The concepts of enclave and exclave and their use in the political and geographical characteristic of the Kaliningrad region
This article focuses on the genesis of and correlation between the related concepts of enclave and exclave and the scope of their use in different sciences, fields of knowledge, and everyday speech. The author examines the circumstances of their emergence in the reference and professional literature in the Russian language. Special attention is paid ...
Russian Exclave on the Baltic Sea: Evolution of Exclavity and Ways to Overcome It
The author considers peculiarities of the emergence and evolution of exclavity of the Kaliningrad region. The article analyses the influence of exclavity on the connections of the region with the Russian mainland, its economic development, exclave administration, and Kaliningrad identity and examines the ways the existing ...
The historical and geographical evolution of the enclavity of the Kaliningrad region
This article considers the origin, development, change in the status, and extinction of enclave and exclave formations in the territory of the modern Kaliningrad region. The author offers information on their socio-economic and political features. The article identifies enclave (exclave) problems peculiar to them, including the land access (passenger ...
Сoastal exclaves among enclosed territories of the world
The article studies coastal exclaves as a special type of enclave territories of the world. They are understood as territories separated from the territory of the mother country by a foreign state (states) but having access to the sea. A complete list of coastal exclaves in the ...
Exclavity as a challenge and a resource for foreign positioning of the Kaliningrad region
The exclusive position of the Kaliningrad region is a fundamental geopolitical factor in its socio-economic and socio-cultural development. Given the region’s foreign positioning, exclavity is both a challenge and a resource. Guided by the principles of factor analysis, through the method of principal components, the author puts forward several theses regarding the possibilities and limitations of exclavity in overcoming foreign ...
Kaliningrad and Crimea as Russian exclaves: similarities, differences, and interconnections
The article examines the emergence and development of Crimea (including Sevastopol) as Russia’s fourth exclave. Using the typology of the world’s enclave areas as objects of political geography, the author identifies distinctive characteristics of the Kaliningrad region and Crimea (the Crimean federal district) and compares them to other national and ...
On the economic security of Russia’s Kaliningrad exclave
An exclave position makes the economic security problems of the Kaliningrad region more complex as compared with other Russian territories. Deteriorating relations between Russia and the West compound the situation. This has been especially so since 2014 ...
The Kaliningrad Region: Challenges of the Exclave Position and Ways to Offset Them
... and Russia’s response to them have had a significant impact on the Kaliningrad region. This has created new challenges and warranted a revision of the old ones. The article investigates the reaction of the region’s economy to the challenges of its exclave position and considers possible measures to offset related problems in the current geopolitical situation. The article employs statistics, regional strategies, cross-border cooperation programmes, and expert interviews conducted by the authors ...
The features of the functioning of small enterprises in the conditions of regional exclavity
This article analyzes the features of small business activity in the conditions of regional exclavity. The author shows that these conditions have both positive and negative impact on small business development. The combination of the specificity of small enterprises as business entities and the distinctive features of exclave regions and the ...
The innovative aspects of the fishing fleet development in the Russian exclave region
Our country has set a course for the economy modernisation on the basis of innovative development. In the post-war period until 1991, the exclave of Russia — the Kaliningrad region — showed high rates of socioeconomic development due to the establishment of a large-scale sea fishing industry. Such success rested on research and innovative activity. This article analyses the successful ...
Commodity flow model for an exclave region: Rent-seeking in the ‘transitional period’ of the special economic zone
This article focuses on a commodity flow model for an exclave region (CFMER). The CFMER development is aimed at identifying aggregate proportions of the exclave’s economy in the transitional period of the special economic zone (SEZ) functioning. The key method of analysis is the comparison of data on the ...
On the programme of research development in the exclave region
This article focuses on the development of research in the exclave region. The authors offer a programme of research development in the Kaliningrad region. The article describes the principal lines of implementation of priorities of modernization and technological upgrade of regional industries.
Improving Human Resource Training Policy for the Balanced Economic and Demographic Development of the Kaliningrad Region
Balanced economic and demographic development is vital for ensuring the dynamic and proportional development of the regions. However, Russia as a whole and the exclave region of Kaliningrad as its integral part demonstrate significant disproportions between the need for human resources and their availability. This article aims to assess the balance between the components of the regional system of demography,...
Geography and economy of the Kaliningrad region: limitations and prospects of development
With its exclave status, the Kaliningrad region has been drawing attention of many researchers in different fields. Yet the prospects for cooperation between the region and neighbouring communities in Poland and Lithuania, which once constituted an integrated ...
The concept of improving the methodology of exclave region's economy management on the basis of investment programming
This article considers the concept of improving the methodology of management of exclave region’s economy on the basis of investment programming. The author suggests a methodological approach to improving investment programming management in order to ensure a sustainable socio-economic situation in the region.
