The structure of political elite networks in the Republic of Poland in 1993—2013
To identify the structure of network ties within Polish political elites; to study the features of network ties formation and the impact that both primary and labour socialisation periods and diaspora characteristics have on this process; to describe the structural features of the resultant network structures over different ...
The transformation of the Baltic countries’ political elites: general and specific features
... research focuses on the features and transformations of power groups and their role in the political life of the societies of the Baltic countries. This article aims to analyse structural and functional changes in the composition of the Baltic political elites after these countries gained independence in the 1990s. The main objective of this research is to reveal the general and the specific in the transformations of Latvian, Lithuanian, and Estonian elites. Changes in the structure of power groups are ...
The formation of the political elite in Lithuania at the turn of the 1980s—1990s: the role of “moral politicians”
This article considers the trend of structural changes in the political elite of the Republic of Lithuania in the post-Soviet period through analyzing the role of the so-called “moral politicians” — intellectuals, artists, and cultural figures, who played a decisive role in the period of the communist system disintegration ...
The political elite recruitment in the Baltic: the role of the ethnic factor
... ‘independence-induced euphoria’ faded, Lithuanian, Latvian, and Estonian power groups had to tackle the problem of civil society formation and the development of a political regime based on democratic procedures. In these countries the processes of elite recruitment were largely affected by the factor of ethic homogeneity of the social structure. This article analyses the process of elite group formation in the Baltics through the lens of the ethnic factor. By applying the ethnopolitical approach,...
Billionaires and Millionaires of the Baltic Sea Region: A Comparative Analysis of National Business Elites
Local business elites make a major contribution to the development of the Baltic region’s countries, shaping their present and future. The Baltic business elites are an integral part of the transnational capitalist class — a product of the global economy and the ...
Political elite networks in Latvia and their transformation in 1993-2014
The authors consider the structure of the Latvian political elite in 1993—2014 and analyse the major network parameters. The roles of key network actors and their changes over the study period are examined
1. Dogan М., Higley J. Elites, Crises, and the Origins of Regimes. Rowman and Littlefield Publishers,...
On crisis trends in the legitimacy of the political regimes of the Baltic States
... political regimes of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. The article stresses the problem of legitimacy reproduction resulting from the limited representation of the national party systems. Special attention is paid to compensatory mechanisms used by political elites to ‘artificially’ reproduce legitimacy. It makes sense to analyse the deficit of legitimacy in the Baltic States not only in the context of threats to democratic institutions but also considering weaknesses of public institutions and insufficient ...
The Role of Political Elites in the Development of Politics of Memory in the Baltic States
The article focuses on multiple cases of the politicization of history by the Baltic political elites. Three states of development of politics of memory in the Baltic States are identified. Problems of political exploitation of the past are scrutinized in the context of political life and international relations. It is concluded that the narratives ...
Political reconsideration of the Soviet past: attitudes and actions of the Lithuanian elites
Different political elite groups of post-communist Lithuania offer different accounts of the Soviet past. Even twenty years later, after the collapse of communism Lithuanian politicians (with the exception of certain conservative anti-nostalgic leaders allied with some populists) ...
Königsberg’s urbal elites: Between the tradition and innovation (1815—1914)
The paper focuses on Königsberg’s elites faced with fast changes in the 19th century. The city’s old merchant families were up against increasing competition from new actors – industrialists and bankers – trying to take advantage of the former. The author examines changes in the ...
Smirnov V. A. Political elites of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia: recruitment factors and structural dynamics. Monograph. Kaliningrad. IKBSU Publishing House, 2016
Smirnov, V. A. 2016, Political elites of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia: recruitment factors and structural dynamics. Monograph. Kaliningrad. IKBFU Publishing House.
Mezhevich Nikolai M.
Forecasting Actions of Baltic elites: A Scenario Approach
This paper provides an overview of different approaches to forecasting the future of the three Baltic States. The author’s theoretical approach to studying Baltic elites is used to forecast changes in the action models of the Baltic elites. The article stresses the scarcity of internal political processes in the Baltics. However, a significant number of scenarios focusing on military aspects in the Baltics have ...
Elitist reasons behind the German revolution of November 1918
... place at the end of the First World War. Although the revolutionary events in Russia attract greater attention, the German revolution of November 1918 is of no less interest. In this article, I set out to highlight the situation of the German ruling elite on the eve of the war. The absence of bright personalities among the country's political establishment, on the one hand, and the lack of unity among the German elite, on the other, were the major causes of the bankruptcy of the Kaiser’s Germany....
Uncertainty as a Factor of Decision Making in the Context of the Exclave Problems of the Kaliningrad Region
The article analyses expert influence on decision making process. The author argues that high uncertainty increases political elite’s attention to experts under the conditions of democratic transit. The case of the Kaliningrad exclave is taken as an example.
