The Baltic Region

2020 Vol. 12 №3

On the economic security of Russia’s Kaliningrad exclave

Abstract

An exclave position makes the economic security problems of the Kaliningrad region more complex as compared with other Russian territories. Deteriorating relations between Russia and the West compound the situation. This has been especially so since 2014 when economic sanctions were imposed against Russia, and the country retaliated. Global geopolitical instability adds to the conundrum. This study aims to assess the economic security of the Kaliningrad region. Its objectives include defining the concept of regional economic security and measuring its level in the Russian Baltic exclave. Possible ways to improve the economic security of the region are considered as well. Official statistics on the dynamics of industrial production and GRP and 28 other socio-economic indicators are used to assess the level of economic security. The region performs well on nine indicators and much worse on 19. Proposals for economic restructuring aimed at more intensive exploitation of regional natural and labour resources are examined along with the region’s prospects as part of the Great Eurasia (Bolshaya Eurasia) project and as an ‘international development corridor’.

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Ethno-confessional immigrant ghettos as a national security problem in Denmark’s social and political discourse

Abstract

The ghettoisation of immigrant areas in Denmark is a lengthy and objective process of the emergence of ethno-religious ‘parallel societies’ in the state. Cultural and religious principles that are often at odds with the democratic values of Danish society guide the actions of ghetto residents. Danish social and political discourse pictures this ideological difference between the host society and Muslim immigrant minorities as a potential threat to Denmark’s national security caused by a combination of political, social, and economic factors. The ensuing social disunity and violation of the country’s territorial integrity take the problem to a regional and international level. Through analysing public speeches of Danish social and political actors, this article reconstructs key stages in the development of parallel societies in Denmark. Another focus is official government strategies to prevent isolated immigrant areas from turning into ghettoes: the Government’s Strategy against Ghettoisation (2004), Return of the Ghetto to Society: Confronting Parallel Societies in Denmark (2010), and One Denmark without Parallel Societies: No Ghettos in 2030 (2018). The escalation of the social conflict calls for the Danish authorities to take decisive action against the enclavisation of segregated immigrant communities. This study employs discourse analysis to evaluate the efficiency and identify the shortcomings of government action to integrate ethno-confessional minorities into society. Particular attention is paid to analysing public reaction to the criteria for identifying ghettoes as well as to annual publications of official ghetto lists.

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Multidimensional poverty in the Baltic States in the EU context: theoretical and practical aspects

Abstract

There are several approaches to assessing poverty, namely, the absolute, relative, and subjective ones. They are widely used in studying income dynamics and differentiation at a national level. Yet a new research approach to the study and assessment of ‘multidimensional’ poverty is gaining popularity in developed states. Central to it is the notion of ‘risk of poverty and/or social exclusion’ (AROPE). This approach measures both income level and such non-monetary component as access to social services. Despite the versatility and severity of multidimensional poverty in some European countries, this phenomenon has not been sufficiently explored in socio-economic studies carried out in the Baltic countries of the EU — Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia. This article aims to identify the characteristics of multidimensional poverty in the Baltic countries and the EU. Its objective is to examine the spread of multidimensional poverty in the Baltic countries and compare it to the situation on a European scale. The work uses Eurostat data. Various indicators suggest that the risk of multidimensional poverty in the Baltic States is above the EU average.

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