Kant’s Dissertation for the Master’s Degree On Fire and the Transformations of his Ideas of Ethereal Matter
... dissertation for historical and philosophical studies? To answer this question I analyse the structure and give a brief summary of the dissertation, look at the history of its writing and try to identify the place of this work among Kant’s other papers on natural philosophy. I then demonstrate that Kant’s concept of ether as an elastic matter of fire, heat and light containing the forces of attraction and repulsion originates in the dissertation On Fire. I identify the provisions in Kant’s early works ...
Between profession and public engagement: Evolution of the public history movement in America
... culture: Media education for the 21st century. Chicago, 2006.
25. Johnson G. W. The Origins of The Public Historian and the National Council on Public History // The Public Historian. 1999. № 3. P. 167—179.
26. Kelley R. Public History: Its Origins, Nature and Prospects // Ibid. 1978. № 1. P. 16—28.
27. Kijas J. Same Place, Different Views: Exploring the Wilsons River Story Sites Community History Project // Ibid. 2010. № 2. P. 51—60.
28. Landorf C. Public History: A Sense of Identity and ...
Transzendentalphilosophie als kritische Bestimmung des Standpunkts. Eine wissenschaftstheoretische Annäherung
... understanding, which are directed towards the field of possible experience and provide a connection of cognition through reasons and consequences, as well as the regulative principles of reason, which form maxims of research, astronomy is a proper and rational natural science. The analysis of the case studies of astronomy shows that Kant uses the term transcendental within the framework of the “Transcendental Logic” of the Critique of Pure Reason to denote conditions that are constitutive for the possibility ...
Kant — a leap out the world of Enlightenment
... such leap made with the help of rational philosophical principles and taking one 150 years into the future to a precisely designed landing ground is unprecedented. Kant preformed this intellectual feat through understanding the true essence of human nature. All the novelties and discoveries that he introduced into philosophy are the results of this initial achievement. Whereas the Enlightenment formulated the principle of naturalism as a basic one for the comprehensive understanding of the world,...
Feyerabend’s Natural Law Notes and their significance for Kant studies. Preface
Natural Law Notes of Feyerabend is one of the most important sources by the research of ethical and juridical views of Kant. Dating back to 1784 they distinctly demonstrate that the basic principles of Kant’s philosophy of right are not a late production ...
Kant’s Asynchronicity Concerning Newtonian Space and Gravity in his Pre-Critical Writings
Kant’s ‘Newtonianism’ has been rightly highlighted by figures like Friedman. The follow-up debates led to a more adequate view on Kant’s natural philosophy and in particular his relation towards Newton. But the discussion that evolved did not point to the asynchronicity that takes place in Kant’s struggle with the central Newtonian concepts. Newtonian space and gravity, in revised form,...
The effect of railway network evolution on the Kaliningrad region’s landscape environment
This article addresses methodology of modern landscape studies from the perspective of natural and man-made components of a territory. Railway infrastructure is not only an important system-building element of economic and settlement patterns; it also affects cultural landscapes. The study of cartographic materials and historiography made ...
The concept of body and the problem of demarcation in new European metaphysics: from Descartes to Kant
... Immanuel Kant in Translation. Anthropology, History, and Education / Ed. by G. Zöller, R. B. Louden. Cambridge, 2007.
20. Kant I. Thoughts on the True Estimation of Living Forces // The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant in Translation. Natural Science / Ed. by E. Watkins. Cambridge, 2012.
21. Kant I. Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens // Ibid.
22. Knutzen M. Philosophische Abhandlung von der immateriellen Natur der Seele, darinnen theils überhaupt erwiesen wird, ...
On the Role of Gesinnung in Kant’s Ethics and Philosophy of Religion. Part I
... Dreams of Metaphysics. In: I. Kant, 1992. Theoretical philosophy, 1755-1770. Translated and edited by D. Walford, R. Meerbote. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 302-359.
Kant, I., 1992b. Inquiry Concerning the Distinctness of the Principles of Natural Theology and Morality. In: I. Kant, 1992. Theoretical philosophy, 1755-1770. Translated and edited by D. Walford, R. Meerbote. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 243-286.
Kant, I., 1998. Critique of Pure Reason. Translated and edited by ...