1. Основные ...
Kaliningrad Exclave: Electoral Specificity
The author analyzes the specifics of voting in the Kaliningrad region from 1991 to 2018. The region is identified as a unique object, the example of which reveals the influence of the exclave factor on electoral specifics. The results of federal elections are viewed as a reaction of voters to socio-economic changes caused by exclave status, as well as to the policy of the federal center in relation to the region. Using calculations ...
Socioeconomic typology of Russia’s coastal regions
... Petersburg, 65 p.
3. Klemeshev, А. P., Fedorov, G. М. 2004, Ot izolirovannogo jeksklava – k «koridoru razvitija». Al'ternativy rossijskogo jeksklava na Baltike [From an isolated enclave - a "development corridor". Alternatives to the Russian exclave on the Baltic Sea], Kaliningrad, 253 p.
4. Pokshishevsky, V. V., Fedorov, G. М. 1988, Osnovy geografii naselenija i rasselenija v predelah Mirovogo okeana [Basics of geography and population resettlement within the world's oceans]. In: Geografija ...
Methodological approaches to scientific maintenance of branch: regional aspect
The authors consider peculiarities and methodological approaches to scientific maintenance of a branch taking as an example the agriculture of the Kaliningrad region being the exclave region of Russia.
С., Дупленко Н.
Предпринимательство региона / под ред. В.
С. Бильчака. Калининград, 2008.
Identification of technology transfer in industries developing in the exclave region under the influence of the “coastal factor”
The exclave and coastal position of the Kaliningrad region determines the development conditions that differ from other regions, including those of the regional innovation subsystem. The most important and integral part of this subsystem which actually ensures ...
First results of the import substitution policy in the Kaliningrad region
The aim of this research work is to analyze the results of the import substitution policy of an exclave territory. The objectives of this research include the analysis of the development of agriculture in the exclave region, the evaluation of the food security level, the assessment of import substitution and its influence on the development of agriculture....
Towards a Stable and Dynamic Economy in the Kaliningrad Region
The economy of the Kaliningrad exclave is not sufficiently stable and is heavily affected by external factors. This work aims to estimate the current economic situation in the region and explore possible ways to increase the stability of regional economy. The study employs economic ...
Russian Exclave on the Baltic Sea
Foreign direct investment in North-West Russia
This article considers the socioeconomic characteristics of foreign direct investment and identifies the features of investment activities with foreign capital participation in the exclave region. The author analyses the dynamics of foreign direct investment inflow to the regions of North-West Russia and the industries preferred by foreign investors and identifies the position of the Kaliningrad region among the regions of North-West ...
Managerial competencies required: a comparative analysis of Moscow and the Kaliningrad region
... managerial competencies that are crucial for the adequate and stable functioning of regional administration systems. An analysis of the components of managerial competencies and their factors is carried out to identify their status in the centre of an exclave region (Kaliningrad) and in Moscow. The study draws on the authors’ frame-based methodology (Rospatent No. 2012660535), which makes it possible to obtain objective empirical information on competency factors and their types. Sought-after competencies ...
An economic complexity analysis of the Kaliningrad region: identifying sectoral priorities in the emerging value creation paradigm
... Its application at a subnational level is, however, limited by methodological problems. To analyse economic complexity at a subnational level, a basic methodology and special software were developed within this study. The object of the research is the exclave Kaliningrad region, whose location makes it possible to capture accurate and comprehensive data on international and interregional trade. Based on the EC analysis theory and practice, the study involved the development of methods, algorithms, ...
Baltic Studies at the I. Kant State University of Russia
... Universitet Gdanski, 2007.
and the EU Enlargement. Issues of the Pan European Integration. Analitic Report / ed. by A. P. Klemeshev, S. V. Kortunov.
state University, 2003.
Exclavity under globalization.
Klemeshev A., Fedorov G.
From an isolated exclave — to a «development corridor». Alternative development strategies of the Russian exclave on the
Uncertainty as a Factor of Decision Making in the Context of the Exclave Problems of the Kaliningrad Region
The article analyses expert influence on decision making process. The author argues that high uncertainty increases political elite’s attention to experts under the conditions of democratic transit. The case of the Kaliningrad exclave is taken as an example.
Калининградская область: социально-политические и геополитические аспекты общественной трансформации ...
Minimising Investment Risks Through Optimising Public-Private Partnership: The Case of the Kaliningrad Region
(accessed 20.04.2016). (in Russ.)
8. The investment rating 3B1 region, 2016, Rating agency "Expert", available at
(accessed 15.04.2016). (in Russ.)
