Approaches to the Definition of the Baltic Sea Region
... development and settlement structure in the Baltic Sea region, Balt. Reg., Vol. 9, no. 2, p. 4—18. doi: 10.5922/2079-8555-2017-2-1.
26. Dolina dolnej Wisły, 1981. Gdańsk, Gdańskie Towarzystwo Naukowe, Wydział V — Nauk o Ziemi, 125 р.
27. Efficien sea, Baltic Sea Programme 2007—2013, available at:
. asp?Action=Details&Item=485 (accessed 17.07.2017).
28. ESPON (European Observation Network, Territorial Development and Cohesion, 2013, ESaTDOR European Seas and Territorial ...
The main environmental problems of the Baltic Sea and the ways to solve them
The Baltic Sea is a unique ecological system, an integral part of the global ecological system, which is in urgent need of protection from destructive anthropogenic impact stemming from the production and consumption of nuclear energy and artificial radionuclides,...
EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region: Challenges and Perspectives of International Cooperation
This article describes the main characteristics of international cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) within the framework of the EU macroregional strategy. The analysis of the key directions, structure, and the Strategy implementation mechanisms demonstrates its experimental and innovative nature. At the same time, the authors identify ...
Russia and the European Union in the Baltic region: a treacherous path to partnership
This article examines policies of Moscow and Brussels in the Baltics since the launch of the European Union’s Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region in June 2009. An increase in the efficiency of Russia’s policy in the region requires not only the development of bilateral relations with the region’s countries but also a dialogue with the European Union, the key player in the Baltic....
Variability of climatic characteristics оver the South-East Baltic coastal waters in the early XXI century
The study is focused on features of hydrometeorological conditions in the southeastern Baltic Sea and their trends assessment for 2005—2019 (climatic half period). The authors used the data from field observations of atmospheric pressure, wind direction and speed, and air temperature from the automatic hydrometeorological station located offshore,...
Societal security in the Baltic Sea Region: the Russian perspective
This study discusses whether the concept of societal security is embedded in the Russian formal and informal discourses as well as in the Russian strategic documents on national security and the Baltic Sea region. Particularly, the paper describes four paradigms of international relations (neorealism, neoliberalism, globalism and postpositivism) and theoretical approaches to the concept of societal security formulated in them. On a practical plane, ...
Motors for regional development: impact on regional political organizations on the university cooperation in the Baltic Sea region
Educational co-operation is one of the main aspects of the regional political agenda in the Baltic Sea Region. The article analyzes the political impact of the organizations, as perceived by the universities in the region and political decision-makers on national and regional levels. Based on the success of the OECD in becoming an influential actor ...
The European Union Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region and accomplishments
The sea and inland hinterland of Baltic Europe form a unique macro-regional unit. Strong collaboration links, and competition in the Baltic Sea region, are an inherent feature of the region from the beginning of its civilization development. Since 2004, the Baltic Sea has become an internal sea of the European Union. This fact no doubt strengthened the cooperation of the countries in the ...
Major infrastructure projects and the foreign policy of the Baltic states in 2010—2014
... motivation. It is concluded that the disregard of the factor of mutually beneficial economic cooperation with Russia destabilizes the development of national economic of the Baltic States. The author believes that modern infrastructure projects in the Baltic Sea region should be integrated into both western and eastern dimensions.
1. Hartija 12 za poslednij mesjac sobrala v svoju podderzhku vsego 200 podpisej [Charter 12 last month gathered in his support of all 200 signatures], 2012, DELFI, available at: ...
Modern Hanseatic Trends in the Baltic Region
... material for the study of the 21st century Baltic regionalisation. Current trends in the development of the Baltic region, whose academic analysis is impossible without considering earlier cases of successful interactions between the peoples of the Baltic Sea region, necessitate political, economic, and historical research on the strengths and weaknesses of the Hanseatic League. Unfortunately, in the 21st century, the Baltic region turned into a stage for geopolitical controversies. This took a toll on ...
Electric energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region and the role of Russia in it
... increase of the country’s energy market share following the construction of the Baltic NPP and the export of generated electric energy to Poland, Lithuania, Germany, and Sweden. The author concludes that the prospects of Russia’s energy export to the Baltic Sea region will be determined not only by technological, economic and market factors, but rather by the general state of relations between Russia and the EU. Moreover, a lot depends on Lithuania’s decision on the construction of the Visaginas NPP, as ...
