The Baltic Region

2022 Vol. 14 №1

Back to the list Download an article

New opportunities for the Russian Baltic exclave in the context of changes in the country’s geopolitical situation



Current geopolitical and geoeconomic changes require a reconsideration of the role of the Kaliningrad region in the Baltic region. This study aims to demonstrate the possible effect of some trends in the development of the neighbouring countries on the future of the Kaliningrad region and make recommendations on the territory’s macrospecialisation. Amid the erosion of the world order, Sergey A. Karaganov calls for moderate isolationism. The Kaliningrad region is an incredibly interesting historical experiment bound to produce unexpected results. The strengthening of Russia, which coincided with the termination of 300 years of attempts to become part of Europe in some capacity, radically affects the functions of the Kaliningrad region. Its unique geographical position and caring attitude to the historical heritage make it a likely outpost of Russia’s soft power. Developing the region as a laboratory of the future, which builds models for the domestic market and exports, will allow the country to benefit from scale, taking advantage of its larger and smaller territories. Higher education may play a leading part in the process. In particular, as conservatism revives, it is time to take another look at the ideas and approaches used when creating Akademgorodok in Novosibirsk.


1. Barabanov, O., Bordachev, T., Lisovolik, Ya., Lukyanov, F., Sushentsov, A., Timofeev, I. 2018, Living in a crumbling world, Valdai International Discussion Club, October, 2018, 25 p., available at: (accessed 28.10.2021) (in Russ.).

2. Barabanov, O., Bordachev, T., Lissovolik, Ya., Lukyanov, F., Sushentsov, A., Timofeev, I. 2021, The era of the pandemic: year two. Return of the future, Valdai International Discussion Club, October, 2018, 25 p., available at: (accessed 24.10.2021) (in Russ.).

3. Bordachev, T. 2018, Two wars of the West. What should Russia do so as not to disappear from the world map, Valdai International Discussion Club, 06.04.2018, available at: (accessed 30.10.2021) (in Russ.).

4. Bordachev, T. 2021, When neighbors become indifferent to Russia, VZGLYaD, 13 August 2021, available at: (accessed 28.10.2021) (in Russ.).

5. Meeting of the Valdai Discussion Club. Vladimir Putin took part in the plenary session of the 18th meeting of the Valdai Discussion Club,2021, President of Russia, October 21, 2021, Sochi, available at: (accessed 28.10.2021) (in Russ.).

6. Karaganov, S. President of Russia, Where to go and with whom to go. Foreign Policy on the Threshold of a New Decade, Rossiyskaya Gazeta, 26.12.2019, available at: (accessed 30.10.2021) (in Russ.).

7. Karaganov, S. 2021, “In this world, Russia must be a fortress.” Interview, EXPERT, № 10 (1197), 1 March 2021, available at: (accessed 28.10.2021) (in Russ.).

8. Kortunov, A. 2021, Between the Plenum of the CPC Central Committee and the “Summit of Democracy”, RIAC, 22 November 2021, available at: (accessed 25.11.2021) (in Russ.).

9. Kuznetsov, A. 2019, How did INION think, what will happen to him next and who makes science? Russian International Affairs Council, July 19, 2019, available at: (accessed 13.11.2020) (in Russ.).

10. Lukin, A. 2021, The Right to Madness, Rossiya v global’noi politike [Russia in Global Affairs] № 15, September October, 01.09.2021, available at: (accessed 30.09.2021) (in Russ.).

11. Maergoiz, I. M. 1986, Territorial’naya struktura khozyaistva [Territorial structure of the economy, Novosibirsk], Novosibirsk, Nauka, Sib. department, 300 p. (in Russ.).

12. Miller, A., Lukyanov, F. 2016, Detachment Instead of Confrontation: Post-European Russia in Search of Self-Sufficiency, Foreign and Defense Policy Council, available at: (accessed 30.10.2021) (in Russ.).

13. Ortega y Gasset, H. 2010, University Mission.

14. Pilyasov, A. N. 2009, I poslednie stanut pervymi: severnaya periferiya na puti k ekonomike znaniya [And the Last Come First: The Northern Periphery on the Path to a Knowledge Economy], M., LIBROKOM, 542 p. (in Russ.).

15. Gorkin, A. P., Lipets, Yu. G. (comp.) 2003, Razmeshchenie proizvodstva v rynochnoi srede. Iz trudov B. N. Zimina [Placement of production in a market environment. From the works of B. N. Zimina], M., Alfa-M, 176 p. (in Russ.).

16. Ratzel, F. 2020, Chelovechestvo kak zhiznennoe yavlenie na Zemle (reprint izdaniya 1901 g.), [Mankind as a Life Phenomenon on Earth (reprint of the 1901 edition)], M., Book house “LIBROKOM”, 58 с. (in Russ.).

17. Sarott, M. E. 2021, Post Cold War Containmentны, Rossiya v global’noi politike [Russia in global politics], vol. 19, no. 6, p. 44—60, available at: (accessed 24.11.2021) (in Russ.).

18. Sintserov, L. M. 2000, Long waves of global integration, Mirovaya ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya [World economy and international relations], no. 5, p. 56—64 (in Russ.).

19. Sushentsov, A. 2021, Foreign Policy of Ukraine as an Experiment, Valdai International Discussion Club,10.08.2021, available at: (accessed 28.10.2021) (in Russ.).

20. Fedortsev, V. 2021, Germany hopes to win the green revolution, VZGLYAD, October 29, 2021, available at: (accessed 30.10.2021) (in Russ.).

21. Shuper, V. A. 2020, The dead voice of science. View from the Fatherland, Upravlenie naukoi: teoriya i praktika [Science Management: Theory and Practice], vol. 2, no. 1, p. 40—53, available at: (accessed 30.10.2021) (in Russ.).

22. Sumlenny, C. 2013, “Economists We Teach Ethics.” Interview with the President of the University of Lüneburg Prof. Sascha Spoon, EXPERT, no. 13 (845), 29.03.2013, available at: (accessed 01.11.2021) (in Russ.).

23. Drezner, D. W. 2021, The United States of Sanctions. The Use and Abuse of Economic Coercion, Foreign Affairs, vol. 100, № 15, September/October, p. 142—154.

24. Laruelle, M. 2021, Is Russia Fascist? Unraveling Propaganda East and West, Ithaca [N. Y.] & London, Cornell University Press, 256 p.+VII p.