Environmental aspect of the current Arctic Strategy of Sweden
The article considers the environmental aspect of the current Arctic Strategy of Sweden. Despite the general predominant environmental vector, objective results of the Swedish Arctic Strategy remain quite frugal. As the leading environmental European power, Sweden was not able to present a comprehensive environmental part of its Arctic ...
A ‘Secret alliance’ or ‘Freedom from any alliances’? NATO accession debate in Sweden and Finland, 1991—2016
The authors analyze the policy of NATO towards Sweden and Finland, the neutral states of Northern Europe, in 1991—2016. The authors emphasize that Finland and Sweden have always been of high strategic importance for NATO and the EU defence policy. The authors investigate the main areas of cooperation ...
The Denominational Space of Modern Sweden: Christianity
This article considers spatial and temporal diffusion of Christian values in Sweden and examines the features of the country’s confessional space. The work aims to identify historical and geographical characteristics of the formation of Sweden’s Christian space and of its current transformation. Another objective is to introduce ...
Impact of external migration on changes in the Swedish religious landscape
For most of its history, Sweden has been a country dominated by the Lutheran Church, having the status of the official state religion. Starting in mid-to-late 20th century, mass immigration to Europe had a considerable impact on the confessional structure of Sweden’s population....
Territorial differences in the innovative development of Sweden, Finland, and the North-western federal district of the Russian Federation
This article considers the innovative component of the economies of Sweden, Finland, and the Noreth-western federal district (NWFD) of the Russian Federation. The authors present the results of a comparative analysis of research and technological potential of the regions and their administrativeterritorial units in terms ...
The Swedish model of spatial planning: Functions, problems, and solutions
... are shown as different types of plans: Regional plan, Municipal comprehensive plan, Detailed development plan, Special area regulations and Property regulation plan. Particular attention is paid to the influence on the planning process of the entry of Sweden to the European Union. The problems associated with spatial planning are made evident and solutions are proposed. Swedish experience may be interesting to the urban and regional planners.
1. Чистобаев А. И., Красовская О....
Geopolitical and Geo-economic Changes in the Baltic Sea Region at the Turn of the XX—XXI centuries
... were three socialist countries in the Baltic Sea region. They were signatories of the Warsaw Pact and members of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (the Soviet Union, Poland and East Germany). The Baltic Sea region housed four market economies (Sweden, Finland, Denmark and Germany). Only two of them were members of NATO and the EU (Germany and Denmark). At present, there are eight EU countries in the region; six of them are NATO members (Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia and ...
Universities of the North-western federal district in Russian-Finnish research cooperation
This article focuses on the cooperation between universities of the North-western federal district (NWFD) of the Russian Federation, Sweden, and Finland, its intensity and territorial differentiation. The analysis was conducted on the basis of public domain information on the international activity of universities available on their official websites. The authors identify the principle ...
Property Right and Expropriation in Proceedings of the European Court of Human Rights
United Kingdom, ECtHR, Ser. A №
Kompaniya YUKOS v. Russia, ECtHR, 29.01.2009.
and others v. Greece, ECtHR, Ser. A №
and Lönnroth v. Sweden, ECtCH, Ser. A №
Greek Refineries ans Stratis Andreadis v. Greece, ECtHR, Ser. A №
AB v. Sweden, ECtHR, Ser. A №
van Marle v.
Netherlands, ECtHR, Ser....
The Baltic macroregion: geographical macrostructures, communication features, innovative potential
... considers and assesses the influence of macro-geographical factors on communication behaviour of people in the course of transition to innovative economy through the example of the Baltic Sea region.
1. Dinamika razvitija jekonomicheskogo krizisa: Sweden [The dynamics of the economic crisis: Sweden], 2010, Informacionnyj bjulleten' Instituta Baltijskogo regiona RGU im. I. Kanta [Newsletter of the Institute of Baltic Studies of the Immanuel
Kant State University of Russia], I quarter 2010, Kaliningrad,...