The Concepts of “Appearance” and “Phenomenon” in Transcendental Philosophy (Kant, Husserl, Fink)
... and the central works of Edmund Husserl and Eugen Fink. Kant does not explicitly distinguish the two terms and only speaks about phenomena when he deals with the categorial application of reason. With Husserl, appearance is linked with the area of the natural attitude while the phenomenon is absolute. Fink’s position is interesting in that it differs from the views of the main representatives of transcendental philosophy, Kant and Husserl. According to Fink, appearing is the foundation of the fact ...
The history of Lithuania in the national historiography of the second half of the 19th — early 20th century
... Kiev, Moscow and St. Petersburg. Due to the efforts of such historians as Nikolay Ivanishev, Mikhail Vladimirsky-Budanov, Fyodor Leontovich, Vladimir Antonovich, Konstantin Bestuzhev-Ryumin et al., Lithuanian history became a specific research area, naturally inscribed in the context of pre-revolutionary national historiography. The works of Matvey Lyubavsky and Alexander Presnyakov, whose conclusions in many aspects are still relevant, achieved the paramount importance in Lithuanian historical studies....
Frolova Ye. The theoretical and methodological issues of the revival of natural law
This article considers the understanding of natural law from the perspective of neo-Kantian legal philosophy of the late 19th/early 20th century and the problem of correlation between changing rules of law and the unchanged form of moral prescriptions.The author focuses on the development of Kantian ...
The metaphysics of science
... philosophy is the cognition of the absolute universal in both theoretical (the true being) and practical (the supreme good) terms. ‘Transcendental’ philosophy was conceived as a project to redeem philosophy in the era of burgeoning precise empirical natural science and exact sciences. Kant turned science into a foundation of new metaphysics. The anti-philosophical nature of 20th century philosophy of science necessitates addressing Kant’s theory of science when searching for a truly philosophical ...
Neo-Kantian and phenomenological axiology in N. N. Alekseev’s philosophy of law
... combines Neo-Kantian and phenomenological principles with religious aspects.
1. Alexeev, N. N., 1912, Nauki obshhestvennye i estestvennye v istoricheskom vzaimootnoshenii ih metodov: ocherki po istorii i metodologii obshhestvennyh nauk [Social and natural sciences in the historic relationship between their methods: essays on the history and methodology of the social sciences], Moscow, 272 p.
2. Alexeev, N. N., 1918, Vvedenie v izuchenie prava [Introduction to the study of law], Moscow, 188 p.
The landscape approach to nature management in South-East Baltic
The Kaliningrad region is a small territory of Russia in the centre of Europe. It differs from other Russian regions in natural conditions and reclamation history. The recent socioeconomic development has been associated with anthropogenic pressure on natural and cultural landscapes created during seven hundred years. It has a negative effect on the environment. The author ...
On the history of the problem of a human being in Soviet Medieval studies
This article provides an analysis of the situation around studying the problem of the human being that developed in Soviet medieval studies in the 1950—70s. Emphasising the characteristic of the period monologue nature of assessing the meaning content of the image of the human being, the author compares the ideas of D. S. Likhachev and V. P. Adrianova-Peretz, and S. S. Averintsev about the nature of the human being in ancient texts and identifies the underlying ...
Condorcet interpretation of probability’s theory: the use of a mathematical construct to the field of social action
... of speculative metaphysics and develop as a ‘practical’ science serving both the individual and the community. This paper also assesses Condorcet’s ideas in the history of probability calculus as a method to describe historical chronology. The nature of Condorcet’s thoughts on the wide interdisciplinary opportunities of mathematics makes it possible to compare his ideas with those of other philosophers of the Enlightenment (Rousseau, Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Diderot), as well as a number ...
Analytic philosophy, its history, and Kant
... of analytic philosophy // Bertrand Russell Society Quarterly. 2005. № 125.
18. Price H. H. Hume’s theory of the external world. Oxford, 1940.
19. Putnam H. Realism with a human face. Cambridge, 1990.
20. Rorty R. Philosophy and the mirror of nature. Princeton, 1979.
21. Ryle G. Taking sides in philosophy // Collected Essays. L., 1971. Vol. 2. P. 153—169.
22. Searle J. Contemporary philosophy in the United States // The Blackwell Companion to Philosophy / ed. N. Bunnin, E. P. Tsui-Lames....
