Some problems regarding the actor of penal legal relations
This article analyses the problems pertaining to the actor of penal legal relations. Through the example of the enforcement of a fine imposed on a juvenile offender, the author shows the interconnection between protective and penal legal relations and emphasises their similarity regarding the actor.
Polish-Russian relations as reflected in the programmes of right-wing political parties in Poland: a quantitative and qualitative analysis
Programmes of political parties are an important element of public discourse. In this article, I present the results of research aimed at defining the place of Russia and Polish-Russian relations in the programmes of several Polish right-wing political groups. I attempt an overview of the political programmes of the right-wing parties as regards their principal features, internal structure, and central postulates. Content analysis shows ...
An assessment of relations of an individual in the immediate social environment on the basis of social network analysis
This article examines the psychological aspect of criteria for evaluating an individual’s position within the structure of relations in the community they belong to. The author shows how statistical methods used in analyzing social networks can help obtain information on the degree and type of the individual’s involvement into the system of relations and identifies the ...
Kant and the contemporary theory of international relations
The main purpose of this article is to answer the question of the role of Kantian political philosophy for the theory of international relations. The answer is giving through the examination of the main trends in the interpretation of Kant's place in one of the major paradigms of the theory of international relations: realism, idealism, liberalism, and institutionalism. Author shows ...
The historical aspects and current issues of the development of Russian-Lithuanian economic relations
... development of Russian-Lithuanian economic ties. The research and practical significance of this study lies in the identification of the sources of modern Russian-Lithuanian economic cooperation and the prospects of future mutually beneficial economic relations. The first attempt at establishing economic relations was made in 1919. However, young Lithuanian Republic gravitated towards the West, severing ties with the Russian market. However, the initiatives of Lithuanian authorities did not result ...
Current problems in Russian-Latvian relations
Current relations between Russia and Latvia are still influenced by a series of mutual claims that appeared after the demise of the USSR. Latvia — as well as Estonia and Lithuania — is both an EU and NATO member state. However, unlike the above mentioned ...
The role of trade and economic factors in English-Russian relations of the second half the of the 19th/beginning of the 20th century
English-Russian state-to-state relations in the second half of the 19th/ beginning of the 20th century are distinguished by complex character and dramatic shifts from cooperation to confrontation and vice versa. Different circumstances and factors, including the level of trade and ...
Economic Aspects of Russian-Baltic Relations in 2007—2008
The influence of the events related to the transfer of the remains and the monument to Soviet soldiers in central Tallinn on the Russian cargo transit flows through the Baltic Sea region is described. The author shows that there has been a redistribution of Russian cargoes and ...
The Baltic policy of Germany and current international relations
This article analyses the Baltic policy of united Germany from the 1990s until today. The authors set out to identify the significance of German-Baltic relations and the role of the Eastern policy in Russian-German relations. The method of dynamic comparison between the political and economic narrative in intergovernmental relations makes it possible to identify distinctive features of Germany’s Baltic ...
Baltic Factor in Russia-France Relations
The article aims to identify the role of the Baltic factor in Russia-France relations. Despite the fact that the Baltic Sea region (BSR) no longer plays an important role in Russia-France bilateral relations, the authors attach significance to analysing the dynamics and changes of the BSR role in European politics in the post- ...
The military and political situation in the Baltic region in the late 20th/early 21st centuries: the prospects of ‘uneasy peace’
In this article, we consider the development of international relations in the Baltic region in the late 20th/early 21st centuries. This study aims to analyse the security prospects of the Baltic region in view of the changes in the overall geopolitical situation in Europe and in the relations between Russia and ...
The fifth wave of the European Union enlargement: pro et contra
This article analyses the principal complex of economic and political motivations of the states of Central and Eastern Europe and the EU members related to the EU enlargement towards the East. Special attention is paid to the discussion on the reasonableness of the EU enlargement and the positions of certain EU members.
1. Borchardt K.-D. 1994, Azbuka prava Evropejskogo soobwestva [ABCs of European ...
On terminology to be used in studying the phenomenon of lobbying
This paper examines notions used in studying the phenomenon of lobbying. The authors believe that the notion of lobbying should be distinguished from similar but not equivalent terms – advocacy, governmental relations, public relations and public policy. They suggest defining lobbying as pressure exerted by NGO representatives on central and local governments with the aim of forcing them to take (or not to take) decisions to the benefit of interest groups....
The “Polish question” in Soviet-German relations in the second half of the 1920s (based on the materials of the USSR consulate in Königsberg)
On the basis of earlier unknown documents of the Soviet consulate in Königsberg retrieved from the Archive of the Foreign Policy of the Russian Federation, the author analyses relations between the USSR and Germany in 1925—1930. The author focuses on the role of the “Polish question”, which largely affected the nature of bilateral relations. The consulate documents indicate that Soviet diplomacy aspired to exploit the ...