Transborder corporate integration in the Baltic Sea Region
... demonstrates close investment ties among the EU members, which are of special importance for Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Transborder corporate integration in the region is characterized by significant imbalances. In many aspects, it can be viewed as Sweden’s economic expansion or development of domestic markets for northern European companies. Although many German, Polish and Russian companies are involved in corporate integration in the Baltic region, other vectors of their foreign economic relations ...
Innovative economy in the Baltic Sea region
Innovative activity is carried out at three levels — those of the state, region and a company or a university. This article considers the level of development of knowledge-based economy in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland at each of the three levels, as well as descripes the spatial differentiation of innovative activity within the Baltic region. The analysis is done on the basis of national and international research,...
The transformation of the Swedish political party system in the late 20th/early 21st century
.... 4, no. 3.
8. Programrevisionen — så går det till, 1990, Partiprogrammet. Studie-och diskussionsmaterialinför programrevision, Stockholm, SAP, 23 p.
9. Bolotnikova, Ye. G. 2011, Pravoradikal'nye partii sovremennoj Shvecii [Right-wing party Sweden today], Vestnik MGIMO-Universiteta [Bulletin of the MGIMO-University], no. 5 (20), p. 174—181.
10. Sahlin M. Möjligheternas land: min vision för Sverige. — Stockholm: Norstedts, 2010, 287 s.
11. Hadenius, S. 1997, Shvedskaja politika ...
The later works of Boris Porshnev in foreign historiography
... History. 2007. Vol. 34, № 1/4. Р. 365—381.
43. Polišenský J. V., Snider F. War and society in Europe. 1618—1648. Cambridge ; L. ; N. Y. ; Melbourne, 1978.
44. Porshnev B. Social psychology and history. Moscow, 1970.
45. Porshnev B. F. Muscovy and Sweden in the Thirty Years’ War, 1630—1635. Cambridge, 1995.
46. Roberts M. Gustavus Adolphus and the Rise of Sweden. L., 1973.
47. Skrzypek M. La fortune de Jean Meslier en Russie et en Union Soviétique // Dix-Huitième Siècle. 1971. № 3. Р....
The International Association of Teachers of Russian Language and Literature and its Activity in the Baltic Sea States
... of activity. The authors focus on the activity of MAPRYAL in the Baltic Sea States offering a detailed description of the International Festival of Russian Language in the Baltic Sea States, and the events held by MAPRYAL in Germany, Poland, Finland, Sweden, and Denmark.
Brunova Natalia, Moskovkin Leonid, Yurkov Yevgeny
Baltic Region, Russian language, Russian language functioning, Russian language festivals, cultural and educational events
Disease control and border lockdown at the EU’s internal borders during Covid-19 pandemic: the case of Finland
... and ‘non-essential’ travel from non-Schengen countries such as Russia, China and Thailand but, with some exceptions, it also restricted travel-to-work commuting and everyday cross-border encounters between Finland and its Schengen neighbours of Sweden, Norway and Estonia. The restrictions hampered tourism and migrant-dependent industries as well as complicated the lives of migrants’ families. While the lockdown of the Estonian and Russian border does not cause any debates in Finnish society,...
Innovation Capacity of Russia and the Baltics: a Comparative Approach
... results of a comparative analysis of innovative development in Russia and the Baltic Sea countries based on the calculation of an integral research and technological potential index for the Russian Federation, the Northwestern Federal District of Russia, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Germany, Poland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia. The paper describes the level of research and technological development of Russia in 2008—2010 in terms of human resources, R&D, material and technical components, and ...
Gas infrastructure development in the countries of East Baltic as a way to increase energy security
3. Prezident Litvy: Latvija mozhet rasschityvat' na litovskij SPG-terminal [Lithuanian President: Latvia can count on Lithuanian LNG terminal], 2012, REGNUM, 13 June, available at: http://regnum. ru/news/1541130.html (accessed 25 December 2012).