Калининградская область: социально-политические ...
Family, duty, and honour in the First World War: Problems of the everyday life of the German military elite
This article describes different aspects of the everyday life of the German military elite during World War I. The author stresses the effect of protracted hostilities on professional high-ranking officers in view of their age, special social standards, and family relations. Special attention is paid to a new little-studied area of research....
Political elites in the region’s countries
International Conference «Political Elites of the Baltic Sea States in 1991—2011. Conclusions and Prospects»
Lannik L. Pobedonosnye proigravshie: germaskaya voennaya elita v 1914—1921 gg. [Victorious losers: The German military elite in 1914-1921] SPb.: Evrazia, 2015. 528 s.
Supranational party system of the EU
... Kaliningrad, 186 p.
4. Zhukovskiy, I. I. 2005, Partijnyje sistemy Vyshegradskih stran i evropejskaja integracija [Party systems of the Visegrad countries and the European integration], Kaliningrad, 117 p.
5. Zhukovskiy, I. I. 2011, Rekrutacja politicheskih elit v sovremennoj Polshe: nekotoryje predvaritelnyje suzhdenia [Rekrutasya political elites in contemporary Poland: some preliminary judgments], Vestnik Moskovskogo gosudartsvennogo universiteta. Ser.12 Politicheskie nauki [Bulletin of Moscow University....
The elite interaction in the post-Soviet Lithuania: the constitutional aspect
... политических систем стран Центрально-Восточной Европы: сравнительный анализ : автореф. дис. … д-ра полит. наук. Саратов, 2009.
Smirnov V. A.
elite, Lithuania, Constitution, post-soviet, interaction
The «(Un)Encapsulation» of the Political Elites of Latvia and Estonia and Russian-speaking Minorities
1. Dreifelds J. Latvia in Transition. Cambridge, 1996.
2. Political Representation and participation in Transitional Democracies: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania / Loftsson E., Choe Y., eds. Sodertoerns hoegskola, 2003.
3. Rozenvalds J. Latvia After Twelve Years of Renewed Independence: the Search for Normality // Latvijas Universitātes Raksti. 663. sēj. Rīga, 2004.
Russian-Estonian relations: a medium-term forecast
... perspective of the development of Russian-Estonian relations and factors affecting the probability of each scenario. It is shown that any change in the role of Estonia in Russian foreign policy depends not only on the specific actions of the Estonian elite, for example their readiness to change their position on the participation of Russian-speaking population in the democratic decision-making process or the evaluation of controversial events of the past, but also on the meaning that will be attached ...
Russia as an irritant factor for the political elitess of the Baltics in the context of election campaigns of 2010—2011: an expert opinion
... regarding the role and place of Russia in the social and political spaces of the former Baltic republics, which were articulated in the course of international expert discussions and round tables at the IKBFU.
Smirnov Vadim, Sutyrin Vyacheslav
elite, Baltic States, factor, expert channel, election campaign
Russia and the Baltic States: Some Results and a Few Perspectives
... made either difficult or altogether impossible when it comes to the Baltic States. For 20 years, the Russian Federation has been actively promoting a model of mutually beneficial co-operation. The anti-Russian discourse of the Baltic States' political elites — driven by their own wish to maintain their political monopoly — halts most of co-operation efforts. It is time to accept that the previous model of co-operation with the Baltic States is now irrelevant, since these states now form the avant-garde ...
The typological characteristic of culture in G. P. Fedotov’s philosophy
... // Там же.
4. Федотов Г. П. Письма о русской культуре // Там же.
5. Федотов Г. П. Новое отечество // Там же.
Savintsev V. I.
culture, culture genesis, civilisation, mass culture, elite culture, Western culture, Eastern culture, national culture, supranational culture, rational culture,
“Svetotomy” N. М. Kononov and Plato’s “The feast”: a dialogue of cultures
... identifying intertextual links between these text while the analysis establishes the dialogic nature of the texts on a conceptual level and they are united by the motifs of Feast and Love. The feasting narrative in Plato’s dialogue is a celebration of the elite, described in the traditions of ethics and philosophy of antiquity. The characters of “The feast” are historical figures, their friendly conversation demonstrates the search for truth, love is understood as a desire for beauty and for eternity....
Attitude to economic development issues as a feature of the sociological profile of the population in the Smolensk region border areas
... losses and risks are minimal. The population opinion poll conducted in the Smolensk region identifies the priority areas in economic and social policy. The article also points out to the difference in opinions of the population and the political elite of the region regarding the main vectors of economic development. The findings of the opinion polls can construct the sociological portrait of the region.
Katrovskiy A. P., Fesunova O. D.
The Smolensk region, economic development priorities,...
