Municipal Tax Autonomy under Conditions of Budget Federalism: Reform Experience in Italy and Russia
The article deals with the questions of the current legislative budget process of local autonomies in the Russian Federation and Italy. The current
budget process of an Italian autonomy is characterized by the growing role of municipal taxes and overall decline in public transfers. In the Russian Federation, municipal budgets depend crucially ...
Kant on Human Dignity: Autonomy, Humanity, and Human Rights
This paper explores the new frontier within Kantian scholarship which suggests that Kant places so much special importance on the value of rational nature that the supreme principle of morality and the concept of human dignity are both grounded on it. Advocates of this reading argue that the notion of autonomy and dignity should now be considered as the central claim of Kant’s ethics, rather than the universalisation of maxims. Kant’s ethics are termed as repugnant for they place a high demand on...
Is Spinoza’s Ethics Heteronomous in the Kantian Sense of the Term?
The prevailing interpretations of Spinoza’s ethical theory view it as an example of heteronomy in the Kantian sense of the term. I make a case for the claim that is not in harmony with such interpretations. In the course of the argument I discuss Kant’s concepts of autonomy and heteronomy showing how they refer to will and to ethics. Then I describe a group of interpretations which portray Spinoza’s moral theory as heteronomous. My critique begins by presenting some textual evidence which vividly...
Kants Freiheitsargument. Diskussion von Heiko Puls: Sittliches Bewusstsein und Kategorischer Imperativ in Kants Grundlegung: Ein Kommentar zum dritten Abschnitt. Berlin und Boston: De Gruyter, 2016. 318 S.
... appropriately recognising the various other evidences against it. In what follows, I give examples for this criticism.
1. Beck, L. W., 1995. Kants Kritik der praktischen Vernunft. 3. Aufl. München: Wilhelm Fink.
2. Bittner, R., 1986. Moralisches Gebot und Autonomie. Freiburg & München: Alber.
3. Brandt, R., 1988. Der Zirkel im dritten Abschnitt von Kants Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten. In: H. Oberer, G. Seel, hg. 1988. Kant. Analysen — Probleme — Kritik. Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, ...
Migration and the Transformation of Multiethnic Population Structure in the Kaliningrad Region of the Post-Soviet Era
This paper analyses the migration processes and their influence on the transformation of multiethnic population structure in the Kaliningrad region. The author uses official statistics (current statistics and census data), as well as interviews with the representatives of ethnic cultural associations as information sources. Special attention is paid to the migration features associated with different ethnic groups. The author identifies major reasons behind the incoming and outgoing movement of population...
Developing autonomy in students in linguistics in the context of the SEAGULL international multi-language project
Tambovkina T., Rozhkova O.
Local government reforms in Estonia: institutional context, intentions and outcomes
The local government reforms of 1989 and 1993 were intended to establish a dual pattern of central-local relations in Estonia. The choice of this model was inspired and supported by the Nordic states. Although the legal framework for local government has remained untouched since 1993, the introduction of institutional mechanisms for strong local autonomy was not a success. The first part of this article seeks to identify the main factors that inhibited the launch of the new institutional model. These...
Spiritual foundations of law
This article attempts to elucidate the fundamental connection between law and morals. The authors substantiate the thesis about the spiritual nature of law as a methodological principle of theoretical and practical jurisprudence. The subject content of spiritual foundations of law is demonstrated through the triunity of dignity, autonomy, and mutual respect and trust. Alongside factual and legal aspects, the article addresses the moral aspect of legal relationship.
1. Большая советская энциклопедия...
The development of positive self-relation by means of eurhythmics
This article attempts to solve two interrelated problems: to analyse the correlation between the body image disturbance and such self-relation characteristics as time competence, autonomy, self-respect, self-acceptance, selfconfidence, social boldness, initiative in social contacts, aggression, and hostility; to consider the opportunity of psychological management by means of eurhythmics. The comparative analysis of the results of eurhythmics application proves that this method is effective in the...