4. Sweden's first LNG terminal should be commissioned in mid-2011 in Brunnsviksholme, 2011, WooEB news, 24 May, available at: http://news. wooeb.com/741075/PreSubmit. aspx (accessed 25 December 2012).
5. V Shvecii budet postroen vtoroj terminal dlja priema ...
An Assessment of the Economic Performance of the EU Baltic Region States
... paper explores how the common economic space, a product of the EU, influenced the economies of the Baltic Sea Region states in 1995—2015. The authors investigate changes in the economic performance of the developed (Germany, Denmark, Finland, and Sweden) and Eastern European countries (Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia) during the integration of the latter states into the EU. Performance dynamics is analyzed for eight EU Baltic Sea Region countries. Three Russian Baltic regions constitute a control ...
Different forms of parliamentarism and the factors determining the variations
... Skrzydło, W. 1997. French Constitution, introduction and translation. Warszawa.Art. 20. P. 40.
5. Gulczyński, M. 2004. Panorama of Political Systems in the World. Warszawa.
6. Grzybowski, M. 2000. Introduction. In: The Constitution of the Kingdom of Sweden. Warszawa, Sec. 6. P. 41.
7. Żebrowski, W. 2007. Contemporary Political Systems. An Outline of Theories and Practice in Chosen Countries in the World. Ed. 2. Olsztyn.
8. Żebrowski, W. 2002. Contemporary Political Systems of Chosen Countries ...
NATO Policies in the Baltics: Objectives and Priorities
... chief pretext for increased military presence in the region is the alleged need to defend the Baltic states from the Russian threat. Special attention is paid to the attempts of Western military strategists to encourage the neutral Nordic states — Sweden and Finland — to accede to NATO. This would lead to the organisation’s northern enlargement. The current situation suggests that to ease tension in the Baltic Sea region Russia has not only to respond adequately to emerging military threats ...
Baltic Cooperation in Marine Spatial Planning
... of the EU’s integrated policy. Many European countries of the Baltic region are seeking cooperation with Russia to preserve the natural and economic environment of the Baltic Sea. Most joint spatial planning projects have been initiated by Finland, Sweden, Germany, and Poland.
Palmowski T., Tarkowski M.
Baltic Sea region, European Union, integrated coastal area management, spatial planning, Poland, Russia
The territorial differentiation of demographic development of the Baltic macroregion
Kuznetsova T.Yu., Fedorov G. M.
Baltic macroregion, natural population change, population change by migration, territorial differentiation.
Inclusive education in Russia and the Baltic countries: a comparative analysis
In this study, we examine the current state and prospects of inclusive education for learners with special needs and disabilities in the countries of the Baltic region (Poland, Sweden, Germany, Denmark, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Norway, and Russia). We present a SWOT analysis of the development of inclusive education in different countries and analyse its strengths and weaknesses, risks, threats, and challenges from a political,...
East Baltics: Economic Dilemmas of Security
... the economic sustainability of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania in the context of military spending. The authors maintain that an increase in military spending can either strengthen or weaken national economic and technological potential. In Germany or Sweden, military spending accounts for a smaller proportion of the GDP or budget revenues, but it is integrated into the general model of innovative and technological development. In the case of the Baltics, it is advisable to estimate military spending ...
Assessing competitiveness of the Baltic states in tourism
... infrastructure development and conditions for doing business in tourism. The Baltic reign states rank differently on the affordability of tourism. Germany is the regional leader in terms of attractiveness, followed by the Russian Federation, Poland, Norway, and Sweden. The analysis showed that Russia lagged behind its competitors in travel formalities, the climate for small and medium businesses, and travel safety; infrastructure, statistical monitoring, and promotion required attention as well. In the conclusion,...
On the models of modern research and education pol-icy in the Baltic region states
This article provides a comparative analysis of the mechanisms of education policies pursued by the governments of Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. The authors identify similarities and differences in the funding mechanisms, direction of reforms, the role of education system modernization in the innovative development of the Baltic Sea region,...
