Forecasting Actions of Baltic elites: A Scenario Approach
This paper provides an overview of different approaches to forecasting the future of the three Baltic States. The author’s theoretical approach to studying Baltic elites is used to forecast changes in the action models of the Baltic elites. The article stresses the scarcity of internal political processes in the Baltics. However, a significant number ...
Russia and the European Union in the Baltic region: a treacherous path to partnership
... interests in the region, yet eventually resulted in cooperative efforts in the areas of common interest such as energy, transport infrastructure, environment, research, education and culture. The results of the Russian presidency of the Council of the Baltic Sea States (2012—2013) are evaluated. It is noted that, despite an appealing presidency strategy and certain achievements in its implementation, Russia was unable to draw up a regional agenda and use the CBSS as an efficient platform for harmonizing its ...
On crisis trends in the legitimacy of the political regimes of the Baltic States
This article considers the legitimacy of political regimes in the Baltic States by analysing three major parameters: confidence in political institutions, level of corruption, and the development of their party systems. The author identifies the major crisis trends in the legitimacy of the political regimes of Lithuania, Latvia,...
The main environmental problems of the Baltic Sea and the ways to solve them
... Community to Radioactivity in the Baltic Sea. Maria-Balt Project, 2d S. P. Nielsen. Proceedings of a Seminar held at Hasseludden Conference Centre, Stockholm, 9—11 June 1998, pp. 77—129.
6. Brugmann, L. 1981. Heavy metals in the Baltic Sea. In The State of the Baltic, Ed. By G. Kullenberg, Mar. Pollut. Bull. Vol. 12 (6), pp. 214—218.
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Major infrastructure projects and the foreign policy of the Baltic states in 2010—2014
... The article aims to demonstrate the inconsistency between political and economic objectives of the development of the Baltics. The study contributes to a broader set of research into the issues of post-Soviet economic and political development. The Baltic States follow their own political and economic ways. The study proves the hypothesis of low efficiency of large infrastructure project and their political motivation. It is concluded that the disregard of the factor of mutually beneficial economic cooperation ...
Coalition Within a Coalition: The Baltics in the European Union
... coalition in EU Council Negotiations, Paper presented at the ECPR Conference, Reykjavik, 24—27 August, available at:
30. Kasekamp, A. 2013, Baltic States and the EU: A Rocky Road From “Outside” Towards the “Core”. In: Grigas, A., Kasekamp, A., Maslauskaite, K., Zorgenfreija, L., Buzek, J. The Baltic states in the EU: yesterday, today and tomorrow. Studies & Reports, no. 98, Notre Europe ...
The Role of Political Elites in the Development of Politics of Memory in the Baltic States
The article focuses on multiple cases of the politicization of history by the Baltic political elites. Three states of development of politics of memory in the Baltic States are identified. Problems of political exploitation of the past are scrutinized in the context of political life and international relations. It is concluded that the narratives of the past where nazi and Soviet legacies are equated are actively ...
The position of international community on the restoration of independence of the Baltic States
... evaluation of the Soviet-Baltic relations in 1989—1991. This study can help understand the mechanisms of formulation of foreign policy by the USA, Germany, and the USSR, as well as the practice of political interaction between these countries and the Baltic States. The materials and conclusions of this article can be used for further research on the foreign policies of the USA, Germany, the USSR, and the Baltic republics. In the process of the Baltics gaining their independence, western countries showed ...
Russia and the Baltic States: Some Results and a Few Perspectives
Russia has a vested political interest in the Eastern Baltics; yet acting upon this interest is made either difficult or altogether impossible when it comes to the Baltic States. For 20 years, the Russian Federation has been actively promoting a model of mutually beneficial co-operation. The anti-Russian discourse of the Baltic States' political elites — driven by their own wish to maintain their political monopoly — ...
Population Ageing as a Sociodemographic Problem in the Baltic Region
... most developed countries will continue to drive the dependency ratio up. This research aims to forecast dependency ratio in the Baltic region until the end of the century. A more detailed population analysis and forecast is provided for the case of the Baltic States — Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. The authors use Bayesian probabilistic predictions based on data from the Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Principle research methods include multi-factor ...
The Baltic economic model: some results of the 1990—2015 transformations
During the last 25 years, the economy of the Baltic States has been developing in the conditions of sovereignty, both de facto and de jure. This period has been sufficient to identify regular patterns in the national economic models. Studies into the nature of the economic development of the Baltic States ...
