New stages of the excessive budget deficit procedure for the EU member states and the assessment of their effectiveness
The majority of EU member states, for which the excessive budget deficit procedure was introduced in 2009, managed to eliminate the deficit of their national budgets in September 2017. The EU started a reform of its subsidiary legislation in 2011 and introduced significant ...
The role of the European Central Bank in ensuring the financial stability of the EU
... Supervisory Mechanism (SSM) and the centralized supervision of the banking sector of the Member States of the eurozone with supervisory powers transferred to the European Central Bank in accordance with Article 127 (6) of the Treaty on the functioning of the EU. Secondly, the direct recapitalization of banks from the European Financial Stability Facility (EFSF), established under the European Stability Mechanism (ESM) based on the Treaty, signed a few months earlier — February 2, 2012. The fulfilment of ...
Contacts with Diasporas and Diaspora Organisations as a Key to a Successful Migrant Integration Policy in the EU
We analyse European Commission and European Parliament documents — directives, communications, conclusions, recommendations — and best practices for EU member states’ international projects focusing on migrant integration in both the EU states and the countries of origin. Special emphasis is placed on the role of diasporas and the efforts taken by the EU to involve them in the integration process....
Legal aspects of the EU policy on irregular immigration
This article addresses the issues pertaining to the adoption and development of legislation on irregular migration in the context of uncontrolled growth in the number of immigrants from North Africa and the Middle East to the EU. The article attempts at studying the EU legislation on irregular migration, classifying it, and analysing the prospects of EU migration legislation in the light of an increase in irregular immigration into the EU. The author systematises, classifies ...
Problems and prospects of EU — Russia dialogue on visa-free travel
This article deals with the issues pertinent to the EU — Russia visa dialogue — one of the major areas of cooperation between the two partners. The article aims to identify the main problems of this dialogue, as well as prospects for the introduction of a visa-free regime between the EU and Russia....
Construction of transport and energy networks in the Baltic region as an impetus for regional development
In light of some new aspects of the EU functioning, particularly, the recovery from the 2008-2009 global crisis, transportation and energy development projects are coming to the forefront in the Baltic region. At the same time, there is a need to consider EU’s recent adoption of a common ...
The Legal Regulation of the EU Immigrant Integration Policy
In this article, I consider the legal aspects of the EU policy on the integration of immigrants into the host society. The current EU basic law does not give the Union the power to issue legislative acts aimed at harmonizing national rules for the integration of immigrants. However, in the aftermath of ...
The EU Vs. Russia: Legal Nature and Implementation of the Union’s Restrictive Measures
The author proposes his take on the EU sanctions against Russia. He aims to understand the legal nature of the EU restrictions, the exact procedure of their implementation, revision, and repeal, as well as their judicial review. To this end, he proposes a system of sanction classification,...
EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region: Challenges and Perspectives of International Cooperation
This article describes the main characteristics of international cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) within the framework of the EU macroregional strategy. The analysis of the key directions, structure, and the Strategy implementation mechanisms demonstrates its experimental and innovative nature. At the same time, the authors identify problems and contradictions in the very idea ...
The fifth wave of the European Union enlargement: pro et contra
This article analyses the principal complex of economic and political motivations of the states of Central and Eastern Europe and the EU members related to the EU enlargement towards the East. Special attention is paid to the discussion on the reasonableness of the EU enlargement and the positions of certain EU members.
1. Borchardt K.-D. 1994, Azbuka prava Evropejskogo soobwestva ...
Perspectives of Euroregions with Russian Participation in Terms of Changes in the EU Regional Policy
The article describes changes in the cross-border cooperation support in the framework of the EU Regional Policy. The author emphasises the role of the European Neighbourhood Policy in the development of cross-border cooperation with non-EU countries. The article outlines the main obstacles for the development of euroregions at the EU-Russia border ...
The features of EU energy strategy in the Baltic region
This article analyses the issues of EU energy policy in the 1990s-the beginning of the 2000s in order to identify the features of energy supply and energy safety of the Baltic region countries. The research and practical significance of the work lies in the stepwise description of actions ...
The EU strategy for the Baltic region: where are we now?
This article is dedicated to the EU strategy for the Baltic Sea region approved by the European Commission in October 2009. The Strategy expresses the intention to strengthen regionalisation in the framework of the EU. It distinguishes the Baltic region as an independent priority target ...
On the international cooperation of North-West Russia in the field of innovations in the Baltic
... in winter], Biznes-sreda [Business environment], 15 April, available at: http://www. moles. ee/business/09/Apr/15/03.php (accessed 17 August 2012).