Kant’s lectures on natural law: Justice and conscientiousness
The lectures on natural law delivered by Kant in the winter semester of 1784/85 have recently attracted increasing attention from Kant scholars. Dating back to the 1780s, they elucidate a number of important aspects in the genesis of Kant’s practical philosophy. Firstly,...
The apologia of reason in J. Chr. Gottsched’s classicistic system: On the 250th anniversary of the philosopher’s death
... Gottsched (1700—1766). The authors examine the problem of the ontological argument in the context of the current civilizational crisis of consciousness, which arose against the background of the 20th century crisis of objectivist methodology of modern natural sciences. Such a methodology is incapable of solving the problem of an accurate description of the reality, in particular, as regards the ontological status of a wave function. This poses a serious ontological challenge to the entire scientific ...
The Universe of Science. The Architectonic Ideas of Science, Sciences and their Parts in Kant
... through his holistic understanding of science and scientific progress and suggest differentiating between four levels of use of architectonic ideas, drawing on the metaphor of a well-structured universe as imagined by Kant in his work on the Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens. I also claim that each possible idea of reason can be (apart from its primary function) additionally regarded as a fourth-level architectonic concept when explicitly conceived as an object of (e. g. philosophical) ...
Russian pre-revolutionary scientific ideas of criminal penalties of material nature
This article focuses on the theoretical ideas of criminal penalties of material nature in pre-revolutionary Russia of the second half of XIX — early XX century. The author provides an analysis of N. Sergeevsky’s treatise on criminal financial sanctions in the XVII century Russia. Special attention is paid to the research works ...
‘Reaching out’ beyond the text: philosophical notes
... puti (M. Prust ‘V poiskakh utrachennogo vremeni’) [The psychological topology of the way (M. Proust’s ‘The remembrance of things past’)]. St. Petersburg: RKHGI Publishing house (in Russ.).
Manakov, N., Moskal’chuk, G., 1999. Text as an natural object. Pedagog: Nauka, tekhnologiya, praktika [Pedagogue: Science, technology, practice], 2 (7), pp. 58—62 (in Russ.).
Moskal’chuk, G., Manakov, N., 2014. Forma teksta kak mnogourovnevyi konstrukt [The form of text as a multi-level construct]....
The evolution of agricultural nature management models in the Baltic States and the Kaliningrad region in 1890—2016
In each historical period, regional models of agricultural practices are affected by a combination of natural, political, and economic factors. Such models incorporate indicators of changes in the cultivated land area, land structure, and the intensity of agricultural practices. At early stages, the evolution of a model is affected by natural conditions....
Kants Begriff der Verbindlichkeit und die neuzeitliche Naturrechtslehre
My article is devoted to one of the main concepts of early modern natural law, i. e. the concept of obligation. Starting with Pufendorf's concept of obligation, it will be demonstrated that the natural law is grounded on the will of God. In contrast, the concept of obligation in Christian Wolff's Philosophia practica ...
The Nature of Appearance in Kant’s Transcendentalism: A Seman- tico-Cognitive Analysis
... International Journal of Philosophy, 7, pp. 44-59, jun. doi:
nodo.1298600, [online]. Available at:
skantianos.net/index.php/revista/article/view/310 [Accessed 31 July 2018].
Katrechko, S. L., 2018b. Nature of Kant’s Appearance: Semantic Analysis (expanded theses). In: S. L. Katrechko, A. A. Shiyan, eds. 2018. Proceedings of the International Workshop “Transcendental Turn in Contemporary Philosophy-3: nature (specificity) of transcendental philosophy” ...
Positive Philosopher with Restless Imagination (Rev.: V. V. Vasilyev, David Hume and the Riddles of His Philosophy. Moscow: LENAND, 2020, 704 pp.)
Carruthers, P., 2017. Higher-Order Theories of Consciousness. In: S. Schneider and M. Velmans, eds. 2017. The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness. Hoboken. N. J.: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 288-297.
Home, H., 2005. Essays on Principles of Morality and Natural Religion. Natural Law and Enlightenment Classics. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund.
Hume, D., 1960. A Treatise of Human Nature. Reprinted from the original edition in 3 volumes and edited, with an Analytical Index, by L. A. Selby-Bigge. Oxford: Clarendon ...
Kant and new mathematics 100 years later
... the modern standard axiomatic architecture of mathematical theories does not take into account the object-based character of mathematical knowledge, which was stressed after Kant by Cassirer, complicates the application of new mathematical theories in natural sciences and technology. In particular, this can explain why modern physical string theory is empirically unverifiable; it can be adjusted to accommodate a wide range of possible outcomes of observations and experiments. At the same time, there ...