The Baltic states before and during World War II: The dilemma of independence
This article considers the events of the 1930—1940s in the Baltics. The authors analyse changes in the political systems and international priorities of the ruling elites of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. The influence of domestic factors on solving the problem of independence preservation in the conditions of world war is identified.
1. Anušauskas A. Teroras ir nusikaltimai žmoniškumui. Pirmoji sovietinė ...
Local government reforms in Estonia: institutional context, intentions and outcomes
... central-local balances in Estonia. The analysis draws on institutional theory, which explains the effect of deep value patterns and concrete political choices on the institutionalization logic followed after the 1993 reform. It is concluded that the local elites retaining their old value patterns will downplay the effect of the 2017 reform.
Gribanova, G. I., Sootla, G., Kersten, K.
local government, reforms, dual model, fuse model, central-local relations, autonomy, balance, institutional theory
The danish parliament as an actor of Denmark’s foreign policy towards the EU and Russia: a comparative analysis, 2005—2019
... and Russia. The findings lead one to conclude that the Danish Parliament’s participation in the country’s foreign policy towards EU bodies is highly institutionalised and coherent, which can be explained by close integration of Danish political elites into European ones as well as by European processes being clear and predictable for Danish parliamentarians. The participation of the Parliament in Danish—Russian relations is less systematic and structured since the Danish Parliament sometimes ...
After «the collapse of the empire»: British-American his-toriography of the first half of the 1990s on the parallels in the history of formation of the 20th century Lithuanian statehood
... Such scholars as A. Lieven and other authors characterize some main similarities and differences between those movements. These scholars emphasize the ambiguity of the Soviet experience, as well as the internal conflicts within the Lithuanian political elite and demonstrate the productivity of the comparative approach.
1. Ashbourne A. Lithuania: the rebirth of a nation, 1991—1994. Lanham, 1999.
2. Espiritu A. A. Lithuania: from mobilization to revolution, 1988—90: thesis (MA) / University of ...
No politics: François Guizot’s historiosophy before 1814
... theory — foundations cleansed of the political influence of the Bourbon Restoration (1814—1830) and the July Monarchy (1830-1848), where Guizot was an activist of the liberal opposition and later became one of the leaders of the French political elite.
1. Алпатов М. А. Политические идеи французской буржуазной историографии XIX в. М. ; Л., 1949.
2. Гизо Ф. Предисловие // Гиббон Э. Закат и падение ...
The system of financing political parties in Latvia
... пожертвовал ПРЗ крупную сумму. URL: http://rus.delfi.lv/news/daily/politics/yulij-kruminsh-pozhertvoval-prz-krupnuyu-summu.d?id= 40590139 (дата обращения: 23.10.2012).
Megem M., Rekeda S.
Republic of Latvia, political elites, Saeima, political party, oligarchs
Strategic competitiveness of organisations in knowledge economy
... capabilities: an empirical test // Organisation Science. 1995. Vol. 6, № 1.Р. 76—92.
24. Zook Chris. Finding your next core business // Harvard Business Review.2007. April. Р. 66—75.
Chuikin A. M.
strategic competitiveness, knowledge assets, elite universities
Territorial-political and regional geopolitical systems: correlation of concepts
... University Press.
5. Kaledin, N. V. 1996. Politicheskaja geografija [Political geography], St. Petersburg, St. Petersburg University Press.
6. Karabuschenko, P. L. 2009, Elity i jetnokonflikty v geopoliticheskom prostranstve «velikogo kaspijskogo regiona» [Elites and ethnic conflicts in the geopolitical space of the "great Caspian"], Kaspijskij region: politika, ekonomika,
kultura, no. 3 (20), p. 17—22.
7. Kolossov, V. A., Mironenko, N. S. 2001, Geopolitika i politicheskaja geografija [Geopolitics ...
New stage in the development of political science in Russia
... University Press.
15. Shames, S. L., Wise, T. 2017, Gender, Diversity, and Methods in Political Science: A Theory of Selection and Survival Biases, PS: Political Science & Politics, Vol. 50, no. 3, p. 811—823.
16. Gaman-Golutvina, O. 2007, Political Elites in the Commonwealth of Independent States: Recruitment and Rotation Tendencies, Comparative Sociology, Vol. 6, no. 1—2. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1163/156913307X208140.
17. Gaman-Golutvina, O. 2008, The Changing Role of the State and State Bureaucracy ...
The “Polish question” in Soviet-German relations in the second half of the 1920s (based on the materials of the USSR consulate in Königsberg)
... consuls carefully observed political life in Königsberg and the province. On the one hand, they paid attention to an increase in the nationalist and fascist attitudes. On the other hand, they emphasized the aspirations of the local political and business elite to develop economic cooperation with the Soviet Union. The People's Commissariat for Foreign Affairs tried to transform East Prussia into a Soviet lobby in the German government. These plans were not implemented at that time, but the 1920s ideas ...
