The Baltic Region

2012 Issue №3(13)

Back to the list Download an article

Innovative economy in the Baltic Sea region



Innovative activity is carried out at three levels — those of the state, region and a company or a university. This article considers the level of development of knowledge-based economy in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland at each of the three levels, as well as descripes the spatial differentiation of innovative activity within the Baltic region. The analysis is done on the basis of national and international research, as well as statistical data on the intensity of research and development, structure of research expenditure, human capital in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of institutional support for innovative activity. The authors characterise the role of business, university, and authorities — which constitute the «triple helix» — in national innovative systems. The article also analyses such important factors as the intensity of research and development, the share of employees in the field of advanced technologies, and the methods of public support. Examples of private-public infrastructure for the implementation of innovative projects are offered.


1. Hanuz, M. 2011, Doklad o konkurentosposobnosti Rossii 2011 [The Russia Competitiveness Report 2011], Geneva, World Economic Forum, 227 p.
2. Ivanov, N. 2001, Nacional'nye innovacionnye sistemy [National innovation systems. Economy questions], Voprosy economiki [Economic matters], no. 7, p. 60.
3. Dosi, G., Freeman, C., Nelson, R. 1988, Technical Change and Economic Theory, London, Pinter Publishers.
4. Oganesyan, T. 2010, Rozhdenie nacional'noj innovacionnoj sistemy [Birth of National innovation system], Expert, no. 36.
5. Etzkowitz,H. 2010, Trojnaja spiral'. Universitety-predprijatija-gosudarstvo. Innovacii v dejstvii [The Triple Helix: University-Industry-Government Innovation in Action], translated by A. Uvarov, Tomsk, TUSUR.
6. Dezhina, I. 2011, Osobennosti rossijskoj «trojnoj spirali» otnoshenij mezhdu gosudarstvom, naukoj i biznesom [Features Russian «Tripal Helix» relations between the state, a science and business], Innovations, no. 4, p. 47—55.

7. Pilyasov, A. (ed.). 2012, Sinergija prostranstva: regional'nye innovacionnye sistemy, klastery i peretoki znanija [Space synergy: regional innovative systems, clusters and knowledge overflows], Moscow — Smolensk, Oykumena.
8. Presidency Conclusions, Lisbon European Council, 23—24 March, 2000, available at: (accessed 01 June 2012).
9. Bechev, I. et al. 2010, Science, technology and innovation in Europe, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European union.
10. Kornecki, J., Lisowska R. and Ropega J. 2007, Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Poland, Lodz, Foundation for Promotion of Entereneurship.
11. Rossija i strany mira [Russia and world countries], 2010. Moscow, Russian Federal Service of State Statistics.
12. Annual innovation policy trends and аppraisal report, 2005, Denmark 2004—2005, Luxembourg, Enterprise Directorate-General.
13. Brandmuller, T. et al., 2011, Eurostat regional yearbook 2011, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union.
14. Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland.
15. Zverev, A. 2008, Gosudarstvennaja podderzhka innovacionnoj dejatel'nosti (zarubezhnyj opyt) [State support of innovative activity (foreign experience)], Vestnik Finansovoy Academy [Journal of the Academy of Finance], no. 4.
16. Antyushina, N (ed.). 2008, Severnaja Evropa region novogo razvitija [Northern Europe region of new development], Moscow, Ves’ Mir.
17. Mattsson, L. G., Pettigrew, A. M. 1987, Management of Strategic Change in a «Markets-as-Networks» Perspective, Oxford, Blackwell.
18. Toledano, J. A. 1978, Propos des filières industrielles, Revue d'Economie industrielle, no. 6.
19. Dahmen, E. 1950, Entrepreneurial Activity and the Development of Swedish Industry, 1919—1939, Stockholm.
20. Mindich, D. 2011, Trojnaja spiral' po-shvedski [Threefold spiral in Swedish], Expert, no. 35.
21. Kivilayd, M, Servinsky and M Tishler G., 2010. Еstonija. Fakty i cifry 2010 [Estonia. Facts and figures 2010], Tallinn, Statistics department.

22. Meri, T. 2008, Highly educated persons in science and technology occupations,
Statistics in focus, no. 43.
23. Stepanenko, M. 2005, Metody realizacii gosudarstvennoj innovacionnoj politiki v zarubezhnoj praktike [Methods of realization of the state innovative policy in foreign practice], Vestnik DGTU [Vestnik of Don State Technical University], no. 2, p. 238—245.
24. VINNOVA — Sweden’s Innovation Agency, available at: (accessed 01 June 2012).
25. Antyushina N. 2007, Strany Severnoj Evropy: naukoemkij tip razvitija [Countries of Northern Europe: knowledge-intensive type of development], Economist, no. 10, p. 29—40.
26. Sala-i-Martin, X. 2011, Global Competitiveness Report 2011—2012, 2011, Geneva, World Economic Forum.
27. Indikatory innovacionnoj dejatel'nosti 2012 [Indicators of innovative activity 2012], 2012, Moscow, GU-VShE.
28. Shelyubsky, N. 2001, Kosvennye metody gosudarstvennogo stimulirovanija innovacij: opyt Zapadnoj Evropy [Indirect methods of the state stimulation of innovations: experience of Western Europe], Problemy teorii i praktiki upravlenija [Problems of the theory and practice of management], no. 3, p. 75—80.

29. Radchenko, A. 2011, Innovacionnaja sistema Finljandii [Innovative system of Finland], Mirovoe i nacional'noe hozjajstvo [World and national economy], no. 1.
30. Lazarev, B., Demeshchik, T. A. 2005, Istorija i zarubezhnyj opyt sozdanija i dejatel'nosti tehnoparkov i biznes inkubatorov [History and foreign experience of creation and activity of science and technology parks and business of incubators], Minsk, RUP «BNTU «Metolit» Science and technology park.