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The role of transborder cooperation in the increase of innovative potential of the Baltic region
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Russia-EU energy efficiency cooperation in the Baltic region: the untapped potential
... mechanisms of financial support for energy conservation projects and poor political support. Nevertheless, energy efficiency cooperation is capable of changing Russia-EU energy cooperation qualitatively: it offers a cheaper way to meet the needs of the EU, redefines interdependence between the parties, and introduces new elements of equality between them. Energy efficiency cooperation also transforms the patterns of the EU-Russia legal harmonization, creates new conditions for the convergence of regulations ...
Local border traffic as an efficient tool for developing cross-border cooperation
Local border traffic (LBT) is a tool for cooperation between the EU member states and neighbouring countries. It emerged as a measure to mitigate the barrier effect of the EU’s external border. In 2006, the European Parliament authorised the EU member states to conclude bilateral agreements on a simplified border ...
Supranational Policy of Migrant Integration in the EU
... factors affecting a country’s approach to the integration of immigrants. These factors were used in conducting a cluster analysis, which made it possible to identify four groups of countries. The study showed that, despite the large-scale and positive EU policy, due to differences in the socioeconomic and demographic development European states adopt different approaches to the implementation of migration policy in the field of integration. The author stresses that in the countries characterised by ...
Lithuania in Context of Eurointegration Processes: from Luxembourg to Helsinki
The peculiarities of the EU enlargement policy are investigated in this article. The author attempts to analyze the reasons for the division of the Baltic States into two negotiation groups as well as the developed mechanism of the acceleration of the preparation for the EU accession....
Coalition Within a Coalition: The Baltics in the European Union
... advance their interests within alliances and save resources. The authors test this hypothesis on the behaviour of the Baltics in the European Union. It is demonstrated that Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia have created a stable small coalition within the EU and actively form ad hoc alliances with the leading states to push union-level decisions, as it was the case with settling the migrant issue. In other areas, these states tend to benefit from the free rider behaviour.
1. Dosenrode-Lynge, S. Z. von....
The creation of a common EU energy market: a quiet revolution with far-reaching consequences
The article explores important changes in the EU energy structure and legislation. The authors examine the main stages of the creation of a common energy market in the EU. They analyse recent actions taken by the European Commission and the Court of Justice of the EU against its member states and ...
Russia and the European Union in the Baltic region: a treacherous path to partnership
... dialogue with the European Union, the key player in the Baltic. The author identifies Russian economic, military, political, and humanitarian interests in the region, and describes the structure, content, and main areas of the implementation of the EU Baltic strategy in 2009—2013. The article examines the evolution of the Strategy, which initially ignored Russian national interests in the region, yet eventually resulted in cooperative efforts in the areas of common interest such as energy, transport ...
The concept of the European Union’s normative power
... the parties. However, such approach does not completely conform to the objectives of studies into the foreign policy of the European Union – an example of unique integration of states. One of the modern approaches aimed to describe the nature of the EU as an actor in world politics is the concept of the EU’s ‘normative power’ arguing that the ‘power’ of the EU lies in the ability to change the international community’s idea of the ‘norm’. The concept of the EU’s ‘normative power’ ...
Northern Dimension: Participant Strategies
This article is devoted to the “Northern Dimension” initiative of the EU which also includes North-West Russia, Norway and Iceland. It is noted that the “Northern Dimension” in the theoretical perspective can be considered as part of strategic multi-level interactions between member-states of the EU and Russia. On ...
The instruments of Russia — EU research and technological co-operation in the sphere of innovations
The article focuses on the basic tools of Russia-EU international cooperation, cofunded by the EU and Russia, such as crossborder, trans-border, and trans-national cooperation programmes, which can contribute to innovative, scientific and technological development. The author gives an overview of large-scale Russia-EU international cooperation ...
Economic and geopolitical aspects of the Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline
The Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline project (NS 2) along the bottom of the Baltic Sea is aimed to increase gas supply from Russia to Germany and other EU countries. It serves mutual economic interests: the predicted growth in gas demand in the EU markets and the need to strengthen the energy security of the EU. The implementation of the NS 2 project is complicated by the need to allow for the EU energy ...
Certain issues of correlation between the international financial law and the EU law
The problem if interaction between the international financial law (IFL) and the EU law has become particularly vital in this integrational entity where a special legal system was created. It has been developing until now and carries the features of the both international and municipal law. Global financial crisis and subsequent sovereign ...