The motif of light and the criticism of the autonomous subject in the works of I. Murdoch
The article considers the Heideggerian principle of autonomy as a philosophical principle of self-dependence of Being, and its actualization in Murdoch’s works. The motif of autonomous reason as a «barrier»against the light of Being, the motif of mechanization of thought and feeling in the world of metaphysics completing itself, together with Platonic motifs and the esthetic diagnosis of the «death of light» in the 20th century (H. Zedlmayr), form the poetology of light in Murdoch’s works in the...
Modern approaches to the selection of teaching aids in a foreign (English) languages at a non-linguistic university
This article is devoted to the problem of selecting the content of the “for-eign language” university course, in particular the selection of textbooks on the basis of modern psychological and pedagogical approaches. In order to im-prove the quality of teaching languages at university, the author suggests considering the content and structural component of textbooks from the pers-pective of the formation of students’ autonomy — one of the key notions of modern pedagogics.
Development of Aland Islands: major trends and challenges
This article considers key conditions and factors of the development of Aland Islands, describes main international legal regulations determining current status of the islands, identifies the trends in volume and structure of economic activities, ana lyzes processes of population change by regions and communes, as well as migration flows. The article also characterizes legal framework for socioeconomic development of the Finnish region. It is argued that the key factor behind modern welfare of the...
Kants Begriff der Verbindlichkeit und die neuzeitliche Naturrechtslehre
My article is devoted to one of the main concepts of early modern natural law, i. e. the concept of obligation. Starting with Pufendorf's concept of obligation, it will be demonstrated that the natural law is grounded on the will of God. In contrast, the concept of obligation in Christian Wolff's Philosophia practica universalis has no need to found the validity of obligation of natural law in God's will. Instead he developed a concept which was based on the idea of a free self-binding moral subject...
This article considers the correlation between the historical Christianity and the pure religion of reason, the figure of the biblical Christ of Nazareth and Kant's interpretation of his personality. The author focuses on the question, whether the Biblical Christ, as a real historical person, is the personification of the idea of the absolute good and moral perfection.
1. Кант И. Религия в пределах только разума // Собр. соч.: в 8 т. М., 1994. Т. 6.
2. Его же. Метафизика нравов // Там же.
The pedagogical prognosis of success on the basis of teenagers' personal characteristics analysis
This article analyses teenagers' personal characteristics that determine academic and social success as well as the ways to detect them in the process of education. The research encompasses motivation for success, the level of subjective control, self-esteem, self-awareness in educational process, autonomy/dependence and the level of anxiety.
Восприятие и понимание человека человеком. М., 1982.
А., Селезнева Е.
Акмеологическая культура личности: содержание...
The questions of the poet A. S. Kushner to the philosopher I. Kant regarding the otherworldly
This article proves that when addressing the problem persistent in his oeuvre — whether the humanity exists independently in space or it is a transcendental project — the Saint Petersburg poet A. S. Kushner always consults with I. Kant.
1. Гейне Г. Собр. соч.: в 10 т. М., 1958. Т. 6.
2. Кант И. Всеобщая естественная история и теория неба // Кант И. Соч.: в 6 т. М., 1964. Т. 1. С. 245.
3. Кант И. Опыт некоторых рассуждений об оптимизме (1759) // Кант И. Соч.: в 6 т. М., 1964. Т. 2. С. 245.
The role of J.-J. Rousseau's and I. Kant's teachings on will in the development of S. Hessen's philosophical and legal conception
This article provides a brief description of Sergey Hessen’s philosophy of law in connection with J. J. Rousseau’s idea of «common will» and Kant’s «autonomy of will».
1. Гессен С. И. Философия наказания // Логос. М.: Тип. Т-ва А. А. Левенсон, 1912—1913. Кн. 1, 2. С. 183—232.
2. Гессен С. И. Политические идеи жирондистов. М., 1917.
3. Гессен С. И. Основы педагогики. Введение в прикладную философию. М., 1995.
4. Гессен С. И. Лев Толстой как мыслитель // Гессен С. И. Избранные сочинения. М., 1998...
