Poland’s Foreign Policy Mechanisms: Legal Framework and Policy Analysis
This article describes the features of Poland’s foreign policy. Special attention is paid to the foreign policy mandate of the president, government, and minister of foreign affairs and the procedure for devising Poland’s foreign policy strategy. Another focus is the contribution of ...
Foreign lobbying as an instrument of defense cooperation between Poland and the United States
Defence cooperation between Poland and the United States significantly affects the security agenda of Russia, the Baltic region, and Europe as a whole. On the one hand, Poland intends to become a key partner of the US in ensuring European security. On the other hand, it has ambitions ...
The history of the integration between Russia’s Kaliningrad region and Poland’s northeastern voivodeships: A programme approach
This article considers the development of integration between Russia’s Kaliningrad region and Poland’s northeastern voivodeships in 1946—2016. The authors set out to identify the main results of Russian-Polish cross-border cooperation in the context of the changing historical and political paradigms in the Baltic region. The authors conduct ...
Local Border Traffic as a Form of Visa Liberalisation and Territorial Development
... cooperation. The authors have conducted a brief historical analysis of this area of relations. The visa “regionalisation” is considered in the context of identifying the key actors of the EU — Russia negotiations: the Kaliningrad region, Germany, Poland, and Lithuania. In their analysis, the authors rely mostly on primary sources: intergovernmental agreements on simplified border traffic, border-crossing statistics for the Kaliningrad region in the framework of the local border traffic, expert ...
The Polish minority in the Republic of Lithuania: internal and external factors
... are in the two other Baltic States, ethnicity-related conflicts continue to occur, particularly, as regards the relations between the Lithuanian state and the Polish minority, which is the largest in the country. The Polish minority—Lithuania—Poland relations are not the only factor that affects the situation of the Poles in Lithuania. The other important factors are Lithuania and Poland’ EU membership, the relations between Lithuania and Russia, and the Russian minority in Lithuania. ...
Geography of Electoral Volatility in the Warmia and Mazury Voivodeship of Poland
The authors describe the impact of administrative reforms on the electoral volatility in the Warmia and Mazury voivodeship of Poland. The administrative reforms resulted in the formation of a new territorial organization of power. Using three large administrative units of Poland as an example, the authors analyse the experience of the formation of a geographic region by merging ...
Intergenerational transmission of poverty: a challenge for Poland
This article argues that urban poverty pockets emerged in Poland in the course of the system transformation towards capitalism. The main poverty drivers were the three overlapping processes: de-industrialization, ‘dewelfarization’ and de-institutionalization of the family accompanied by the devolution of ...
The political debate on the change of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland after the parliamentary elections of 2015
In 1997, the Constitution of the Republic of Poland was adopted. Since then, constitutional disputes have continued in Poland. After the 2015 elections, they sharpened. In addition, Polish President Andrzej Duda proposed a change to the Constitution of the Republic of Poland. This initiated a ...
The structure of political elite networks in the Republic of Poland in 1993—2013
... dynamics of political elites for the purpose of forecasting major trends in the structural transformation of Polish political elites. In the course of the study, biographical data on the presidents, ministers, advisors, and party leaders of the Republic of Poland was collected and processed. The work follows the network analysis paradigm and identifies the dynamics of the key network parameters: distance, density, transitivity, and compactness. The author analyses the dynamics of representation in the structure ...
Polish-Russian relations as reflected in the programmes of right-wing political parties in Poland: a quantitative and qualitative analysis
... the political programmes of the right-wing parties as regards their principal features, internal structure, and central postulates. Content analysis shows that relations with Russia are an impor tant element in most political programmes proposed by Poland’s major right-wing political groups. Based on a qualitative analysis, I distinguish between parties that postulate a determined and assertive policy towards Russia, parties committed to a neutral position on Russia, and those that seek the improvement ...
The Kaliningrad region in Polish scientific research
..., W., Modzelewski, W. T. 2006. The Polish-Russian Cross-Border Cooperation. Institutional Conditions and Perspectives of Regional Development. In: T. Palmowski, Y. Matviyishyn (red.). Problems of Regional Development in Border Regions of Ukraine and Poland. Lviv.
13. Chełminiak, M., Kotowicz, W., Modzelewski, W. T., Żukowski, A. 2003.Kalendarium kontaktów Polski z Obwodem Kaliningradzkim FR w latach 1991—2003. In: A. Żukowski (red.). Polska wobec Obwodu Kaliningradzkiego Federacji Rosyjskiej....