Electric energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region and the role of Russia in it
This article examines cooperation in the electric energy sector in the Baltic region. The author explores the existing undersea HVDC power exchange projects. It is emphasised that cooperation in the electric energy sector is concentrated largely in the EU member states despite earlier plans to establish the Baltic energy ring, which would also include Russia and Belarus. The author stresses that one of the most acute problems for the EU today is overcoming isolation of the energy systems of the Baltic ...
The Erasmus Mundus programme as a vehicle for development
This article analyses the Erasmus Mundus programme run by the European Commission in terms of structured cooperation between the EU and third country universities. Special attention is paid to the implementation of Erasmus Mundus projects aimed at environmental protection, biodiversity conservation, reduction in the use of hazardous substances, and the improvement of the attractiveness ...
The European Court of Justice case of Elgafaji: the interaction between EU law and international humanitarian law
... development of new concepts within international law, in particular, the concept of subsidiary protection to persons who fall outside the scope of the 1951 Refugee Convention. The author also considers the issues related to the concept of indirect effect in EU law, as well as the interaction between the EU and international law.
1. Judgment on joint cases №C-402/05 and 415./05 Jasin Abdullah Kadi and Al Barakaat International Foundation v. Council of the European Union and the Commission of the European ...
EU — Russia energy cooperation: major development trends and the present state
The article analyzes the development of EU — Russia energy relations through the lens of the evolution of three parameters: the political agenda (the Energy Dialogue), the institutional structure, and the legal modalities. The identification of these three aspects for assessing the evolution ...
European and Eurasian integration: similarities and differences
... similarities and differences between European and Eurasian integration. The theoretical relevance of the research lies in the comparison of the integration processes regarding the analysis of demographic and socio-economic development indicators of the EU and EAEU countries, as well as the integration mechanisms and instruments. The research comes to the conclusion on the possibility of adopting the European Union integration experience for the further integration processes in the Eurasian integration ...
The “European identity” of today: a category of political practice or discourse?
... author addresses the question as to whether European identity is a category of political discourse or a real instrument of European integration and comes to a conclusion that the concepts of European identity are stuck in a methodological trap. And the EU institutional design does not inspire confidence among the residents of united Europe. The question as to how European identity will develop after the EU crisis is becoming increasingly topical.
1. Bakke E. Towards a European Identity? URL: http://folk....
Polish-Russian Small Border Traffic in the Context of Russia-EU Relations
... analyse the Polish-Russian agreement on small border traffic in the context of relations between the European Union and the Russian Federation. The analysis focuses on the role of the Kaliningrad region of the Russian Federation in relations between the EU and Russia and conditions of the Polish-Russian agreement on small border traffic. The methodology employed is based on analysing primary (documents) and secondary (scholarly publications, press articles) sources. The article also addresses the “Kaliningrad ...
An Assessment of the Economic Performance of the EU Baltic Region States
The paper explores how the common economic space, a product of the EU, influenced the economies of the Baltic Sea Region states in 1995—2015. The authors investigate changes in the economic performance of the developed (Germany, Denmark, Finland, and Sweden) and Eastern European countries (Poland, Latvia, Lithuania,...
Local Border Traffic as a Form of Visa Liberalisation and Territorial Development
This article addresses the issue of visa liberalisation between Russia and the European Union, which constitutes a key aspect of the parties’ diplomatic cooperation. This work sets out to identify the main results of Russia/EU cooperation. The authors have conducted a brief historical analysis of this area of relations. The visa “regionalisation” is considered in the context of identifying the key actors of the EU — Russia negotiations: the Kaliningrad region, Germany,...
Innovation Capacity of Russia and the Baltics: a Comparative Approach
... K.Yu. 2012, Metodicheskie osnovy sravnitel'noj ocenki nauchno-tehnicheskogo potenciala Rossii i ES: regional'nyj i mezhdunarodnyj aspekty [The methodological bases of comparative evaluation of scientific and technological potential of Russia and the EU: regional and international aspects], Balt. reg., no. 4(14), p. 22—38. doi: 10.5922/2079-8555-2012-4-2.
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The development of cooperation between the European Union and Russia on migration issues: from „the „common spaces” to the actual implementation
... for the Common Space on Freedom, Security and Justice (2005), the article assesses the main results of its implementation, such as the Readmission and Visa Facilitation agreements. Moreover, it stresses the role of Russia as an agenda-setter of the EU migration agenda in the Eastern Europe.
1. Averre, D. 2005, Russia and the European Union: Convergence or Divergence?, European Security, no. 14 (2), p. 175—202.