Anthropological foundations of John Rawls' political theory
The analysis of Rawls’ anthropological model, underlying his theory of justice, reveals its complex basis: on one hand, it is an attempt to attach broader and deeper Kantian philosophical foundations to “ratonal egoist” of classical utilitarianism (idea of autonomy, ability of self-determination through moral law); on the other hand, the notion of “life plan”, emphasizing rationality of human interests and actions and opening a possibility for happiness, connects Rawls’ theory to Aristotle’s virtue...
Anthropological foundations of John Rawls' political theory
The analysis of Rawls’ anthropological model, underlying his theory of justice, reveals its complex basis: on one hand, it is an attempt to attach broader and deeper Kantian philosophical foundations to “rational egoist” of classical utilitarianism (idea of autonomy, ability of self-determination through moral law); on the other hand, the notion of “life plan”, emphasizing rationality of human interests and actions and opening a possibility for happiness, connects Rawls’ theory to Aristotle’s virtue...
The mythical-historical images of Bruno Schulz’s ‘Spring’ in the context of Kafka’s mythologism
Myths and history are different but related forms of consciousness. They date back to the archaic and new periods of world history. New forms of synthesis between history and myths translated in the ‘mythical-historical imagery’ of the 20th-century art. For the first time in the history of world culture, modernism has created a synthesis between the seemingly divergent elements — history and myths. This article analyses Schulz’s short story ‘Spring’ in the context of Franz Kafka’s mythological oeuvre...
The metropolitan student community and the Constitutional Democratic Party: The Saint Petersburg student faction of the Party of People’s Freedom in 1905—1908
This article examines the features of Constitution Democratic Party formation and the activities of party members within the student community. Based on documents introduced into scientific use, the structure, social composition, and activities of metropolitan student groups of the Constitutional Democratic Party are analysed.
1. Балтовский Л. В. Политическая доктрина конституционных демократов.СПб., 2009.
2. Баранов А. Н. Интеллигенция и конституционно-демократическая партия накануне и в период...
Lessing’s Hamburg Dramaturgy in the “codes of hope” discourse of the Enlightenment
This article considers Lessing’s theatrical project of establishing a German National theatre aimed at founding a “school of morality” in Hamburg. In the 18th century, Hamburg was considered a stronghold of freedom in the opposition between the two forms of being — the feudal and burgher’s ones — having become a capital of the new system of values. Philosophy and arts served as a means in this struggle against dogmatism and feudal absolutism. In this atmosphere, a newconceptual culture emerged. This...
The notion of anthropology in Kant's philosophy
.... Kant und Wissenschaften vom Menschen. Bielefeld, 2009.
23. Wood A. Unsociable Sociability. The Anthropological Basis of Kant’s Ethics // Philosophical Topics. Vol. 19 (1991). P. 325—351.
24. Wenzel U. J. Anthroponomie: Kants Archäologie der Autonomie. B., 1992.
vocation of human being, transcendental idealism, "pragmatic" anthropology, "moral" and "practical" anthropology, lectures on anthropology, motivation, character, right, "fundamental" anthropology,...
The concept of postulate in Kant's philosophy
Postulates play an important role in Kant’s philosophy. Kant’s understanding of this term differs from the previous tradition. For Kant, postulates are originally subjective propositions necessarily supposed as objective ones. Otherwise, the systematic theoretical cognition and compliance with the moral law become impossible. However, this feature of Kant’s word usage is hardly taken into consideration. That is why Kant is wrongly accused of atheism.
1. Аристотель. Вторая аналитика // Собр. соч...
Russian Population Ethnic Structure: Trends and Transformations
Based on the census data from 1989, 2002 and 2010, the article analyzes the evolution of the ethnic structure of the population of the post-Soviet Russia from the territorial perspective. The stability of the ethnic structure of the “Russian mega nucleus” and indigenization of the national regions are considered in view of the differences in migration trends during the two inter-census periods and the socioeconomic situation in the regions. The urbanization rate of major ethnic groups is an indirect...