Opportunities for sustainable economic development of the coastal territories of the Baltic Sea Region in the context of digital transformation
The article explores opportunities for the sustainable economic development of coastal territories in the Baltic Sea region (BSR) arising in blue economy sectors in the framework of digital transformation. The study argues that a more active commercialisation of territorial resources can facilitate the sustainable economic development of the BSR coastal territories,...
From the idea to the strategy of Baltic Europe
... Communities, COM(95)609.
Ryba J., 2008, Strategia Unii Europejskiej dla regionu Morza Bałtyckiego, Biuletyn Analiz no 19, Office for the Committee of European Integration, Warsaw.
Stålvant C. E., 1996, Actors around the Baltic Sea, Baltic Sea Stateésummit,
Sroczyński P., Tyszecki A., (ed.),1995, Konwencja Helsińska a ochrona środowiska Morza Bałtyckiego,
Sroczyński P., Krzyżanowski P., 1990, Ocena współpracy międzynarodowej ...
Forecasting Actions of Baltic elites: A Scenario Approach
... p. 113—114.
4. Hrustalev, M. A. 2015, Analiz mezhdunarodnyh situacij i politicheskaja jekspertiza [Analysis of the International Situation and Political Expertise], Moscow, p. 39—51.
5. Klemeshev, A. P. Mezhevich, N. M., Fedorov, G. M. 2015, The Baltic Sea Region: The Territory and Inner Structure, Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, MCSER Publishing, Rome-ltaly, Vol 6, no. 6, December, p. 212—219.
6. Boll, G. 1968, The Discipline of Power. Essentials of Modern World Structure, Boston, p. 15—16....
Geography of international clusters in the Baltic region
... countries of the Baltic region aimed at the development of international clusters. ‘International cluster’ is defined as a new form of spatial economy. The author identifies and maps organised international clusters and cluster initiatives in the Baltic Sea region countries. The international clusters of the Baltic region are characterised according to the following criteria: the degree of geographical localisation, the organisational type of formation, and specialisation areas. The author analyses the ...
The Baltic Sea Region and the Black Sea Area: Two Pieces of the Same Puzzle
The Baltic Sea region and the Black Sea area are overlapping regions that have their own political, historical and cultural peculiarities. They belong to the same geopolitical system, within which they are developing two regional cooperation subsystems strongly ...
The role of transborder cooperation in the increase of innovative potential of the Baltic region
The article aims at analyzing the role of cross-border cooperation in the development of innovation potential of the Baltic Sea Region. The author analyzes the projects in the framework of the Neighborhood Programs implemented in 2000—2006 and related to the development of innovation potential in the Baltic Sea Region, particularly in the South-East Baltic. The author makes ...
Strategic perspectives for the territorial development of the Baltic Sea Region
The article describes the motives, objectives and findings of preparing a perspective for territorial development of the Baltic Sea Region and discusses issues related to its implementation. Particular attention is paid to Northwest Russia and Kaliningrad region. Promoting innovation clusters, metropolitan networks and urban-rural partnerships, improving accessibility as well ...
Economic and Geographical Structure of the Baltic Sea region
The Baltic Sea region is one of the most developed transnational regions. It comprises the coastal areas of Russia, Germany, and Poland and the entire territories of Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. New spatial forms of international economic ...
Geopolitical and Geo-economic Changes in the Baltic Sea Region at the Turn of the XX—XXI centuries
The article describes the process and results of the geopolitical and geoeconomic changes in the Baltic Sea region at the turn of the XX and XXI centuries. The authors assess the political, economic and military potential of individual countries and groups of countries. Ranking the selected countries and grouping them according to the similarity of their ...
International research cooperation in the Baltic region: a scientometric analysis
This article examines the processes of international research cooperation in the Baltic Sea region. It focuses on research works published in the leading periodicals in 1993—2012. The empirical material is collected from the world’s largest abstract and citation database, SciVerse Scopus, which makes it possible to evaluate macroindicators ...