Evolution of International Research Cooperation models in the Contemporary Foreign Policy Environment
... Forum], Nauka i tehnologii
Rossii [Science & Technology of Russia], available at: http://www.strf.ru/material.
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12. Zuckerberg, M. Javljaetsja li dostup v Internet bazovym pravom cheloveka? [Is Internet access a basic human right?], available at: https://www.facebook.
Transformation of the institutional matrix of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania within the Russian Empire
... elements with essentially different institutional matrices, there becomes possible a transplantational dysfunction of institutions, which in turn can initiate a crisis, capable, in case of a malfunctioning political system and disunited elites, of triggering a social collapse and (if there are interested «poles of power») the total disintegration of the society. The subsequent entry of its part into another social system constitutes one of the options of passing through a bifurcation ...
Amber as an economic and cultural phenomenon in the history of the Aesti and Prussians
32. Powierski J. Najdawniejsze nazwy etniczne z terenu Prus i niektórych obszarzów sąsednich // Komunikaty Mazursko-Warmińskie. Olsztyn, 1965. Z. 88.S. 174—179.
33. Skvortsov K. N. The Formation of a Sambian-Natangian culture patrimonial elite in the Roman period in the context of the amber trade // Archaeologia Baltica.Klaipeda, 2012. Vol. 18. P. 167—191.
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The regional approach in the policy of the Russian Federation towards the Republic of Estonia
... coding is employed to identify the impact of the regional approach on the beliefs of political leaders. The author comes to the conclusion that Russia’s policy towards Estonia largely depends on Russia’s policy towards the regions which the Russian elite relate Estonia to — the Baltic States, Northern Europe, and Europe as a whole. The results of the study can further the understanding of Russia’s policy towards Estonia both in Russia and abroad. Lack of understanding sometimes results in sharing ...
Translating philosophical aesthetics: Peritext as a window into the translator's mind. Part 2
... In N. J. Smelser and P. B. Baltes, eds. International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Oxford: Elsevier Science Ltd. Available at:
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Modern Hanseatic Trends in the Baltic Region
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18. Shlapeko, Е. А. 2012, The role of urban elites and the sister city movement in the formation of cross-border regions (on the example of the development of external relations of the Petrozavodsk urban district, the Republic of Karelia), Vestnik Nizhegorodskogo universiteta im. N. I. Lobachevskogo ...
Security in the Baltic region as a Projection of Global Confrontation between Russia and the USA
... external powers — Russia and the United States, — being a projection of their global geopolitical confrontation. The US strategy thus becomes a major part of the equation. The authors believe that since the end of the second Iraq war the American elite has been divided along ideological lines into adherents of the chaos theory and traditionalists thinking in terms of sharing control with the other centres of global power. The US strategy in the Baltic region does not seek an open military conflict ...
A ‘divided history’: the politics of memory on the territory of the former East Prussia in the light of current discussions
... Rossii [Memory strict regime. Russian History and Politics], Moscow.
7. Malinova, О.Yu. 2015, Aktual'noe proshloe: simvolicheskaja politika vlastvujushhej jelity i dilemmy rossijskoj identichnosti [Contemporary history: symbolic politics of the ruling elite and the dilemma of Russian identity], Мoscow.
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Foreign nationals on the Boards of Directors of Russia’s Ten Largest Non-Financial Companies Investing Overseas
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Normal range of liver stiffness measurement in healthy people
... measurements in healthy people varies widely: the normal liver elasticity values may vary in range of 1.5—7.5 kPa on measuring by transient elastography (FibroScan, Echosens); 2.4—6.2 kPa on measuring by point shear wave elastography (iU elite, Philips); 2.6—6.2 kPa on measuring by 2D shear wave elastography (Aixplorer, Supersonic Imagine). The liver shear wave velocity varies in the range of 0.71—1.71 m/s on measuring by the point shear wave elastography. The given data of the ...
Studies into the history of Russian Neo-Kantianism in Poland
... p. 85—98.
55. Kojkol J. 2001 (b), Wartosci a wychowanie w personalistycznej wizji edukacji Sergiusza Hessena [Values and education in Sergey Hessen’s personalistic vision of education] // Elitaryzm. Mistrz w edukacji / pod red. M. Szczepanskiej [Elitism. Master in education / ed. M. Szczepanska]. Slupsk, p. 19—29.
56. Kojkol J. 2009, Posthistoryczne traktowanie wartosci: B. Nawroczynski — S. Hessen — H. Elzenberg [Post-historical treatment values: B. Nawroczynski — S. Hessen — H. Elzenberg] ...