Good-neighbourly relations and the European Neighbourhood Policy — What is the Difference?
... compares the scope of two diplomatic terms, crucial for the contemporary practice of international cooperation. Drawing examples from historical and contemporary documents, the author shows the difference between the settled notion of good-neighbourly relations and the recently introduced one — the European Neighbourhood Policy. The ENP ab initio absorbs the old term, which characterises the symmetric relation of international agents in the framework of the Westphalian system and foregrounds the ...
The Polish minority in the Republic of Lithuania: internal and external factors
The ethnic makeup of the population significantly affects the domestic policy of any state, and its relations with neighbouring countries. Although interactions with ethnic minorities are not as urgent a problem in Lithuania as they are in the two other Baltic States, ethnicity-related conflicts continue to occur, particularly, as regards the relations ...
The concept of “network” in the system of basic concepts of regional economic geography
... comprises the framework of a region as a complex socioeconomic territorial system. The author examines economic networks as organic systems characterised by resistance to external effects and comprised of interconnected economic agents from one or several related industries. A concentration of strong connections within such network constitutes its core or a cluster. Based on a retrospective analysis of studies into the spatial organisation of economy, it is concluded that there is a need to examine network ...
Legal regime for church property in Russia and the Baltic states
In this article, we carry out a comparative analysis of the legal regimes for church property in the Baltic States and in Russia after the demise of the USSR,. We stress the significance of this problem for the newly established relations between the state and the religious organisations, for the conclusion of agreements between these actors, and for the development of the ideas of interdenominational peace and intergovernmental relations. In this study, we aim at identifying ...
Indirect translation: Main trends in practice and research
... translation, and has the aim of facilitating systematic research on this long-standing, widespread yet underexplored phenomenon. The article thus provides an overview of some of the main patterns in ITr practice and research and explores suggestions for related future studies. The overview follows the ‘Five W’s and One H’ approach. The what question concerns terminological and conceptual issues related to ITr and explores the relevance of systematic studies on ITr. The who question considers the ...
Formation of American Foreign Policy towards Poland before and in First Years of Cold War
... (неизвестное письмо Джорджа Кеннана) // Проблемы всемирной истории. СПб
concepts of United States foreign policy 1943—1947. European and global aspects of postwar relations with the Soviet Union. Documents. B., 1992.
documents on American policy and strategy, 1945—1950. N. Y., 1978.
Russia and postwar Europe
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relations of the United States 1946....
The danish parliament as an actor of Denmark’s foreign policy towards the EU and Russia: a comparative analysis, 2005—2019
... to assess the level of the Danish Parliament’s participation in the foreign policy of the Kingdom of Denmark in different regions of the world. The study conducts a comparative analysis of the evidence of the Parliament’s influence on Denmark’s relations with the EU, the EFTA, and Russia. The findings lead one to conclude that the Danish Parliament’s participation in the country’s foreign policy towards EU bodies is highly institutionalised and coherent, which can be explained by close integration ...
EU — Russia energy cooperation: major development trends and the present state
The article analyzes the development of EU — Russia energy relations through the lens of the evolution of three parameters: the political agenda (the Energy Dialogue), the institutional structure, and the legal modalities. The identification of these three aspects for assessing the evolution of EU — Russia ...
A calculation of the diffusion coefficient of solids in watercourses
The results of the solution of the integral equations of motion numerical method presented in dimensionless form related to the relative inertia of the particles and the relaxation time of the particle. It is found that when the increase in the relative inertia of the particles, decreases the coefficient of turbulent diffusion of the dispersed phase compared to ...
The methodological framework for development of specialists in advertising and public relations
This article analyses and defines the essence of professional culture of specialists in advertising and public relations. The author describes the content of methodological approaches to its development and considers the significance of each approach to studying the problem. The author stresses the need to use the axiological, cultural, integrated, context, professional,...
On Economic Asymmetry in Russia
... regional economies. The research on the correlation between gross regional product and per capita taxable capacity in the constituents of RF conducted in 2000 and 2007 revealed the disproportions of both objective economic parameters and redistribution relations in the framework of interbudget relations system. The analysis conducted allows outlining the methods of financial and economic mechanisms development aimed at the equalisation of socioeconomic development.
Management of Trans-boundary Water Resources: Comparing Russian and American Experiences
... area of responsibility, it is early still to claim that intergovernmental cooperation is more effective than transnational cooperation. However, it gives a reason to question the conclusions of the proponents of transnationalism in the international relations theory, who claim that the latter is more efficient. Practical significance of this paper is in the proposed recommendations for further modernization of international cooperation in the field of trans-boundary water management.
