.
Lohr, E., 2006. The Ideal Citizen and Real Subject in Late Imperial Russia. Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History, 7 (2), pp. 173—194.
Mann, M., 1987. Ruling Class Strategies and Citizenship. Sociology, 21 (3), pp. 339—354.
Pocock, J. G., 1998. A. The ideal of citizenship since classical times. In: G. Shafir, ed. Citizenship debates: a reader. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. pp 31—42.
Weil, P., 2008. Jus Soli versus Jus Sanguinis: The False Opposition between French and German Law. In: P. Weil, ed. How to be French? Nationality in Making since 1789. Durham: Duke University Press. pp. 173—193.