A ‘Secret alliance’ or ‘Freedom from any alliances’? NATO accession debate in Sweden and Finland, 1991—2016
The authors analyze the policy of NATO towards Sweden and Finland, the neutral states of Northern Europe, in 1991—2016. The authors emphasize that Finland and Sweden have always been of high strategic importance for NATO and the EU defence policy. The authors investigate the main areas ...
NATO Policies in the Baltics: Objectives and Priorities
The authors employ geopolitical analysis to identify the core characteristics of NATO’s current policy towards the Baltic Sea region. After the demise of the Soviet Union, the region was considered as one of the safest in terms of military security. However, in the aftermath of the Ukraine crisis, the region has witnessed a growing ...
The military and political situation in the Baltic region in the late 20th/early 21st centuries: the prospects of ‘uneasy peace’
... late 20th/early 21st centuries. This study aims to analyse the security prospects of the Baltic region in view of the changes in the overall geopolitical situation in Europe and in the relations between Russia and its closest neighbours and the leading NATO countries. We examine the ideas and forecasts of international and Russian experts relating to the state and dynamics of military security in the region at the first stage of the Baltics’ membership in NATO. Another focus is on changes in the ...
The US ballistic missile defence policy in the Baltic and Nordic regions
... 2014, Voennaja bezopasnost' Arktiki [Military security of the Arctic], Nacional'nye interesy: prioritety i bezopasnost' [National interests priorities and safety], p. 56—64, available at: http://ormvd.ru/pubs/15530 (accessed 12.07.2014).
4. Gensek NATO privetstvuet reshenie Niderlandov osnastit' sudna radarami [The NATO Secretary General welcomes the decision by the Netherlands to equip the radar vessel]. 2011, RIA Novosti [RIA News], available at: http://www.ria.ru/defense_safety/20111006/451093629....
The evolution of US political priorities in the Baltic sea region in the 2010s
... region after the end of the Cold War caused the United States to revise its priorities in that part of the world. The process became especially apparent in the second decade of the 21st century when the Ukraine crisis brought to light the consequences of NATO and EU enlargement to the former Warsaw Treaty allies and the Baltic States. This article shows how the US, motivated by the need to ‘contain’ Russia, was developing its overall approaches to ensuring its political leadership in the Baltic region....
The Baltic Sea region and increasing international tension
... Obama at 25th Anniversary of Freedom Day – War-saw, Poland, 2014, The White House, available at: https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2014/06/04/remarks-president-obama-25th-anniversary-freedom-day-warsaw-poland (accessed 21.01.2016).
11. NATO’s Readiness Action Plan, 2015, NATO, available at: http://www.nato. int/nato_static_fl2014/assets/pdf/pdf_2015_12/20151130_1512-factsheet_rap_en.pdf (accessed 21.01.2016).
12. Voennye itogi goda: chem zapomnilsja 2015 god dlja rossijskoj armii ...
Assessment of the efficiency of Russian response to the implementation of US missile defence deployment concept in Europe
... http://news. kremlin. ru/ref_notes/461 (accessed 28 June 2011).
4. Gabuev, A. 2011, Vash sektor vozle Russia [Your sector near Russia], Kommersant, 16 July, p. 1—2.
5. Zajavlenie Prezidenta v svjazi s situaciej, kotoraja slozhilas' vokrug sistemy PRO stran NATO v Evrope [Statement by the President in connection with the situation that has developed around NATO missile defence system in Europe], Oficial'nyj
sajt Prezidenta Rossii [Official site of President of Russia], available at:http://kremlin. ru/news/13637 ...
The ‘сool war’ in the Baltic Sea Region: consequences and future scenarios..
The relevance of this topic is determined by the Baltic region playing a special role in the current confrontation between Russia and the West, which is most accurately defined by the term ‘cool war’. Russia borders on the EU and NATO in that region. In this study, I aim to demonstrate the impact of the ‘cool war’ on international relations in the region and explain why the preservation of the status quo is the most likely scenario. I conclude that, in recent years, a certain ...
Security in the Baltic region as a Projection of Global Confrontation between Russia and the USA
... ‘separate’ Brussels from Washington, yet the US influence is still very strong in Europe.
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3. Fomichev, M. 2016, Korochenko: NATO prepares for real war, RIA Novosti,...