Russian foreign trade and integration processes in the Baltic region
: Ministry of Economy
Statisticzny. Warszawa, 1995.
of Estonia.URL: www.stat.ee
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factbook.URL: www.odci.gov.cia ...
On the establishment of state borders and delimitation of marine areas of the Russian Federation in the Kaliningrad region zone
... This border replicated the Lithuanian-German border of 1928 and was of orographic nature. The termination of negotiation on the state border of the Russian Federation and the delimitation of marine areas in the Baltic Sea with Lithuania, Poland, and Sweden in 2005 made it possible to define the geographical parameters of the territory of the Kaliningrad region and adjacent territorial waters and the Russian exclusive economic zone.
1. Границы Литвы. Тысячелетняя история ...
The geoecological factors of biodiversity in marine invertebrates
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An outline history of tropical organic reefs // Am. Mus. Novitates. 1971. №
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On Late-Quaternary history of Southern Sweden and the Baltic basin // Baltica. 1970. Vol. 4. P. 11—31.
Latitudinal gradients in species diversity, A review of concepts // Am. Naturalist. 1966. №
100. P. 33—46.
Diversity and ...
The prospects of entrepreneurship in the formation of new hi-tech markets in the Baltic Sea region
... Europe. The authors also offer a country-specific list of basic markets, which can be developed by small and medium enterprises in a short-term perspective. In the structure of the Baltic Sea region a special position is held by the Nordic countries — Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland — major regional innovators, as well as a group of South-eastern regions that serve as innovation consumers. Best hopes rest with information and communications technologies and biotechnologies, which are expected ...
The concepts of enclave and exclave and their use in the political and geographical characteristic of the Kaliningrad region
... L’Europe face á un nouveau «Départament d’Outre terre» russe sur la Baltique, Paris, L’Harmattan.
7. Joenniemi, P., Dewar, S. and Lyndelle, D. 2000, Fairlie The Kalininigrad Puzzle — A Russian Region within the European Union, Karlkrona, Sweden, The Baltic Institute and the Åland Islands Peace Institute.
enclave, exclave, enclavity, exclavity, enclave territories, political geography, parent and surrounding states, dividing state, state border, transit
A historical overview of the Swedish pension system development
för Sverige. URL: http://www.scb.se/Statistik/
Sweden, Swedish model, SAP, old age pension.
North-West Russia in the context of European integration
... European regions in terms of economic interests, as well as its natural and sociocultural landscape.
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3. Kochegarova, Т. М. 2011, Rol' Baltijskogo regiona v sotrudnichestve ...
Social study of psychoavtive substance abuse in the Baltic region state: The Russian component of the international study
... article presents the Russian contrinution to the international study "Alcohol and drug prevention among youth in Baltic Sea region" (ADPY), implemented in 2012-2013 with the participation of municipalities from four European countries – Sweden, Norway, Lithuania, and Russia (two districts of the Kaliningrad region). The study aimed to collect comparable data on alcohol, drug, and other psychoactive substance abuse in 15-16 year olds. This article analyses the feautures of substance abuse ...
Endosurgical treatment of bile-duct stones
... Tsuishoysha M. et al. F. Choledocholithiasis. Endoscopic sphincterotomy or common bile duct exploration // Annals of Surgery. 1991.Vol. 213, N 6. Р. 27—33.
14. Strömberg C., Nilsson M. Nationwide study of the treatment of common bile duct stones in Sweden between 1965 and 2009 // Br. J. Surg. 2011. Vol. 98. Р. 1766—1774.
15. Trikudanathan G., Navaneethan U., Parsi M. A. Endoscopic management of difficult common bile duct stones // World J Gastroenterol. 2013. Vol. 19, N 2. Р. 165—173.
Development of Sea Port in Gdynia
... Some empirical evidence from container ports (terminals), Transportation Research, Part A, no. 39, p. 405—424.
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Palmowski T., Tarkowski M.