Modern trends in the Baltic countries in the discourse of identity: between sovereignty and European integration
The publication reflects the problem of new identity of the Baltics in the conditions of competition between European spaces. The Baltic States are presented as a political structure, where mutually competitive identities oriented towards different centres of modern Europe are developing. In the Baltics, the identity discourse acquires new markers. The agenda includes the crisis of confidence ...
The Baltic policy of Germany and current international relations
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6. Klein, A. M., Gesine, H. 2010, Germany’s Relations with the Baltic States since Reunification, Kas international reports, no. 9, p. 60—74.
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NATO Policies in the Baltics: Objectives and Priorities
... a growing tension in relations between NATO and the Russian Federation. A comparative analysis of NATO’s official documents on the Baltics shows that the chief pretext for increased military presence in the region is the alleged need to defend the Baltic states from the Russian threat. Special attention is paid to the attempts of Western military strategists to encourage the neutral Nordic states — Sweden and Finland — to accede to NATO. This would lead to the organisation’s northern enlargement....
Modern Hanseatic Trends in the Baltic Region
... 2014, Pogranichnye zemli, obshchie vody: istoriya transgranichnogo sotrudnichestva Rossii, Baltiiskikh stran i ES po ozdorovleniyu ekosistemy Baltiiskogo morya [Border lands, common waters: the history of cross-border cooperation between Russia, the Baltic States and the EU on the rehabilitation of the Baltic Sea ecosystem], St. Petersburg. (In Russ.)
7. Kapaciauskaite, I. 2011, Environmental governance in the Baltic Sea Region and the role of non-governmental actors, Procedia — Social and Behavioral ...
Electric energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region and the role of Russia in it
... the EU member states despite earlier plans to establish the Baltic energy ring, which would also include Russia and Belarus. The author stresses that one of the most acute problems for the EU today is overcoming isolation of the energy systems of the Baltic States (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia) from that of the major part of the EU. This task has become especially relevant after the closing of the Ignalina NPP (Lithuania), which used to be the primary energy source for the three Baltic States. The article ...
Assessing competitiveness of the Baltic states in tourism
... displayed in charts and graphs. The Baltic region states are seen to have a high (Germany) or relatively high level of competitiveness. All the countries perform well on tourism infrastructure development and conditions for doing business in tourism. The Baltic reign states rank differently on the affordability of tourism. Germany is the regional leader in terms of attractiveness, followed by the Russian Federation, Poland, Norway, and Sweden. The analysis showed that Russia lagged behind its competitors in travel ...
Motors for regional development: impact on regional political organizations on the university cooperation in the Baltic Sea region
... Henningsen, B. Towards a Knowledge-based Society in the Baltic Sea Region. Berlin, pp. 125—128.
2002. Towards a Knowledge-based Society in the Baltic Sea Region. Berlin.
Hubel, H., Gänzle, S.
2001. The Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS) as a Sub-regional Organisation for ‘Soft Security Risk Management’ in the North-East of Europe: Report to the Presidency of the CBSS. 2001, 18 May.
Jakobi, A. P., Martens, K.
2007. Diffusion durch international Organisationen: ...
Approaches to the Definition of the Baltic Sea Region
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The political elite recruitment in the Baltic: the role of the ethnic factor
... Socialinių tyrimų institutas, Eugrimas.
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Geography of international clusters in the Baltic region
... mezhotraslevyh kompleksov (na primere jenergeticheskih klasterov Severo-zapada Rossii i Finljandii) [Internalization interbranch complexes (for example, energy clusters in Northwest Russia and
Finland)], PhD thesis, Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg State University, 172 p.
15. Shastitko, A. 2009, Competitiveness of the region: content, factors, policies, Baltic Region, no. 1, p. 10—25. doi: 10.5922/2079-8555-2009-1-2.
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The Development of International Tourism in Lithuania: a Comparative Analysis of Regional Aspects
... in the Baltic Sea region. The interregional cooperation between Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia in the field of international tourism development is based on the principle of public private partnership. It has been recently acknowledged that the three Baltic States form an integrating region in the field of international tourism and thus affect the Kaliningrad region, North-east Poland, Southern Finland, and partially Belarus. Therefore, Lithuania plays an important role in the integration of the tourist ...
Russian soft power in the Baltic States through the lens of research: traditions, competition, confrontation
... relations has the opposite effect for Russia – the country loses in reputation and image. The main factor at play is the information content of the Russian-language media space. At odds with the historical and political views of a significant part of the Baltic States’ ruling class, it is becoming the target of counteraction. At the same time, Russian high and mass culture and, partly, educational services are in demand from both Baltic Russian speakers and ethnic Lithuanians, Latvians, and Estonians. Our ...