Geopolitical and Geo-economic Changes in the Baltic Sea Region at the Turn of the XX—XXI centuries
... signatories of the Warsaw Pact and members of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (the Soviet Union, Poland and East Germany). The Baltic Sea region housed four market economies (Sweden, Finland, Denmark and Germany). Only two of them were members of NATO and the EU (Germany and Denmark). At present, there are eight EU countries in the region; six of them are NATO members (Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia), and the same two countries, Sweden and Finland, remain outside ...
Latvia in the System of European Territorial Security: a View from the Inside and Outside
... Baltic Defense Review, no. 2, p. 55—70.
12. Kolga, M. 2006, Quo Vadis, Baltic Defense Cooperation? Estonian Foreign Policy Yearbook, Tallinn, Eesti välispoliitika instituut, p. 119—136.
13. MID Latvii iskljuchil razmeshhenie «gigantskih baz NATO» na territorii strany [Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Latvia ruled accommodation "giant NATO bases" in the country], 2014, DELFI.LV, 5 September, available at: http://rus.delfi. lv/news/daily/latvia/mid-latvii-isklyuchil-razmeschenie-gigantskih-baz-nato-na-territorii-strany....
The Baltic policy of Germany and current international relations
... the country was establishing political, economic, and cultural ties with the new independent states. In the second half of the 1990s, Germany’s foreign policy became less intense. After the accession of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia to the EU and NATO in 2004, certain disagreements started to arise between Germany and the Baltics. It explains the lukewarm relations between them. The Ukraine events brought about a change in Germany’s regional policy. Despite Russia remaining one of the key economic ...
The detection of nuclear quadrupole resonance signals with limited data
... Tianliang, Zhang Guojin.
The Detection of Industrial Explosives by the Quadrupole Resonance Method: Some Aspects of the Detection of Ammonium Nitrate and Trinitrotoluene; In:Explosives Detection using Magnetic and Nuclear Resonance Techniques. Series: NATO Science for Peace and Security Series. Subseries: NATO Science for Peace and Security Series B: Physics and Biophysics. Fraissard, Jacques; Lapina, Olga (Eds.) Springer 2009, 295 p., 231—244.
А., Осокин Д.
Improving the efficiency of wavelet signal processing of NQR signals with modified Morlet basis functions
The Detection of Industrial Explosives by the Quadrupole Resonance Method. Some Aspects of the Detection of Ammonium Nitrate and Trinitrotoluene // NATO Science for Peace and Security Series. Subseries: NATO Science for Peace and Security Series B: Physics and Biophysics. Fraissard, Jacques; Lapina, Olga (Eds.) Springer, 2009. P. 231—244.
B., Barrall G.
Explosives Detection ...
The legitimation and criticism of violence in international law. A po¬litical science perspective
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21. Maus I. Verfassung oder Vertrag? Zur Verrechtlichung globaler Politik // Hrsgs. B. Herborth, P. Niesen. Anarchie der kommunikativen ...
Economic and geopolitical aspects of the Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline
... from its geopolitical opponents. This is explained by it having a decided economic edge over alternative options for the EU. The launch of NS 2 may contribute both to providing the energy security of the EU and to easing the military tensions between NATO and Russia in the Baltic region. The need to ensure the reliable operation of gas supply infrastructure makes any military conflict in the region impossible.
Zhiznin S. Z., Timokhov V. M.
Nord Stream 1, Nord Stream 2, third energy package,...
The concepts of enclave and exclave and their use in the political and geographical characteristic of the Kaliningrad region
... introduces the concept of dividing states and stresses the need to take their interests into account to ensure the functioning of the Russian exclave. The author substantiates the thesis that the Russian region is an enclave of the European Union (but not NATO) and an exclave of the Russian Federation and a number of political and economic intergovernmental alliances with Russian participation. The article offers a generalised characteristic of the Kaliningrad region from the perspective of its enclavity ...
Northern Dimension: Participant Strategies
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and the European Union. Vol. 2.
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Introduction: The Grand Redesign // Ambivalent neighbors: the EU, NATO and the price of membership / ed. A. Lieven and D. Trenin.
D. C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2003.
Vysotskaya Guedes Vieira, Alena
. Dimensionalism in the EU External Relations and its implications for the ...
On Estimation of Rainfall Variations over the European Part of Russia
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Monthly Temperature, Precipitation, Sea Level Pressure, and Station Pressure Data //
The Žalgiris movement and the formation of an alternative foreign policy philosophy (on the basis of the Žalgiris appendix to the Respublika newspaper)
After Lithuanian accession to the European Union and NATO, a cross-party political consensus has existed regarding the state’s foreign policy objectives. Against this background, the Žalgiris national resistance movement, which was established by eminent politicians, journalists, and public figures in ...