Gdynia, infrastructure and suprastructure development, port competitiveness, sea port, transport accessibility
Population Ageing as a Sociodemographic Problem in the Baltic Region
... multi-factor simulation modelling; some findings are presented on schematic maps. The study shows that by the end of the century the highest dependency ratio in the Baltic region will be observed in Poland, while Finland, Estonia, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden will also face significant challenges. The authors put forward demographic policy recommendations for those Baltic region states that will reach the highest dependency ratio by the second half of the 21st century.
1. Bashlachev, V. А. 2014, ...
International relations of the North-West federal district of the Russian Federation and the New North concept
... May 8. [online] Available at: <FT.com> (Accessed 15 January 2011).
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regional external relations, New North concept, international organisations, Northern Dimension,...
Historical memory in the age of globalization: the case of Russian- Estonian relations
... understanding of the reasons behind the actually made decision. The author expresses his gratitude to his counterparts from St. Petersburg State University and the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, as well as those from the Universities of Lund (Sweden), Tampere (Finland), and Tartu (Estonia) for their comments on the earlier versions of the article. At the same time, the author alone bears all the responsibility for the conclusions drawn in the article.
1. Anderson, B. 2001, Voobrazhaemye ...
Economic and Geographical Structure of the Baltic Sea region
The Baltic Sea region is one of the most developed transnational regions. It comprises the coastal areas of Russia, Germany, and Poland and the entire territories of Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. New spatial forms of international economic cooperation develop in the region. The region is not homogeneous in terms of socioeconomic development, thus there are certain differences in the areas ...
Forms of International Cooperation in Environmental Education: the Experience of Saint Petersburg State University
... is implemented jointly by Hamburg university (the lead partner of the project), and university professors from Helsinki (Finland) and Lisbon (Portugal). Researchers from the Austrian National Institute of Polar Research (Austria, and Lund University (Sweden) will join the programme at a later stage. Such an approach will help achieve the synergy of the European and Russian approaches to environmental education. The Russian-Norwegian master programme “Geoecological monitoring and rational use of ...
Countries of the Baltic Region in the Global Culinary Space
... leading cuisines (Italian, Japanese, Chinese, etc.) as well as the local cuisines of the BSR countries. The world’s leading cuisines prove to be more influential in the region than the local ones. Some countries of the Baltic Sea region (Russia, Poland, Sweden, Latvia, and Denmark) have culinary sovereignty, since their residents prefer national cuisines. In some other countries of the region (Finland, Estonia, and Lithuania), the public favours the world’s leading cuisines — Italian, Japanese and ...
EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region: Challenges and Perspectives of International Cooperation
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8. Brask, H. 2014, Governance crisis in the Baltic Sea region cooperation? April 24, available at: http://www.bdforum.org/hans-brask-governance-crisis-balticsea-region-cooperation/ ...
The development of legal framework for Russia-EU relations: 2010 results
..., 2009), vol. 1, Gosudarstvenno-pravovye i mezhdunarodno-
pravovye problemy [Public legal and international legal issues], Ufa, pp. 161—163.
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Islamic Diffusion in the Baltics: The Fruit of European Multiculturalism
... in the aftermath of the Arab Spring. The authors analyse the timeline of Muslim immigration to the Baltic region. It is stressed that, despite current difficulties, Germany and Finland are more successful in integrating immigrants than, for instance, Sweden and Denmark. Just like other Western European countries, the Baltic States have not developed a conceptual framework for their migration and integration policies towards Muslim immigrants. The authors describe possible Muslim integration scenarios ...
Saint Petersburg as a Global Coastal City: Positioning in the Baltic Region
The Baltic region consists of coastal areas of nine countries — Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. The region’s hubs are the port cities located along the Baltic Sea coast. However, Peter Taylor and Saskia Sassen’s classification identifies higher status cities and ‘global cities’, which are to be considered in the global ...
Russia and the Baltic States: Some Results and a Few Perspectives
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Country Competitiveness: an Empirical Study
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Development of International Clusters in the Baltic Sea Region
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