Innovations in the Baltic Sea Region and Network Cooperation between Russia and the EU
Transnational (involving countries) and cross-border (involving adjacent regions of different countries) cooperation and integration are rapidly developing in the Baltic Sea region. Russia lags behind the Nordic countries and Germany as far as innovative development is concerned; yet our national pace here is comparable to that of Poland and the three Baltic States. At the same time, the features of innovative cooperation ...
The influence of the sea on the economic development and settlement structure in the Baltic Sea region
..., Coastal Crisis: The Failure of Coastal Management in the Spanish Mediterranean Region, Coastal Management, Vol. 33, no. 2, p. 197—214. DOI: 10.1080/08920750590917602.
Fedorov G. M., Mikhailov A. S., Kuznetsova T.Yu.
gravitational force of the sea, Baltic Sea, macroregion, typology of regions, coastal development corridors
Macroalgae Suggested for Inclusion in the New Edition of the Red List of the Kaliningrad region
... (Cladophoraceae, Chlorophyta) в реках на севере Европейской России // Ботанический журнал. 2013. Т. 98, № 10. С. 1201―1211.
11. Bäck S., Kautsky H., Kruk-Dowgiallo L., Jurgilaite D. Phytobenthos // Baltic Sea Environment Proceedings No. 82B. Environment of the Baltic Sea area 1994—1998. Helsinki, 2002. P. 164―165.
12. Brzeska P., Wozniczka A., Pelechaty M., Blindow I. New records of Chara connivens P. Salzmann ex A. Braun 1835 — an extremely rare ...
The Development of International Tourism in Lithuania: a Comparative Analysis of Regional Aspects
... quality-price ratio of the services offered contribute to the growth of competitiveness on the international tourism market. Service standards applied in Lithuania at the international tourism market uphold and improve the image of Lithuania in the Baltic Sea region. The interregional cooperation between Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia in the field of international tourism development is based on the principle of public private partnership. It has been recently acknowledged that the three Baltic States ...
Saint-Petersburg in the Baltic Sea region
The article describes the place of St Petersburg in international cooperation in the Baltic Sea region and the role of the Baltic region as one of the priorities of the international relations of the city. The authors show continual attention of Saint-Petersburg to developing international relations in the Baltic Sea region. The article indicates ...
A functional description of the model for the protection of the environmental interests of the Russian Federation in the Baltic Sea region
... countries and regions, the economies of which affect the safety of Russia’s interests in the Baltic, do not coincide with the boundaries of the ecosystems. This calls for a study of the legal protection of Russia’s environmental interests in the Baltic Sea region. There is no legal mechanism for ensuring a balance between the interests of development and those of environmental security of the countries that have shorelines along the Baltic Sea. Thus, it is necessary to give a functional description ...
Statistical analysis of tourism flows between Ukraine and the Baltic Sea Region countries in 2012—2019
This article explores the features and trends in inbound and outbound tourism flows between Ukraine and the Baltic Sea region (BSR) countries in 2012—2019. The research question is whether inbound our outbound tourism prevailed and how visa-free travel to the Schengen Area affected the number of Ukrainians travelling to the Baltic Sea Region. Two data sources were ...
The Baltic policy of Germany and current international relations
... Annäherung an Russland, NORDEUROPAforum, no. 2, S. 53—73, available at: http://edoc.hu-berlin.de/nordeuropaforum/2008-2/dauchert-helge-53/PDF/dauchert.pdf (accessed 10.02.2015).
3. Etzold, T. 2012, A country on the brink of a religion? Germany’s Baltic Sea policies, Kas international reports, no. 5, p. 6—19.
4. Hubel, H. 1996, Die schwierige Parthnerschaft mit Russland. In: Kaiser, K., Krause , J.(Hg.), Deutschlands neue Aussenpolitik.
5. Garbe, G. 2002, Deutsche Russlandpolitik und das Baltikum: ...
Population Ageing as a Sociodemographic Problem in the Baltic Region
... demographic development in the Baltic region: Regional Analysis, Regional'nye issledovaniya [Regional studies], no. 3 (41), p. 50—57. (In Russ.)
4. Kuznetsova, Т. Yu. 2008, Territorial differentiation of demographic development in the regions of the Baltic Sea, Regional'nye issledovaniya [Regional studies], no. 3 (18), p. 58—62. (In Russ.)