Formation of American Foreign Policy towards Poland before and in First Years of Cold War
The article analyses the mechanisms of the development of American foreign policy towards Central and Eastern Europe on the example of Poland.The author considers a number of factors that influenced the process of the foreign policy development.
Мистер «Икс» в
. (неизвестное письмо Джорджа Кеннана) ...
The foreign policy of Poland and the Kaliningrad region in 1989—2012
... (scholarly publications, press articles) sources. The authors also use the system and decision analysis methods. The analysis covers the period after 1989, when the geopolitical changes brought about by the collapse of the Yalta-Potsdam order resulted in Poland redefine the priorities of its foreign policy. One of the most important challenges for the Polish diplomacy after 1989 was the development of economic and political relations with the Russian Federation. Cross-border cooperation between Poland ...
Local border traffic and the development of retail trade in the Kaliningrad region and Polish borderlands
Signing the agreement on local border traffic (LBT) between the Republic of Poland and the Russian Federation was welcomed by experts as an important step towards the future visa-free regime between the European Union and the Russian Federation often discussed in the international dialogue. The three years of LBT mechanism have ...
Poland in “The Ballad about Eternal Flame” by Alexander Galich
“The Ballad about Eternal Flame” (1968) was a remake of an earlier “Song about Hard Currency” (1966). Both songs are connected with Poland, though their titles do not immediately imply it. This article analyses the sources of the 'Polish' theme in the songs.
. Облака плывут, облака: песни, стихотворения / сост. ...
On the ideological distance between relevant candidates for the presidency of the Republic of Poland in 2010
This article presents an analytical review of the programmes of the registered candidates for the position of the President of Poland in the presidential campaign of 2010. The article mainly focuses on the relevant players and the formation of centers of influence in the electoral campaign.
Postanowienie Marszałka Sejmu z dnia 21 kwietnia 2010 r. o zarządzeniu ...
Regional politics of memory in Poland’s Warmia and Masuria
A contribution to memory studies, this work focuses on Poland’s Warmian-Masurian voivodeship. Before the war, this territory and the neighbouring Kaliningrad region of Russia comprised the German province of East Prussia. In this article, we strive to identify the essence, mechanisms, key stages, and regional ...
Migration processes on the Recovered territories in Poland in 1945—1950
The migration processes on the so-called Recovered territories, transferred from Germany to Poland after the Second World War, are analyzed in documents and recent research. The author identifies the main migration waves that came in the first post-war years, gives a social description of the main groups of migrants and local Polish-speaking ...
On the development of the parliamentarianism institution in Poland
This article is devoted to the important issue of development of parliamentarianism in post-authoritarian countries through the case of Poland. Having passed several stages of constitutional changes and political crises caused by the situation of political infighting, the Polish political system has reached sustainability, which ensures its effective functioning.
1. Керимов А....
The features of heavy metal accumulation in forest mushrooms in the Kaliningrad region
... mushroom: Influence of the degree of maturity // Science of the Total Environment. 2006. N 359. P. 255—266.
5. Malinowska E., Szefer P., Bojanowski R. Radionuclides content in Xerocomus ba-dius and other commercial mushrooms from several regions of Poland // Food Chemistry. 2006. N 97. P. 19—24.
6. Kalač P. A review of edible mushroom radioactivity // Food Chemistry. 2001. N 75. P. 29—35.
7. Горбунов А. В., Ляпунов С. М., Окина О. И. О накоплении тяжелых ...
Local border traffic as an efficient tool for developing cross-border cooperation
... mestnogo prigranichnogo peredvizhenija na razvitie transgranichnogo turizma mezhdu Respublikoj Pol'sha i Kaliningradskoj oblast'ju Rossijskoj Federacii [Influence of local border traffic on the development of cross-border tourism between the Republic of Poland and the Kaliningrad region of the Russian Federation], Nauka i turizm: strategija vzaimodejstvija [Science and tourism: cooperation strategy], p. 65—73.
3. Vardomsky, L. B. 2000, Prigranichnyj pojas Rossii: problemy i tendencii razvitija [Border ...
On the nature of gmina courts in the Kingdom of Poland
This article focuses on the problem of the nature of gmina courts in the Kingdom of Poland, which is of fundamental significance for identifying their role in the judicial system of the Russian Empire. Based on an analysis of historical and legal facts and documents, it is concluded that, from the 15th through the 19th centuries, the ...