Kant's philosophical ideas in Rober Nozik's political theory
... for the justification of his libertarian “minimal state”. This article analyses and criticizes this attempt on the following grounds: a) the anthropological models of Kant's and Nozik's theories are incommensurable; b) different notions of human nature result in different understandings of freedom — for Nozik it is the basic property of human nature, for Kant it is the result of entering the civil condition; c) the incommensurability of anthropological presuppositions and basic notions distorts ...
The image of N. M. Karamzin in Russian poetry
... I. I. Dmitriev, P. I. Shalikov, K. N. Batyushkov, V. A. Zhukovskiy, A. S. Pushkin, V. L. Pushkin, N. M. Yazykov, A. N. Maykov, F. I. Tyutchev). N. Karamzin is depicted in poetry as a Russian language reformer; the one who brought harmony into the ‘nature’ of Russian language; a discoverer, ‘Columbus’ of Russian history, in disregard for famous Russian historians before N. Karamzin; and a true Russian citizen. Ultimately, the history of image of N. Karamzin in Russian poetry shows his relevance ...
Kant on the rights of citizens in matters of religion: The concept of religious tolerance in the German Enlightenment
The universal public law is a section of Kant’s lectures on natural right, which he delivered in 1784. A traditional part of the then natural right compendia, it might seem strange to us today. Kant distinguished between three branches of government. However, they were not identical in the name or function to ...
Kant, Gödel, and the problem of synthetic a priori judgements
... judgements in mathematics, formulated in the Critique of Pure Reason, have been raging for over two centuries. On the one hand, it was fiercely criticised by neo-positivists in the early 20th century. On the other hand, Kant’s ideas on constructive nature of mathematics served as a philosophical framework for LEJ Brouwer’s programme of intuitionism in the foundations of mathematics. Of interest are the ideas of the great logician and mathematician Kurt Gödel about the analytical nature of mathematics,...
On a review deliberated by Kant and published under the name of Chr. Kraus
... eleutheriology, which would be published today as a work co-authored by I. Kant and Chr. J. Kraus, was first published under the name of the philosopher’s friend and student and later in collections of Kant’s works.It is shown that the review criticises the naturalism of Unlrich’s theory of freedom and stresses the major reason behind its failure, namely, that its author did not distinguish between the theo-retical and practical functions of consciousness. This circumstance complicates that understanding ...
Kant between liberalism and conservatism
.... Insole, Ch. Two Conceptions of Liberalism. Theology, Creation, and Politics in the Thought of Immanuel Kant and Edmund Burke // The Journal of Religious Ethics. Vol. 36, № 3, Sep. 2008.
10. Louden, R. Kant's Human Being: Essays on His Theory of Human Nature. Oxford University Press, 2011.
11. Louden, R. Kant's Impure Ethics. From Rational Beings to Human Beings. Oxford University Press, 2000.
12. Seebom, Th. Kant’s Theory of Revolution // Social Research. Vol. 48, № 3 (Autumn, 1981). Р. 557—587....
The ideological campaigns of the late Stalinism period at kolkhozes of the Kaliningrad region: everyday history
... history». Special attention is paid to the ideas of rural residents about themselves and the word, and their reaction to major social and political events. The author comes to a conclusion that, in the post-war years, Soviet propaganda was of rather formal nature, which, however, did not downplay its paramount importance for maintaining power by party and state nomenklatura. The study will help identify the features of social development of postwar Soviet countryside and contribute to understanding regional ...
On Fire. Dissertation for the Master’s Degree. Translation from the Latin into Russian, Preface and Notes by S. V. Lugovoy
... publication, the page numbers are in square brackets at the beginning of the page. Page footnotes, if indicated, draw on the commentaries of Lewis White Beck, the translator of the dissertation into English from the following edition: Kant, I., 2012. Natural Science, edited by E. Watkins, translated by L. W. Beck, J. B. Edwards, O. Reinhardt, M. Schönfeld and E. Watkins. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 713-714. It was important for the translator to follow the course of Kant’s thought ...
The main environmental problems of the Baltic Sea and the ways to solve them
... In:Feistel R., Nausch G., Wasmund N. (Ed.). State and evolution of the Baltic Sea 1952—2005. Hoboken, N. J.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, pp. 5—44.