1. Konvencija ...
The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation: Optimistic future!
Since the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the relations within the USA-USSRChina triangle had strong influence on the whole system of international relations. The turnaround in Russian-Chinese relations from sharp confrontation in the Soviet era to current rapprochement, which started to take shape ...
The concept of the European Union’s normative power
... (and to a degree, domestic) policy, assuming that the policy is a ‘product’ of its time. The article examines three approaches to understanding these concepts and analyses the correlation between the ‘normative’ and ‘soft power’ as well as related contradictions. In conclusion, the author identifies prospects of studies into the сoncept of ‘normative power’ of the European Union.
1. Igumnova, L. O. 2014, Kritika normativnoj sily Evropy v Rossii [Normative Power Europe Critique in ...
The professional athletes’ idea of family relations
This article focuses on the features of professional athletes’ ideas of family relations. The authors analyse the relation structure, role distribution, ways of communication, and egocentrism tendencies in professional athletes’ families. The authors’ idea of the counselling process lies in addressing the features of athletes’ ...
Russian-Estonian relations: a medium-term forecast
... about the trends of current states, which are called scenarios. The article describes the four possible scenarios of changes in the role of Estonia in Russian foreign policy that are evaluated from the perspective of the development of Russian-Estonian relations and factors affecting the probability of each scenario. It is shown that any change in the role of Estonia in Russian foreign policy depends not only on the specific actions of the Estonian elite, for example their readiness to change their ...
Innovative education for the Baltic region: the experience of the Finnish-Russian Cross-border University
The article defines the innovative features of teaching international relations in the Baltic Sea Region at the graduate level, taking as an example the double degree program in international relations of the Finnish-Russian Cross-Border University, set up by the St. Petersburg State University and the University of Tampere ...
The communication of persons: Kant’s theory of marriage law held captive by pagan anthropology
The paper analyzes Kant’s philosophy of matrimonial law. It focuses on the idea of this law as “possession of a person as a thing and its use as a person”: Kant conceives marriage as an interpersonal relation in an external form of real possession, in the aspect of the objective and subjective goal of such relation, but primarily in the aspect of its legal and ethical possibility. Given the naturalistic interpretation of the constitutive act for this ...
The Neuchâtel Crisis of 1856—1857 and the British position
This article focuses on the reasons behind and the diplomatic aspects of the Neuchâtel crisis in Prussian-Swiss relations. The Neuchâtel crisis arose in the end of 1856 as a result of the Prussian territorial claims and interference in Swiss home affairs. The author examines the diplomacy of the leading European powers – mainly England – aimed to resolve the ...
Two civilizations: the relations of Russia and Western Europe at the beginning of the 21st century
The challenges of building relations between two different civilizations, which Samuel Huntington and Lev Gumilev wrote about, are currently becoming more obvious due to the cardinal geopolitical and geoeconomic changes that have taken place since the demise the USSR and the world ...
Polish-Russian Small Border Traffic in the Context of Russia-EU Relations
This article sets out to analyse the Polish-Russian agreement on small border traffic in the context of relations between the European Union and the Russian Federation. The analysis focuses on the role of the Kaliningrad region of the Russian Federation in relations between the EU and Russia and conditions of the Polish-Russian agreement on small border ...
Modern Hanseatic Trends in the Baltic Region
... example is the partnership between Baltic universities, which is aimed to draw up an international agenda for sustainable regional development. Baltic cities are involved in various forms of cross-border cooperation, providing opportunities for interstate relations and contributes to laying down crossborder cooperation roadmaps and developing civil society networks. It can be concluded, that the history of the Hanseatic League and its current incarnation — the New Hanse — testify to the fact that productive ...
The history of the integration between Russia’s Kaliningrad region and Poland’s northeastern voivodeships: A programme approach
... authors set out to identify the main results of Russian-Polish cross-border cooperation in the context of the changing historical and political paradigms in the Baltic region. The authors conduct a brief historical analysis of this sphere of international relations. The genesis of integration at the regional level is explored by identifying the major areas and tools for collaboration. The authors address research works of Russian (Soviet) and Polish researchers, intergovernmental agreements, EU-Russia ...
German-German Relations and Credit Policy of Federal Republic of Germany in 1982-1985
This article investigates the credit policy of the Federal Republic of Germany towards the German Democratic Republic from 1982 to 1985. The author attempts to analyze the role of these credits in the development of German-German relations.