The transformation of the Baltic countries’ political elites: general and specific features
... individual practices. A comprehensive examination of elite transformation in small states such as the Baltics requires the consideration of both domestic and foreign policy aspects. The thesis is put forward that despite some differences between the Baltic States their political elites have undergone very similar transformations since the 1990s. At the time, Baltic elites asserted continuity with pre-war Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia and detachment from the Soviet past. The 1990s elite struggle for power ...
EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region: Challenges and Perspectives of International Cooperation
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The International Association of Teachers of Russian Language and Literature and its Activity in the Baltic Sea States
The article offers general information about the International Association of Teachers of Russian Language and Literature (MAPRYAL) and its main lines of activity. The authors focus on the activity of MAPRYAL in the Baltic Sea States offering a detailed description of the International Festival of Russian Language in the Baltic Sea States, and the events held by MAPRYAL in Germany, Poland, Finland, Sweden, and Denmark.
Brunova Natalia, Moskovkin Leonid, Yurkov Yevgeny
On Russian/Nordic Investment Competition in the Baltic States
... relevance to the areas that are geographically, historically and culturally close to both Russia and the Nordic countries. Thus, the aim of this article is to understand how the competition between Russian and Nordic capital investment is played out in the Baltic States. The study discusses the principles of Russian and Nordic investment in the Baltic, and suggests ways to regulate these relations. To this end, we compare the investment conditions created in the Baltic States for both Russian and Nordic investors....
Legal regime for church property in Russia and the Baltic states
In this article, we carry out a comparative analysis of the legal regimes for church property in the Baltic States and in Russia after the demise of the USSR,. We stress the significance of this problem for the newly established relations between the state and the religious organisations, for the conclusion of agreements between these actors, and for the development ...
The prospects of nuclear power development in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea region as a factor of the formation of international relations system in the region
... large-scale politicisation of economic cooperation. The development of nuclear power in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea is indicative of the effectiveness of political and economic cooperation in the region. The author believes that Russia and the three Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have the economic and technological opportunities for building up cooperation in the field of energy. This points to a question whether the traditional patterns of relations that developed among these countries ...
The theory of peripheral capitalism: on the applicability of the Latin American model to the Baltic States. An attempt at an inter-disciplinary analysis
... lies in the focus on the technically theoretical problems that are nevertheless the key to understanding regional development processes in the East of the Baltic Sea. The research aims to verify the theory of peripheral capitalism as applied to the Baltic States. The first theoretical objective is to draw a distinction between the ideas of modernisation and transformation in a regional context. The second objective is to adjust the theory of peripheral capitalism to smaller states. To study the features ...
The Baltic macroregion: geographical macrostructures, communication features, innovative potential
... Korneevets, V. S. 2009, Osobennosti razvitija jekonomicheskogo krizisa v Baltijskom regione [Features of the economic crisis in the Baltic region], Informacionnyj bjulleten' Instituta Baltijskogo regiona RGU im. I. Kanta [Newsletter of the Institute of Baltic Studies of the Immanuel Kant State
University of Russia], II quarter 2009, p. 136—150.
3. Wallerstein, I. 2009, Dinamika global'nogo krizisa: tridcat' let spustja [The dynamics of the global crisis: Thirty years later], Expert, Sept. 14, available at:http://expert. ru/expert/2009/35/vallerstain/ ...
From the idea to the strategy of Baltic Europe
... Europejski Instytut Rozwoju Regionalnego i Lokalnego, Warszawa.
Palmowski T., 2000, Rola regionów transgranicznych w procesie integracji Europy Bałtyckiej, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego,
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and Perspectives for Cooperation in the
Region, Commission of the European Communities, COM(95)609.
Ryba J., 2008, Strategia Unii Europejskiej dla regionu Morza Bałtyckiego, Biuletyn Analiz no 19, Office for the Committee of European Integration, Warsaw.
The Baltics in the Geography of the Largest Transnational Corporations of Europe
The aim of this study is to examine the place of the Baltic States on the corporate world map, a contemporary, foreign-investment-driven alternative to the more familiar political map. To this end, the author studies the geographical place of the Baltics in the documentation of transnational corporations. The ...
An Assessment of the Economic Performance of the EU Baltic Region States
The paper explores how the common economic space, a product of the EU, influenced the economies of the Baltic Sea Region states in 1995—2015. The authors investigate changes in the economic performance of the developed (Germany, Denmark, Finland, and Sweden) and Eastern European countries (Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia) during the integration of the latter states ...