Legal Consciousness at the Early Stage of Personality Development from the Perspective of Russian Neo-Kantian Philosophy of Pedagogy
In this study, I investigate the philosophico-pedagogical concepts developed by German and Russian Neo-Kantians, namely P. Natorp, S. I. Hessen, M. M. Rubinstein. In order to identify the peculiarities of the approaches of the Neo-Kantians to legal consciousness in children, I show that the widely accepted view that Hessen borrowed Natorp’s hierarchical triad of moral development — anomie, heteronomy, and autonomy — lacks a solid ground. Moreover, Natorp generally does not use the concept of anomie...
Factors of self-actualization of student youth in the context of cross-cultural interaction and the mastering of a macro-mediator language
The topicality of this pilot study is predetermined by the necessity to optimize cross-cultural interaction in polyethnic regions by means of revelation of its subjects’ sociological portrait. In this research, the author attempts to experimentally investigate the nature of cross-cultural interaction in mastering a macro-mediator language in the academic discourse. A scenario of the standardized interview has been used as a method of research. The scenario features various factors of personality...
Moral inscrutability and self-constitution in Kant (translated from the English by V. Belonogova and D. Khizanishvili, edited by V. Chaly)
This article analyses the system of inferences used by Kant in Religion Within the Boundaries of Mere Reason to demonstrate the existence of evil disposition (Gesinnung). The author be¬lieves that, in this work, Kant introduces two innovations in respect of the fundamental project presented in the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. He emphasises that freedom is not justified and postulates a transcendental structure similar to the unity of transcendental apperception in order to unify all volitions...
Unvergängliche Bedeutung des philosophisch-pädagogischen Schaffens Kants
9. Сериков В. В. Образование и личность: Теория и практика проектирования педагогических систем. М., 1999.
10. Engel R. Kants Vorlesung über Pädagogik: Die Autonomie des pädagogischen Gedankens auf der Grundlage der transzendentalen Lehre vom Ding an sich // Engel R. Kants Lehre vom Ding an sich und ihre Erziehungs- und Bildungstheoretische Bedeutung. Frankfurt am Main [u. a.], 1996. S. 150—161.
11. Honneth ...
Revisiting the Maxim-Law Dynamic in the Light of Kant’s Theory of Action
A stable classification of practical principles into mutually exclusive types is foundational to Kant’s moral theory. Yet, other than a few brief hints on the distinction between maxims and laws, he does not provide any elaborate discussion on the classification and the types of practical principles in his works. This has led Onora O’Neill and Lewis Beck to reinterpret Kant’s classification of practical principles in a way that would clarify the conceptual connection between maxims and laws. In this...
Affection of Law: Fichte on the Place and Boundaries of Pure Ethics of the Imperative
In his popular 1806 lectures on religion Fichte considered five possible worldviews in the second of which, “the standpoint of legality”, one can readily recognise the ethics of law of the Stoical and Kantian type. Fichte stresses that in his youth he himself shared this worldview. However, he hastens to adduce a series of original arguments to show that this position is essentially incapable of delivering a pure and higher moral doctrine. I examine the substance of these critical arguments in the...
Feyerabend’s Natural Law Notes and their significance for Kant studies. Preface
Natural Law Notes of Feyerabend is one of the most important sources by the research of ethical and juridical views of Kant. Dating back to 1784 they distinctly demonstrate that the basic principles of Kant’s philosophy of right are not a late production of the philosopher, but they have been formed already in the middle of 80’s of 18th century. Therewith we can use this lectures notes for the studies of Kant’s moral philosophy too, because of their closeness to the Foundations of Metaphysics of...
Cohen and Natorp’s Philosophy of Religion: the Argument about the Boundary of Reason
The philosophy of religion as presented by Hermann Cohen and Paul Natorp, the founders and main representatives of the Marburg School of Neo-Kantianism, is an important and at the same time controversial part of their philosophical systems. The discussion around the problems of religion began within the Marburg School and still continues among those who study that School. The reason for this is that “fitting” philosophical thinking about the phenomenon of religion into the classical triad of any...
