EU — Russia energy cooperation: major development trends and the present state
The article analyzes the development of EU — Russia energy relations through the lens of the evolution of three parameters: the political agenda (the Energy Dialogue), the institutional structure, and the legal modalities. The identification of these three aspects for assessing the evolution of EU — Russia energy relations is the novelty in the author’s approach. This study aims to identify the previous stages and assess the current state of EU — Russia energy dialogue, since they set out conditions for energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region. This research is based on a political and legal analysis of various documents and employs various international relations theories (including integration theories). The article demonstrates that the EU nd Russia have made a transition to the integration agenda manifested in the Energy Dialogue (its current goal is the creation of a common European energy market). The author describes the process of gradual consolidation of transgovernmental and transnational institutions, which leads to depoliticization of cooperation and mutual socialization of the partners. Finally, legal discussions on the development of common rules have become more constructive. In sum, the current situation in EU — Russia energy relations is favourable and positively affects cooperation in the Baltic Sea region.
1. Joint Declaration of the President of the European Council, 2000, Mr. J. Chirac, assisted by the Secretary-General of the Council/High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy of the EU, Mr. J. Solana, of the President of the Commission of the European Communities, Mr. R. Prodi, and of the President of the Russian Federation, Mr. V. V. Putin. Paris, 30 October.
2. EU-Russian Energy Dialogue: Synthesis Report, 2001, Prepared by Russian Vice-Prime Minister Victor Khristenko and European Commission Director-General François Lamoureux, Brussels, Moscow, September.
3. Energeticheskaja strategija Rossii do 2020 goda [The Energy Strategy of Russia until 2020], 2003, Moscow.
4. Green Paper Towards a European Strategy for the Security of Energy Supply, 2000, Brussels, 29 November, COM, 769 final.
5. Green Paper A European Strategy for Sustainable, Competitive and Secure Energy, 2006, Brussels, 8 March, COM, 2006, 105 final.
6. Khristenko, V., Piebalgs А. 2007, Energeticheskij dialog Rossii i Evrosojuza. Vos'moj obobshhajushhij doklad [Russia Energy Dialogue and the European Union. Eighth Progress Report], Brussels, October.
7. Dorozhnaja karta sotrudnichestva Rossii i ES v sfere jenergeti-ki do 2050 goda [Roadmap for cooperation between Russia and the EU in the energy sector by 2050], 2011, Moscow, 29 July, available at: http://minenergo.gov.ru/upload/medialibrary/652/6521c3074cbd19866612efa7d3caf28f.doc (accessed 17 March 2013).
8. Keohane, R. Power and Interdependence in a Partially Globalized World, 2002, New York, Routledge.
9. Slaughter, A.-M. 2004, A New World Order. Princeton, New York, Princeton University Press.
10. Rosenau, J. N., Czempiel, E.-O. (eds.) 1992, Governance Without Government: Order and Change in World Politic, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
11. Agreement on Partnership and Cooperation, Establishing a Partnership between the European Communities and their Member States, of the one part, and the Russian Federation, of the other part, 1997, 27 November.
12. Concluding Document of the Hague Conference on the European. Energy Charter, 1991, The Hague, 17 December.
13. Energy Charter Treaty, 1994, Lisbon, 17 December.
14. Matlary, J. H. 1997, Energy Policy in the European Union, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, New York, p. 73—76.
15. Global Energy Security, 2006, G8 Summit Documents, St. Petersburg, 16 July.
16. Medvedev, D. 2009, Conceptual Approach to the New Legal Framework for Energy Cooperation (Goals and Principles), 21 April.
17. Proekt Konvencii po obespecheniju mezhdunarodnoj energeticheskoj bezopasnosti [Draft convention on international energy security], 2009, Moscow, available at: http://energodialogue.com/?lng=ru&module=news&action=view&id=614 (accessed 18 March 2013).