3. Ducrotoy, J. P, Elliott, M. 2008. The science and management of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea: Natural history, present threats and future challenges. Mar Pollut Bull. Vol. 57, pp. 8—21.
4. Pawlak, J. 1980. Land-based inputs of some major pollutants to the Baltic Sea. Ambio Special issue on the Baltic, pp. 163—167.
5. Herrmann, J. 1998. Levels ...
Problems of analytic and synthetic propositions in the history of logic
Certain historical facts relating to the history of discussions on the nature of analytic and synthetic propositions in logic are used to demonstrates that the interpretation of their states largely depend on the accepted image of logic.
1. Брюшинкин В. Н., Ходикова Н. А. Теория поиска вывода....
‘Back to Kant’ or ‘Back to Leibnitz’? A critical view from the history of Russian metaphysical personalism
... M. A. 2007. Subjekt i sushchee v russkom metafizicheskom personalizme [Subject and existence in Russian metaphysical personalism]. St. Petersburg, 354 p.
27. Salagova V. 1916. Transtsendentalnyy kharakter ucheniya Leybnitsa o monade [Transcendental nature of Leibniz’s doctrine of Monad]. Kharkov, 23 p.
28. Teykhmyuller G. 1894. Darvinizm i filosofiya [Darvinism and philosophy]. Yuriev, 100 p.
29. Teykhmyuller G. 1913. Deystvitel'nyy i kazhushchiysya mir. [The real and seeming world], Kazan, 389 ...
Kant and medicine
... of medical theory. The German physician and philosopher Johann Benjamin Erhard was first to address the theoretical status of contemporary medicine based on Kant’s critical foundations of science and arguments for the possibility of a philosophy of nature for the purpose of justifying medicine as a science. After analyzing Kant’s early work “Essay on the Illness of the Head” (Versuch über die Krankheiten des Kopfes, 1764), his remarks on hypochondria in The Conflict of the Faculties, and ...
Time and eternity in the literary image of the church procession: Pushkin’s Boris Godunov and Shmeleff’s The Year of the Lord
... and Ivan Shmeleff’s novel The Year of the Lord. The two texts share fundamental similarities in literary images. The church procession is portrayed as a manifestation of eternity in the tangible reality of this world. Despite their common temporal nature, images in Boris Godunov and The Year of the Lord differ in terms of both motivation (state-driven in Pushkin’s drama and public-driven in Shmeleff’s novel) and the degree of detail. The description is condensed and script-driven in Boris ...
The Philosophy of Vasily Sesemann and Marburg Neo-Kantianism
... Т. 8 / pod red. J. Dobieszewskiego [Ideas in Russia. Russian-Polish-English lexicon, vol. 8 / ed. J. Dobieszewski]. Lodz, p. 380—384.
29. Frank S. L. 2008, Pierwsze okreslenie i istota intuicji. Pier. B. Czardybon [The first qualification and the nature of intuition. Trans. B. Czardybon] // Logos i Ethos [Logos and Ethos]. № 2, p. 165—183.
30. Galewicz W. 1987, N. Hartmann [N. Hartmann]. Warsaw.
31. Gonec W. 1999, Sezeman Wasyl. Pier. S. Grzybowskiеgо [Sesemann Vasily. Trans. S. Grzybowski] ...
Land Use Change and Economics of Land Degradation in the Baltic Region
... stakeholders, practices and opportunities, Innogate and Nordic Council of Ministers, available at:
4. Daily, G. C., Kareiva, P. M., Polasky, S., Ricketts, T. H., Tallis, H. 2011, Mainstreaming natural capital into decisions, Natural capital: theory and practice of mapping ecosystem services, p. 3—14.
5. Nkonya, E., Gerber, N., Baumgartner, P., von Braun, J., De Pinto, A., Graw, V., Kato, E., Kloos, J., Walter, T. 2011, The economics of desertification,...
Kants Denkraum: Subjektivität als Prinzip. Interview mit Prof. Dr. Jürgen Stolzenberg
... recent critics. According to Stolzenberg, the principle of modern subjectivity proves to be fruitful in understanding the development of the history of modern music, too.
Bomski, F. und Stolzenberg, J. hg., 2018. Genealogien des Geistes und der Natur. Diskurse, Kontexte und Transformationen um 1800. Göttingen: Wallstein.