Cross-Border Cooperation in the Kaliningrad region: Problems and Prospects
Since the accession of Poland and Lithuania to the EU, the nature, forms and content of their border cooperation with the Kaliningrad region have fundamentally changed. There is a tendency towards strengthening the neighborhood policy. The already gained extensive and varied ...
The «Lithuania-Poland-Russia» neighbourhood programme in the framework of the formation of the cross-border tourism region in the South-eastern Baltic and the promotion of the sustainable development of the territory
The «Lithuania-Poland-the Kaliningrad region of the Russian Federation» (2004—2006) neighbourhood programme implemented in 2004—2009 and the « Lithuania — Poland — Russia: 2007—2013» programme being drawn up in 2010 identify tourism development as one of priorities, which does not only contribute to the increase in competitive advantages of the participating territories but also facilitates the formation ...
The comparative characteristics of Blackbird nest materials from natural and anthropogenic landscapes of the Kaliningrad region
... Европы (на примере Калининграда): автореф. дис. … канд. биол. наук. М
Breeding ecology of the Blackbird
studied in the primaeval
I. Breeding numbers, distribution and nest sites // Acta ornithologica. 1993. №
27 (2). P. 131—157.
Breeding ecology of the Blackbird
in the primaeval
Poland). Part 2....
The Vilnius issue in international relations: the historiography of the problem
... the Suwałki Agreement. The author pays special attention to the positions of western powers, the decision of the Conference of Ambassadors on March 15, 1923, and the mediation of the League of Nations in the territorial dispute between Lithuania and Poland. The article considers the existing historiographical concepts and evaluations of the role of the Soviet diplomacy in the Vilnius issue. The author identifies new trends in the contemporary historiography of the Vilnius problem.
1. Senn, A. E....
The US ballistic missile defence policy in the Baltic and Nordic regions
... debate: in search of consensus], Voenno-promyshlennyj kurier [Military-Industrial Courier], available at: http://vpk-news.ru/articles/8917 (accessed 12.10.2014).
2. Astrovsky, N. 2013, FRG prizyvaet Pol'shu otkazat'sja ot EvroPRO [Germany calls on Poland to abandon the European missile defense], available at: http://www.belvpo.com/ru/32388.html (accessed 10.09.2015).
3. Konishev V. N., Sergunin A. A. 2014, Voennaja bezopasnost' Arktiki [Military security of the Arctic], Nacional'nye interesy: ...
Poland's Foreign Policy in the 21st Century / ed. by Stanisław Bieleń. Warsaw: Difin, 2011. 462 S.
Energy security in the scientific and institutional discourse in Russia and Poland: problems and solutions
This article examines fundamental and applied approaches to energy security. The authors explore differences and similarities in the views of scientists and politicians on the issue and analyse energy security policies pursued in Poland and Russia (the Kaliningrad region). On this basis, the authors propose rational principles for solving the problem of energy security in the region.
1. Ергин Д. Добыча: Всемирная история борьбы за нефть,...
Modernisation of education and research in Russia, Poland and Lithuania: a comparative analysis
This article compares the dynamics, content and character of education system modernization in Russia, Poland, and Lithuania. It is shown that the education systems of Russia, Poland, and Lithuania differ substantially in the secondary and higher education structure, sources of financing, and strategic development directions.
1. Prognoz nauchno-tehnologicheskogo ...
Transborder corporate integration in the Baltic Sea Region
... sotrudnichestvu [The EU and Russia: From direct investment to investment cooperation], Moscow, Nauka.
4. Kokorina, E. V. 2011, Ekonomicheskie krizisy v stranah Baltii i Pol'she: investicionnaja politika [The economic crisis in the Baltic States and Poland: investment policy], Vestnik Federal'nogo gosudarstvennogo uchrezhdenija Gosudarstvennaja
registracionnaja palata pri Ministerstve justicii Rossijskoj Federacii [Bulletin of the FBI SRC with the Russian Ministry of Justice], no. 5, p. 20—30.
Geography and economy of the Kaliningrad region: limitations and prospects of development
With its exclave status, the Kaliningrad region has been drawing attention of many researchers in different fields. Yet the prospects for cooperation between the region and neighbouring communities in Poland and Lithuania, which once constituted an integrated social, economic and political space, remain unclear. Media analysts and scholars alike tend to view the Kaliningrad region as “double periphery”, since it is excluded from major modernisation ...