5. Mkrtchyan, N., Karachurina, L. 2014, The Baltics and Russian North-West: the Core and the Periphery in the 2000s, Balt. Reg., no. 2 (20), p. 48—62. DOI: 10.5922/2079-8555-2014-2-4....
Competition and cooperation problems in the energy sector of the Baltic region
from the commission to the european parliament, the council, the european economic and social committee and the committee of the regions concerning the European Union Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region. Brussels, 10.6.2009 COM(2009) 248 final. P. 8 // European Commission. Regional Policy — Inforegio.
EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region. URL: http://ec.europa.
On crisis trends in the legitimacy of the political regimes of the Baltic States
This article considers the legitimacy of political regimes in the Baltic States by analysing three major parameters: confidence in political institutions, level of corruption, and the development of their party systems. The author identifies the major crisis trends in the legitimacy of the political regimes of Lithuania,...
The impact of environmental factors on the distribution of Macoma balthica (Linnaeus 1758) and Mytilus edulis (Linnaeus 1758) in the southeastern part of the Baltic Sea
This article offers the results of research on the influence of environmental factors on the distribution of two abundant bivalve species – Macoma balthica and Mytilus eduli – in the south-east of the Baltic Sea. First of all, the distribution of species was determined by the types of soils. The distribution of molluscs in deep-water sectors was limited by oxygen deficiency in near-bottom waters.
The transnational territorial transport system of the Baltic Region
In this paper we focus on the structure and territorial borders of the Baltic Sea region, and examine the key structural elements of the transnational territorial transport system. In this respect, we clarify some terms used in transport geography. For the first time the transport system gets territorially localized, which allows ...
Communication of Covid-19 consequences in the Baltic States inforsphere
... threat and its consequences. Particular attention is paid to the media strategies pursued in the study area. The research is based on Russian and English texts from the Baltic media, WHO official documents and datasets, as well as initiatives of the Baltic Sea region organisations (2020) counteracting Covid-19. A combination of these sources builds up an objective view of the situation and demonstrates how the pandemic and its consequences are represented in public consciousness given a certain pragmatic ...
The Baltic macroregion: geographical macrostructures, communication features, innovative potential
The article considers and assesses the influence of macro-geographical factors on communication behaviour of people in the course of transition to innovative economy through the example of the Baltic Sea region.
1. Dinamika razvitija jekonomicheskogo krizisa: Sweden [The dynamics of the economic crisis: Sweden], 2010, Informacionnyj bjulleten' Instituta Baltijskogo regiona RGU im. I. Kanta [Newsletter of the Institute of Baltic Studies of the Immanuel ...
Security in the Baltic region as a Projection of Global Confrontation between Russia and the USA
... Baltijos regione, 2015, Bernardinai. lt, available at:
28. Stoicescu, K. 2015, Russian threat to Security in the Baltic Sea Region, RKK ICDS, October 6, available at:
29. Bajarnas, E., Haab, M., Viskne, I. 1995, The Baltic States: security and defence ...
The prospects of nuclear power development in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea region as a factor of the formation of international relations system in the region
The current development of economic diplomacy in the world is determined by a combination of globalization and regionalization. In addition, it has an economic dimension. At the same time, the Baltic Sea region demonstrates large-scale politicisation of economic cooperation. The development of nuclear power in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea is indicative of the effectiveness of political and economic cooperation in the region. The author believes ...
Development of International Clusters in the Baltic Sea Region
This article offers a comprehensive definition of international, cross-border, and transnational clusters. The author presents a classification of international clusters of the Baltic Sea states, and identifies cross-border and transnational clusters. The paper considers the features of international clusters in the Baltic Sea region, as well as certain cases of implementation of national and international cluster policy. A comparative ...
Small business developing the regional Identity: a case study in the Baltic Sea Region
This article compares the frequency of the use of the toponym 'Baltic' in the names of small enterprises in Baltic cities. The author draws conclusions on the role of small business in the development of regional identity in the Baltic Sea region and assesses the prospects for the formation of a regional business community in the Baltic region.
Дискурс в региональном контексте — Балтийское измерение: ...