2. Barbé, E., Costa, O., Herranz, A., Johansson-Nogués, E., Natorski, M., and Sabiote,...
From the Mediterranean to the Baltic: the problem of implementing the principle of solidarity in the EU area of immigration and asylum
The 2015 migration crisis significantly affected the EU’s area of freedom, security, and justice and challenged the cohesion and solidarity of the European Union. Although the crisis is past its peak, it is not over yet: problems and challenges associated with it persist. One of them is the lack of a ...
Civil protection in the EU and its effect on the safety of the Baltic region
This article describes civil protection activities of the EU in the framework of the Community Civil Protection Mechanism — a system for coordinating civil protection resources and in-kind assistance to countries stricken by natural and manmade disasters. By analyzing the legislation and actual activation ...
The danish parliament as an actor of Denmark’s foreign policy towards the EU and Russia: a comparative analysis, 2005—2019
... considerable in the world. The question is, however, whether these powers are exercised in the same manner towards different states and regions. This article aims to find out how the Danish Parliament contributes to the country’s foreign policy towards the EU and Russia. The concentric circles model is employed to assess the level of the Danish Parliament’s participation in the foreign policy of the Kingdom of Denmark in different regions of the world. The study conducts a comparative analysis of the ...
Kant’s Perpetual Peace Project and the Project of the European Union
... well-founded is the comparison of the ideas of Kant’s essay «Towards Perpetual Peace», written in late XVIII century, with the implementation of nowadays project of European Union 2) If such parallels are possible, to what extent the structure of the EU corresponds to Kant’s vision? 3) Which Kantian ideas are of the foremost importance to future development of the EU? Basing on the analysis of Kant’s treatise and of the current structure of the EU, the author arrives to the conclusion that the ...
Geography of international clusters in the Baltic region
... economic integration of the North-West of the Russian Federation and the European Union], Kaliningrad, Immanuel Kant State University of Russia, 392 p.
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Organisation of scientific research in Germany
... Universities, 2011, Bonn, Brandt GmbH Druckerei und Verlag, 108 p.
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Supranational party system of the EU
The article confirms the hypothesis that a multiplicity of parties of the European and national levels forms the party system of the European Union (EU). The authors describe the main characteristics of Europarties and political groups comprised of them as key actors in the European Parliament’s (EP) political and legislative processes. The authors adopt the institutional approach and make use of ...
Human rights in EU-Russia relations: a human rights mechanism
This article considers the human rights issues in relations between the Russian Federation and the European Union in the context of formal agreements and real policy from 1994 to the beginning of 2013. The EU regards human rights as fundamental values, which serve as the basis for its foreign relations. Russia tends to consider this issue as an attempt of an ill-disposed external actor to interfere in the domestic politics of the state.
1. Программа ...
The Baltics on Their Way towards a Circular Economy
... the Baltic countries are not fully using the opportunities offered by a circular economy. For example, Latvia’s, Lithuania’s, and Estonia’s recycling rates are significantly below those of other European countries. The Baltics depend heavily on EU financial support. An increase in funding will contribute to the implementation of circular economy technologies.
1. Avramenko, A. A., Gorbachev-Fadeev, M. A. 2015, Cyclic economy, Sustainable development and the “green” economy [Ustoichivoe ...
Multidimensional poverty in the Baltic States in the EU context: theoretical and practical aspects
... component as access to social services. Despite the versatility and severity of multidimensional poverty in some European countries, this phenomenon has not been sufficiently explored in socio-economic studies carried out in the Baltic countries of the EU — Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia. This article aims to identify the characteristics of multidimensional poverty in the Baltic countries and the EU. Its objective is to examine the spread of multidimensional poverty in the Baltic countries and compare ...
Processes of convergence and divergence in the regions of the European Union: features and qualimetry
A higher level of unity and cohesion across the European Union member states is an important aspect of European integration though it has a rather ambiguous nature. The Law on the Common Market, which aims to increase the economic efficiency of the EU, became a subject of extensive discussions among researchers suggesting that its viability at the political and socio-economic levels depends on a fair distribution of gains among the countries and regions of the Community. These discussions resulted ...
The Chinese Diaspora in the EU Countries
... Spring and often a measure of last resort, Chinese immigration is a result of a certain convergence between the ideologies of the host countries, committed to multiculturalism, and the country of origin pursuing a ‘go global’ policy. We chose the EU countries as a ‘demonstration site’ and the Chinese diaspora as the object of research. Our aim is to describe the process of migration from China and the formation of a Chinese diaspora in European countries. We analyse the timeline and the scope ...