Duty and Coercion in Kant’s Republican Cosmopolitanism
This paper argues whether Kant’s cosmopolitanism entails a specific theory of coercion. I will especially tackle Kant’s account of international political order. First, I claim that Kant attributes a systematic role to the cosmopolitan right, what justifies considering this part of the doctrine of law as a necessary rational conclusion of the legal system, although its institutional embodiment differs from that required by the rights of states. I highlight that according to Kant states may not behave...
The Problem of the Relationship between Apperception, Self-Consciousness and Consciousness in Kant’s Critical Philosophy
Kant does not provide clear-cut definitions of apperception, consciousness, and self-consciousness and everywhere uses these terms as synonyms, which creates the problem of the relationship between these faculties. The importance of this problem stems from the colossal significance of each of the above-mentioned faculties which are intimately connected with Kant’s formulation of the key tasks of transcendental philosophy. The prime task is to discover the categories of understanding and to prove...
God’s Law or Categorical Imperative: on Crusian Issues of Kantian Morality
The ethics of Kant and the ethics of Crusius are strikingly similar. This is manifested in a whole range of principles and concepts. Crusius’ moral teaching hinges on the rigorous moral law which has to be obeyed absolutely, and which makes it different from other prescriptions that are binding only to a relative degree. This is very close to the Kantian distinction between hypothetical and categorical imperatives. Another salient feature of Crusius’ moral teaching is the stress laid on the sphere...
Types of Representational Content in Kant
In this essay, I specify types of representational content that can be attributed to Kant’s account of representation. The more specific aim is to examine which of these types of content can be regarded as possible without the application of concepts. In order to answer the question, I proceed as follows. First, I show how intuition (in Kant’s sense) can be seen as providing indexical content independently of empirical concepts. Second, I show in what sense the generation of spatial content can be...
Digital World Communication аnd Translation
The introduction of digital computers, information and communication technologies (ICTs), and the Internet/Web has broadened the scope of communication globally in ways unprecedented in human history. The “digital world” implies more than the technical and instrumental aspects and usage of technology; it equally involves our tangible human social engagement and interface with the tools and technologies themselves. The relevance of digital studies to translation studies, and vice versa, is substantial...
Around the “social pedagogy” of Paul Natorp: Vladimir Dinze in the debates on national upbringing. Part 1
Many scholars and practitioners in the sphere of the public education and upbringing in Russia addressed themselves to the philosophical-pedagogical ideas of German philosopher of Neo- Kantian movement Paul Natorp. These ideas were formulated mainly in his fundamental work “Social Pedagogy”. Vladimir Dinze relies on Natorp’s thesis of the national school as the way of accustoming “the all people to the national culture”, actualizes the heritage of Russian and Western pedagogues and philosophers and...
Moral und Dogma: Alois Riehls Neukantianismus im Spannungsfeld zwischen Religion und Politik
The aim is to examine Alois Riehl’s contribution to the “culture war” (Kulturkampf) in the second half of the nineteenth century. We show that he used Kant’s autonomy principle to argue against the idea that religious dogmatism is a fundament of morality. We prove this thesis by focusing on the forgotten historical background, which is important for an understanding of Morals und Dogma. Originally this essay was an expert opinion for the court case of the socialist H. Tauschinski who was accused...
Kant and the Problem of Optimism: The Origin of the Debate
... Philosophical Theology, ed. by K. H. L. Pölitz, transl. and comment. by L. E. Kryshtop, ed. by A. N. Krouglov, Moscow. (In Russ.)
Kanzian, Chr. 1993, Kant und Crusius 1763, in: Kant-Studien, Bd. 84, pp. 399—407.
Klemme, H. F. 2008, Moralisches Sollen, Autonomie und Achtung. Kants Konzeption der „libertas indifferentiae“ zwischen Wolff und Crusius, in: Rohden, V. u.a. (hg.), Recht und Frieden in der Philosophie Kants. Akten des X. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses, Bd. 5, Berlin, pp. 215—227.