On the international cooperation of North-West Russia in the field of innovations in the Baltic
... projects within cross-border and transnational cooperation programmes. The most significant projects focus on the development of information and communications technologies in healthcare, the development of networks uniting innovation centres in the Baltic Sea region, and the transnational network of business incubators in the Baltic Sea region. The author identifies promising areas of cooperation between North-West Russia, Finland, Norway, and Estonia in the field of innovations, including telecommunications,...
Project approach in transboundary tourism-and-recreation region building: the case of Karelia
... Kaliningrad branch of the St. Petersburg University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia], no. 2 (40), p. 142—144 (in Russ.).
8. Studzieniecki, T. 2016, The development of cross-border cooperation in an EU macroregion — a case study of the Baltic Sea Region, Procedia Economics and Finance, no. 39, p. 235—241.
9. Sebentsov, A. B., Kolosov, V. A., Zotova, M. V. 2016, Tourism and cross-border cooperation in the Kaliningrad region, Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Seriya 5: Geografiya [Moscow University ...
Twin cities: a new form of cross-border cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region?
... Cooperation as a Mechanism of Regional Marketing in the Baltic Region, Balt. Region, no. 2 (2), p. 57—64. doi: 10.5922/2079—8555—2009—2—6.
3. Korneevets, V. S. 2010, Mezhdunarodnaja regionalizacija na Baltike [International regionalization in the Baltic Sea], Saint Petersburg.
4. Svetogorsk-Imatra: «dvojnoj gorod» [Svetogorsk-Imatra: «dual city»], Official internet site of the Leningrad Region, available at: http://www. lenobl.ru/gov/municipal/svetogorsk/double (accessed 10 July 2011).
5. Self, P....
Geosituational Modelling of Coastal Marine Systems
The article summarizes years of experience of geosituational modelling of coastal marine systems in the Baltic Sea region and adjacent territories. Kaliningrad universities and academic institutions have done extensive research on the diversity of approaches and models of the regional geosituations as well as on identifying the most promising coastal marine areas....
Russia and the Baltic States: Some Results and a Few Perspectives
... investment], no. 8 (124), p. 20.
25. Maksimychev, I. F. 2013, Pribaltika: nepredvzjatyj vzgljad istorika [Baltics: an unbiased view of the historian], Problemy nacional'noj strategii [Problems of National Strategy], no. 4 (19), p. 210.
Baltic Sea, Baltic States, international politics, historical memory models, Russian international policy, political elites, international economy
Suspended Particulate Matter Distribution Along the Northern Coast of the Kaliningrad Peninsula
The study of suspended particulate matter in the southeastern Baltic Sea is motivated both by human-induced impact and by the natural features of the Baltic Sea, namely, the high levels of eutrophication and complicated sedimentation conditions. The study area is human-occupied, which contributes to the significance of ...
The spatial structure of Baltic Sea ferry services
Ferry service is a transport system of regular routes which links areas separated by water bodies. Sometimes ferries are the only connection of an island and the mainland which is not rare in the Baltic Sea. A typical example of this is the island of Saaremaa. Ferry service is the backbone of cargo and passenger traffic in the Baltic Sea region.
This article aims to describe the spatial structure of the ferry service in the Baltic Sea. To this end,...
Forms of International Cooperation in Environmental Education: the Experience of Saint Petersburg State University
The authors analyse different forms of environmental education projects and programmes implemented in the Baltic Sea region. The first one is “The Baltic University” programme taught in English. The “Baltic University” is a network of more than 200 universities from 14 counties of the Baltic Sea region. This education programme offers an opportunity for ...
Innovative factors and conditions of sustainable development of rural territories
... production through support for non-agricultural activities and employment, application of innovations and efficient technologies, and manufacturing of environmentally friendly products. The analysis of the development of agricultural and innovations in the Baltic Sea regions serves as a basis for identifying the factors and conditions of supporting innovative entrepreneurship. Of special importance are the research, technological, and innovative potential of the territory, the availability of adequate innovative ...
Ports of Eastern Baltic and Russian transit policy: competition and cooperation
... regarded as ordinary competitors, however, the current geopolitical situation has drastically reshaped the framework for transport cooperation in the region. Competition and cooperation strategies are often equally viable for the ports in the Eastern Baltic Sea. Yet volatility in global markets, the unstable positions of leading exporters and importers, and changes in the economic and political environment call for new strategies and forms of interaction. This study aims to understand to what extent port ...