. История современной Германии 1945—2005. М
Politik und deutsch-deutsche Wirtschaftsbeziehungen von 1945 bis 1989. B., 2005.
zu den ...
The problem of gaps, non-equivalent words and national concepts, existing in the Public Relations terminology
This paper describes lacunes, non-equivalent words and culture-specific concepts in the Public Relations terminology. It is the first time that the relationships between the concept, sememe and lexeme have been analyzed.
К. Мюллер. М., 1990.
The ‘сool war’ in the Baltic Sea Region: consequences and future scenarios..
... the current confrontation between Russia and the West, which is most accurately defined by the term ‘cool war’. Russia borders on the EU and NATO in that region. In this study, I aim to demonstrate the impact of the ‘cool war’ on international relations in the region and explain why the preservation of the status quo is the most likely scenario. I conclude that, in recent years, a certain regrouping has occurred in the region: there has been a stepping-up on the activities of the US and NATO,...
The historical and national sources of the development of the modern Polish-Lithuanian conflict
This article analyzes the origins of the contemporary conflict generating Polish-Lithuanian relations. The authors consider the features of the Polonization of Lithuania and ensuing Russification in the second half of the 19th century, the problems of Polish-Russian relations during the interbellum (1918—1939) and the period of the post-war ...
Social code of the Kaliningrad Region in the system of legal regulation of social relations
The authors discuss the problem of a comprehensive legal regulation of social relations. This issue is relevant due to the active social policy pursued by the state. This policy aims to develop social institutions and improve the quality of life of Russian citizens. The authors studied the state and coherence of social legislation ...
Consequences and Design in General and Transcendental Logic
... understanding of the consequent in the consequence’s antecedent. I put forward the hypothesis that in his logical taxonomy, Kant attempted to reconcile the substitutional interpretation of formal consequences and a formal analysis of the transcendental relations of objects of experience. However, if we interpret the limitations imposed by transcendental logic on the power of judgement in the spirit of the scholastic ontology of transcendental relations, it would contradict Kant’s critique of dogmatic ...
An analysis of sinusoidal waves in two-layer liquid
A detailed analysis of sinusoidal waves in two-layer liquid is made. The dispersion relations for short and long waves are studied. The success was helped significantly by a technique created by us.
1. Сретенский Л. Н. Теория волновых движений идеальной жидкости. М., 1977.
2. Каменкович ...
Development of musical hearing during education at different musical departments
... determine whether there is a difference in the development of tone and interval sound perception among musicians in different areas of study. Zero hypothesis (H0): The lack of dependence of the perception accuracy of sounds and intervals (absolute and relative musical ear) on the field of musical training. Alternative hypothesis (H1): The accuracy of sound and interval perception (absolute and relative musical ear) depends on the field of musical training. Among brass and string instruments, ...
The Vilnius issue in international relations: the historiography of the problem
... Białystok, p.114—119.
13. Asharchuk, V. A. 2010, Vilenskaja problema v istoriografii [Wilensky problem in the historiography], Belorusskij zhurnal mezhdunarodnogo prava i mezhdunarodnyh otnoshenij [Belarusian Journal of International Law and International Relations], no. 4, available at: http://evolutio. info/index. php?option
=com_content &task=view&id=1761&Itemid=232 (accessed 17 November 2011).
14. Römeris, M. 1996, Lenkų ir lietuvių ginčas, Lietuvių atgimimo istorijos studijos, Vol. 13, p. 246—254....
Kant on evil in the human nature
... imperative, necessarily entail the empirically good. The conclusion is made that, in Kant’s works, the problem of evil is transferred from the empirical to noumenal sphere, from the real to intelligible world. Since Kant formulates the problem of evil in relation not to the empirical but the “intelligible character”, his solution proves to be idealistic. The next step is an analysis of Kant’s notion of “radical evil” and its causes. Since Kant sees the source of radical evil in the wrong subordination ...
Revisiting Schleiermacher’s On the Different Methods of Translating: On the Foundations of Translation Relativity Theory
... one theory can form the foundation for another. This may lead to the idea of replacing a theory of translation with its empiric version. However, a different approach is also possible. The outlines of the theory of translational and traductological relativity can be derived from the ideas first voiced by Schleiermacher in his lecture On the different methods of translation (1813), from Quineʼs theory of indeterminacy of translation, and from Benjaminʼs concept of untranslatability. From a multi-disciplinary ...
Russia-EU energy efficiency cooperation in the Baltic region: the untapped potential
A stereotypical understanding of EU-Russia energy relations is often reduced to trade in oil and natural gas, which downplays the importance of energy efficiency cooperation. Such cooperation is promoted within the Energy Charter and its Treaty, Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, Energy Dialogue,...