The Baltic Sea Region and the Black Sea Area: Two Pieces of the Same Puzzle
. [Электронный ресурс].
Baltic Sea region, Black Sea area, regional cooperation, EU, NATO, BSEC, CBSS
Reflections on the history of the Kaliningrad region
... purposes. The current confrontation between Russia and the West lends new urgency to the problem of teaching local history, ninety percent of which is the history of a territory that once belonged to Germany — today, a pillar of the EU and a member of NATO. The author examines whether it is reasonable to draw on international experience in patriotic education. The subject ‘History of West Russia: The Kaliningrad Region’ was taken off the school timetable. The article stresses the need to teach ...
Saint-Petersburg in the Baltic Sea region
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: Taylor and Francis, 1993.
Khudoley K. K.
Russia and NATO: What Expects Us in the Future // Challenges to International Relations in Post — Cold War Europe / ed. by K. Khudoley and
The challenge of dumped chemical ammunition in the
The Image of Kaliningrad Region in Polish Printed Media
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http://wiadomosci.dziennik.pl/swiat/artykuly/394625,putin-podpisal-rosjaniewjada-bez-wiz-do-polski.html (дата обращения: 25.09.2012).
30. Rosja grozi NATO prewencyjnym atakiem rakietowym. 04.05.2012. URL:http://wiadomosci.dziennik.pl/swiat/artykuly/389314,media-rosja-grozi-nato-pre wencyjnym-atakiem-z-uzyciem-iskanderow.html (дата обращения: 26.09.2012).
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Forecasting Actions of Baltic elites: A Scenario Approach
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The Role of Small Countries in Post-Soviet Territorial Restructuring: the Baltic Case
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Three development strategies of the Kaliningrad region (1991—2018)
... the Kaliningrad region became a Russian exclave, geographically separated from the rest of Russia by foreign states. The development of the region became dependent on external factors, including Russia’s political relations with foreign countries, NATO and EU. Geopolitical changes required adjustments in the region’s socio-economic development strategy. In the period of 1991 to 2018 three comprehensive strategies succeeded one another: Special economic zone (SEZ) strategy, Cooperation region ...
Ways to optimize the characteristics of active synthesizers frequency
... ветра на безопасность полетов и пути ее повышения // Системи обробки iнформацiï. 2015. № 3. С. 144—146.
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Current problems in Russian-Latvian relations
Current relations between Russia and Latvia are still influenced by a series of mutual claims that appeared after the demise of the USSR. Latvia — as well as Estonia and Lithuania — is both an EU and NATO member state. However, unlike the above mentioned countries, its relations with Russia are developing at a more pragmatic level. Numerous political differences often result in economic losses both for Latvia and Russia. Despite the fact that Latvia ...
On crisis trends in the legitimacy of the political regimes of the Baltic States
... insufficient resources to ensure stateness. This requires developing a hypothesis about smaller states ‘importing’ legitimacy from larger states and intergovernmental organisations, in whose zone of influence they are included. In other words, the EU and NATO can provide smaller states not only with economic and military resources but also legitimation ‘resources’ using their prestige to support the belief of local residents that there is no alternative to the current political system of social organisation....
Transformation of global value chains in Russia and the Baltics amid Covid-19: prospects for regionalization and implications for economic policy
... within global value chains (GVC) and operations of multinational companies is much more resistant to geopolitical and economic shocks than traditional international trade. In particular, the accession of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania to the EU and NATO in 2004 and the introduction of reciprocal EU-Russia sanctions in 2014 did not curb GVC activities between Russia and the Baltics. The article discusses factors in the transformation of the Baltics-Russian GVCs amid COVID-19. The research aims to ...
Coalition Within a Coalition: The Baltics in the European Union
... — Jacques Delors Institute, available at:
31. Ozonis, A. 1994, The Policies of the Baltic Countries Vis-à-vis the CSCE, NATO and WEU, The Foreign Policies of the Baltic Countries: Basic Issues, p. 49—50.
32. Haab, M. 1998, Potentials and Vulnerabilities of the Baltic States. In: Hansen, B., Heurlin, B. (eds.) The Baltic States in World Politics, New York, St. Martin’s ...