Population Change in the Neighbouring Regions of Russia and the European Union States
... from Russian and EU statistical offices and map the results obtained. I identify significant differences between border regions and cities. The most adverse demographic situation is observed in the borderlands of the Baltics, a slightly better one in Poland and Finland. As to Russia’s border regions, a population increase is characteristic of Saint Petersburg and the Leningrad and Kaliningrad regions. Yet, a number of cities in the immediate vicinity of the border face a population decline. The ...
Gas infrastructure development in the countries of East Baltic as a way to increase energy security
... available at: http://rus. postimees. ee/991148/ansip-letit-v-brjussel-obsuzhdat-novyj-bjudzhet-es/ (accessed 25 December 2012).
24. Vodo, V., Belikov, D. 2012, Litva ishhet zashhity ot «Gazproma» v Pol'she [Lithuania seeks protection from «Gazprom» in Poland], Kommersant, 13 February, available at: http://www. kommersant. ru/doc-rss/1872228 (accessed 25 December 2012).
25. Lietuvos Dujos, akcionerom kotoroj javljaetsja «Gazprom», vvelo gazokompressornuju stanciju v Janjunaj [Lietuvos Dujos, which ...
The intensity of population movements through the Russian- Polish border after the suspension of the local border traffic mechanism: 2016 outcomes
The mechanism of the local (or small) the cross-border movement is a form of cross-border cooperation. On the border between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Poland this mechanism worked from 2012 to 2016, and provided for a significant intensification of mutual border-crossing. In this case the suspension of the local border traffic regime on the Polish side, as well as the regime itself, caused a mixed reaction ...
Studies into the history of Russian Neo-Kantianism in Poland
The article deals with the jey areas of Russian Neo-Kantianism studies in Poland. Although the number and quality of studies on the history of Russian Neo-Kantianism cannot be equated to those on the history of German Neo-Kantianism, the situation is improving. The authors stress the undeniable progress in Russian Neo-Kantianism ...
Eastern Europe. On the centenary of the political project
... mezhdunarodnye otnoshenija [World Economy and International Relations], no. 7, p. 23.
21. Lykoshina, L. S. 2014, Evropa, Evropejskij vektor razvitija Pol'shi. Voz-vrashhenie k istokam ili poisk novoj identichnosti? [Europe, European vector of de-velopment of Poland. Back to basics, or search for a new identity?], Vishegradskaja, no. 3; Sovremennaja Evropa [Modern Europe], 2014, no. 4, p. 42.
22. Mezhevich, N. 2014, Borders and Identity in Theory and Practice of the Eastern Baltic Region, Baltic Region,...
Baltic Cooperation in Marine Spatial Planning
... integrated policy. Many European countries of the Baltic region are seeking cooperation with Russia to preserve the natural and economic environment of the Baltic Sea. Most joint spatial planning projects have been initiated by Finland, Sweden, Germany, and Poland.
Palmowski T., Tarkowski M.
Baltic Sea region, European Union, integrated coastal area management, spatial planning, Poland, Russia
The historical and national sources of the development of the modern Polish-Lithuanian conflict
... Russification in the second half of the 19th century, the problems of Polish-Russian relations during the interbellum (1918—1939) and the period of the post-war development of the two states. The authors come to a conclusion that the modern conflict between Poland and Lithuania has a historical and national basis and its rapid resolution, despite common political objectives, can hardly be expected.
1. Гудавичюс Э. История Литвы с древнейших времен до 1569 года....
Eхperience of the Baile-Felix tourist system (Romania) for the protection and promotion of the grey seal as a brand on the Hel Peninsular (Poland)
... the two tourist destinations. We explored the degree of knowledge and the awareness of their value in the local mentality.
Wendt, J. A., Buhaș, R., Herman, G. V.
nature reserve, thermal water, grey seal, tourist system, Baltic region, Romania, Poland
Институт помощника варшавского генерал-губернатора по полицейской части в системе полицейского управления Царства Польского во второй половине XIX — начале XX века
... Польского в составе Российской империи.
This article considers the competence of Assistant to Governor-General of Warsaw for Police Issues, and their place in the administrative and police control of the Kingdom of Poland in the second half of the 19th-early 20th century. The author maintains that the status of Assistant to the Governor-General of Warsaw for Police Issues was determined by the special legal status of the Kingdom of Poland in the Russian Empire.