Dmitrieva, N. А., 2006. Kant’s Philosophy as Philosophy of Freedom: Other Globalisation. Voprosy Filosofii, 8, pp. 169-180. (In Rus.)
Dmitrieva, N. А., 2009. German and ...
Around the “social pedagogy” of Paul Natorp: Vladimir Dinze in the debates on national upbringing. Part 1
... d. F. 925 (Shcherbov P. G.). Op. 1. Ed. 34. Pis’mo V. F. Dinze k P. G. Shcherbovu [The letter from V. F. Dinze to P. G. Shcherbov], 2 l.
35. Rickert, H. 1997, Granitsy estestvennonauchnogo obrazovaniya ponyatii [The limits of concept formation in natural science], predisl. A. V. Markova, St. Petersburg.
36. Rubinshtein, M. M. 1916b, Istoriya pedagogicheskikh idei v ee osnovnykh chertakh [The history of pedagogical ideas in it’s main traits], Moscow.
37. Semenov, Yu. I. 2003, Etnosy, natsii,...
Dilemmas of logical hylomorphism
13. Alexander of Aphrodisias. On Aristotle’s Prior Analytics 1.1—7. L., 1991.
14. Barnes J. Logical Form and Logical Matter // Logica, Mente E Persona. Studi Sulla Filosofia Antica. Antonina, 1990. Р. 7—119.
15. Corcoran J. Aristotle's Natural Deduction System // Ancient logic and its modern interpretations. Dordrecht, Boston, 1974. Р. 85—132.
16. Dragalina-Chernaya E. Logical hylomorphism revisited // Philosophy, Mathematics, Linguistics: Aspects of Interaction 2014 (PhML-2014)....
Kant and the Problem of Optimism: The Origin of the Debate
... von Chr. F. Krausen, Leipzig.
Crusius, Chr. A., 1753, Entwurf der nothwendigen VernunftWahrheiten, wiefern sie zu den zufälligen entgegen gesetzet werden, Leipzig.
Crusius, Chr. A. 1767, Anweisung vernünftig zu leben, Darinnen nach Erklärung der Natur des menschlichen Willens die natürlichen Pflichten und allgemeinen Klugheitslehren im richtigen Zusammenhange vorgetragen werden, Leipzig.
Festner, C. 1892, Chr. Aug. Crusius als Metaphysiker, Halle.
Finster, R. 1982, Spontaneität, Freiheit und ...
Rhythm and Metaphor in the Art of the Icon
... Unified theory of mental processes]. Moscow.
6. Gubareva, O. V., 1998. “Trinity” of the monk Andrey Rublev. Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo otdeleniya Rossiyskoi akademii Estestvennykh nauk [Bulletin of the St. Petersburg branch of the Russian academy of natural sciences], 2(3), pp. 288—292.
7. Gurevich, A. Ya., 1972. Kategorii srednevekovoi kul’tury [Categories of medieval culture]. Moscow.
8. Dvoskina, Ye. M., 1998. Antichnaya teoriya ritma: Traktat Avreliya Avgustina “Demusicalibrisex” [Ancient ...
Kantian Ethical Humanism in Late Imperial Russia
... 2: I. V. Kireevsky. Translated by P. K. Christoff. The Hague: Mouton, pp. 346-375.
Kristeller, P. O., 1961. Renaissance Thought: The Classic, Scholastic, and Humanist Strains. New York: Harper Torchbooks.
Kunitsyn, A. P., 1966. Pravo yestestvennoye [Natural Law]. In: I. Ia. Shchipanov, ed. 1966. Russkie Prosvetiteli ot Radishcheva do Decabristov [Russian Enlightenment from Radishchev to the Decembrists], Volume 2. Moscow: Mysl’, pp. 204-351. (In Russ.)
Marx, K., 1976. Capital. A Critique of Political ...
Another Critical Idealism of Hermann Cohen
... principle of critical thinking, whereas the ‘first principles’ of critical thinking are the act of questioning. Cohen believes that thinking is generated from itself. Thinking sets itself as the goal and objective, which emphasises the self-expanding nature of thinking, the original self-generation. Initially, thinking is one of the meanings of the term ‘pure’, which suggests that thinking in itself — rather than external influences — is an impetus for the movement,. It is concluded that, ...