The ethnic aspects of demographic processes in the Baltic region states
... Future.2009. Brussels: European Commission, Directorate-General for Regional Policy.
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3. Kaszmarczyk, P., Okólski, M. 2008. Economic Impacts of Migration on Poland and Baltic States // Fafo-paper. Oslo.
4. Indans, I. 2009. Migration Policies in the Baltic Sea Region 2008—2009. Rīga.
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Strategic perspectives for the territorial development of the Baltic Sea Region
... accessibility in the Baltic Sea Region — structures and perspectives // Spatial Planning and development in the Baltic Sea Region. Bonn 2009:8/9. P. 547—560.
Blažauskas N., Fedorov G., Klimenko N.
et al. Potentials of the east — Baltic States, Russia and Belarus // Ibid. P. 569—586.
Cieślak A., Jakubowska P.
et al. Compendium on Maritime Spatial Planning systems in the Baltic Sea Region countries. Warsaw, Gdansk, 2009.
Doctrine of the Russian Federation ...
Nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region: the history of emergence and the political and economic features of its development
... nuclear power is a rather young branch of national economy. However, over recent decades, it has already seen rises and falls, and a number of states have had tragic experiences of nuclear emergencies. Nevertheless, many countries — including the three Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania — express a strong interest in development, generation, and application of nuclear power. In the Baltic States, nuclear power dates back to the Soviet times, but its development was suspended pursuant to the EU ...
Borders and Identity in Theory and Practice of the Eastern Baltic Region
... corresponding resistance from groups with a different identity. In the Baltic region, these processes have not reached the Ukrainian scale; however, there are prerequisites for ethno-political conflicts of this type. The post-Crimean political debate in the Baltic states has shown that that hardliners of a strict assimilation model of state identity prevail in Vilnius, Riga, and Tallinn. This study sets out to analyze the political consequences of the conflict between the existing models of ethnopolitical identification ...
The evolution of US political priorities in the Baltic sea region in the 2010s
... its priorities in that part of the world. The process became especially apparent in the second decade of the 21st century when the Ukraine crisis brought to light the consequences of NATO and EU enlargement to the former Warsaw Treaty allies and the Baltic States. This article shows how the US, motivated by the need to ‘contain’ Russia, was developing its overall approaches to ensuring its political leadership in the Baltic region. It demonstrates how Washington is planning to reduce the vulnerability ...
Multidimensional poverty in the Baltic States in the EU context: theoretical and practical aspects
... Its objective is to examine the spread of multidimensional poverty in the Baltic countries and compare it to the situation on a European scale. The work uses Eurostat data. Various indicators suggest that the risk of multidimensional poverty in the Baltic States is above the EU average.
Voronov V.V., Ruza O.P., Stasane J.
multidimensional poverty, poverty measurement indicators, poverty risk assessment, material deprivation, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia
Saint-Petersburg in the Baltic Sea region
International Studies Committee: URL: http://www.
/ ecpr/ events/wisc/index. htm (
Khudolei Konstantin, Lanko Dmitry
Saint-Petersburg, the Baltic Sea region, international relations, the Council of Baltic Sea States (CBSS), the Union of the Baltic Cities, the Northern Dimension
The features of EU energy strategy in the Baltic region
... actions taken by EU leaders and EU member states in order to formulate a common European energy policy. The 2004 EU enlargement posed the problem of taking into account the features of energy supply of Eastern European countries and, especially, the Baltic States. The energy industries of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, as well as other Eastern European and CIS countries, are closely related to the energy industry of the Russian Federation. Trying to allow for this circumstance, EU leaders and energy structures ...
Geopolitical and Geo-economic Changes in the Baltic Sea Region at the Turn of the XX—XXI centuries
... Russia and EU. Reference book. Russia and member countries of the European Union. 2015, 2015, 271 p. (In Russ.)
16. Federal State Statistics Service, available:
(accessed 05.07.2016). (In ... ..., Rossijskij `eksklav na Baltike: Kaliningradskaya oblast' v baltijskom `ekonomicheskom prostranstve [The Russian exclave on Baltic: The Kaliningrad region in the Baltic economic space], Kaliningrad, 312 p. (In Russ.)
18. Fedorov, G. M., Zverev, Yu. M....
Russia’s energy geostrategy in the Baltic Sea region
This article explores Russian energy policy in the Baltic Sea region in the context of the world energy market globalization. The study focuses on the three Baltic States — Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia — which have a similar geographical location and history. The dynamic development of the region as a whole is strongly influenced by the stability of energy supply in each state. The article analyses the role ...