Macroalgae Suggested for Inclusion in the New Edition of the Red List of the Kaliningrad region
... Škaloud P., Rindi F., Boedeker C., Leliaert F. Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa. Freshwater flora of central Europe. Bd. 13. Chlorophyta: Ulvophyceae (Krienitz L. ed.). Berlin, 2018.
25. Siemińska J., Bąk M., Dziedzie J. et al. Red list of the algae in Poland // Red list of plants and fungi in Poland. Krakow, 2006. P. 35―52.
26. Sub-regional risk of spill of oil and hazardous substances in the Baltic Sea // Additional Study — Polish marine areas, 2011. Baltic Sea Region Programme 2007— 2013. ...
L. woodpegion in the towns of the Kaliningrad region
... Фридман В. С., Ерёмкин Г. С. Урбанизация «диких» видов птиц в контексте эволюции урболандшафта. М., 2009.
5. Nowakowski J. Changes in the breeding avifauna of Olsztyn (NE Poland) in the years 1968—1993 // Acta ornithologica. 1996. Vol. 31 (1). P. 39—44.
6. Tomiałojč L. The impact of predation on urban and rural Wood Pigeon (Columba palumbus L.) populations // Pol. Ecol. Stud. 1979. Vol. 5. P. 141—220.
7. Gorski ...
Bukharin N. Rossiya — Pol’sha: opyt dvadtsatiletnikh otnosheniy: 90e gody XX veka — pervoe desyatiletie XXI veka [Russia — Poland: The two decade’s experience of relations: the 1990s — the 2000s]. Moscow; Saint-Petersburg, 2014.
Security in the Baltic region as a Projection of Global Confrontation between Russia and the USA
This article considers the problem of security in the Baltic region, namely, that of Poland and the Baltics. The authors rely on the works of Karl Deutsch, Emanuel Adler, on Michael Barnett’s theory of security communities and Barry Buzan’s regional security complex theory, address Steven Mann’s controlled chaos theory and the ...
On the establishment of state borders and delimitation of marine areas of the Russian Federation in the Kaliningrad region zone
This article considered the stage and features of formation of the state border with Poland and Lithuania, as well as the delimitation of the Russian marine area in the Kaliningrad region zone. The Polish border was established by the Soviet-Polish border agreement of 1945. It was of astronomical nature and did not take into account the ...
Cross-Border Tourist Routes: The Potential of Russia’s North- West
(accessed 24.01.2017). (in Russ.)
16. The water route "Trade route Navinskogo merchant", available at:
(accessed 18.11.2016). (in Russ.)
17. Kaliningrad Region and Poland will develop a common tourist routes, available at:
. (accessed 24.01.2017). (in Russ.)
18. Information on the implementation of international ...
Lithuania's Lonely Leadership 2.0.
... reasons of failure of the first leadership attempt in 2004—2008 are analyzed, as are the reasons behind the revival of the concept in 2010 and onwards. While the overall economy seems to be on the mend and the relationships with the adjacent countries (Poland, mostly) are improving, Lithuanian leadership, argues the author, is still very much a subcontract one: it follows the model of “export democracy”, has a narrow agenda and is implicitly geared towards curtailing the influence of its eastern ...
Major infrastructure projects and the foreign policy of the Baltic states in 2010—2014
... Visagino atominės elektrinės projektas [Visaginas Nuclear Power Plant Project], 2013, available at: http://www.vae.lt/ (accessed 11.08.2013).
21. Kompanii Litvy i Pol'shi issledujut vozmozhnost' prokladki LitPol Link 2 [Companies of Lithuania and Poland are exploring the possibility of laying LitPol Link 2], 2013, 15min.lt — Žinios gyvai, available at: http://www.15min.lt/ru/article/ekonomika/kompanii-litvy-i-polshi-issledujut-vozmozhnost-prokladki-litpol-link-
Electric energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region and the role of Russia in it
... the Baltic States. The author analyses Russia’s role in the electric energy market and focuses on a possible increase of the country’s energy market share following the construction of the Baltic NPP and the export of generated electric energy to Poland, Lithuania, Germany, and Sweden. The author concludes that the prospects of Russia’s energy export to the Baltic Sea region will be determined not only by technological, economic and market factors, but rather by the general state of relations ...