9. Klemeshev, A. P. 2009, Russian Exclave on the Baltic Sea: Evolution of Exclavity and Ways to Overcome It, Balt. Reg., Vol. 1, no. 2, p. 86—97. DOI: 10.5922/2079-8555-2009-2-11.
10. Klemeshev, A. P. 2007, Exclavity under globalization: Selected works, Kaliningrad, 211 p.
Strategic development of a university in the Russian exclave
The article focuses on key characteristics of modern universities (global, scientific and entrepreneurial) ones. The authors discuss prospects of the strategic development of the university in the Russian exclave.
Uchenye bez nauki. Institucional'nyj analiz sfery // Publichnye lekcii na «Polit. ru».
[online] Available at: < http://www.polit. ru/science/2006/03/ 06/ aleksandrov. html > [Accessed 5 July 2010] ...
The programme approach to the improvement of the physical culture and sports system in the Kaliningrad region
This article focuses on the conceptual bases of the programme for physical culture and sports development in the exclave region of Russia. The author analyses the system of public administration in this field and puts forward proposals to improve the legal framework of its development.
Pelmenyov V. K.
regional development programme, state support, physical ...
Evaluation of GRP change in the exclave Russian region on the Baltic (1995—2016)
... Federation being average in development. A special regional feature is fluctuations in volume and branch structure of the GRP of the Kaliningrad Region, which are more significant than the average for Russia, due to its small size and, most importantly, the exclave geographic location.
1. Бондаренко Н. А. Валовой региональный продукт в оценке экономического развития региона // Ученые заметки ТОГУ. 2017. Т. 8, № ...
The Kaliningrad dilemma: a 'development corridor' or a 'double periphery'? The geopolitical factor of the development of the Russian exclave on the Baltic Sea
The Kaliningrad region, being an exclave, needs an updated regional development strategy based on the national strategy of modernisation and innovation-based development and, at the same time, taking into account the geopolitical aspect. It is necessary to proceed with the implementation ...
Geopolitical development potential of the Russian exclusive region: search for key strategy and mechanisms for its implementation in new conditions
... Especially sharply, it arose with a change in the geopolitical position of the region after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the Baltic economic area. Exclavity is the most important geopolitical factor in the life of the region. The dialectic of exclave is in the discretion of not only the obstacles, but also of the development possibilities of the region. Another major factor is the immediate proximity of the European Union. Through understanding the geopolitical potential of development,...
The project "Greater Eurasia" among the factors of development of the exclave of the Kaliningrad region
... regionalization in the era of globalization. The author employs a wide range of methods — economic-statistical, economic-cartographic and graphoanalytical analysis — and critically reviews a wide body of literature on the problem. It is shown that the exclave position of the Kaliningrad region makes it difficult to justify a long-term strategy of its socio-economic development. Most of the previously developed strategies were based on export and / or import-substitution, proceeding from the advantageous ...
Human Resource Efficiency as a Development Factor for the Kaliningrad Economy
... Russian regions often overemphasise the role of economy. However, the quality and quantity of human resources is one of the key factors behind distribution and development of production. Human resources are of even more importance in the Kaliningrad exclave. This paper aims to increase understanding of the role of human resources in the economic development of the Kaliningrad region. The study uses the cohort component method, scenario-based forecasting of the development and application of human ...
The Balance Model of Regional Development Management in Certain Territorial Conditions: Development and Application
... flows within the regional system, and reconciling the needs of a regional economy with the production and resource potentials. The long-term sustainability balance model – a simulation of event-based forecasting – has been developed for the Russian exclave. The authors provide a general description of the balance model, its elements and simulation algorithm. The results of calculations using the balance model for forecasting regional development are provided for three alternative scenarios for the ...
The development of Kaliningrad regional economy: A new stage of restructuring
The Kaliningrad region is developing in complicated exclave conditions, which results in insufficient resilience of its economy to external impacts. There is a need for constant monitoring of the economic situation in the region and the adaptation of the regional strategy to changing conditions. This article ...
Geopolitical transformation of the Kaliningrad oblast of the Russian Federation
... Oblast, a territory of 15,000 square metres with a population of nearly one million people, owned by the Russian Federation and located the farthest to the West, although on the Baltic Sea, ashore became isolated from the motherland and turned into an exclave. Gradually the exclave found itself first at the crossroads of different security structures and later — surrounded by one of them. Changes in the situation gave rise to the so-called Kaliningrad discourse, i. e. political decisions, academic ...
The Youth in Kaliningrad, Gdansk and Klaipeda: Geopolitical Vision of the World, Identity and Images of the Other
This work juxtaposes the analysis of the federal discourse on the exclave position of the Kaliningrad region in 1994—2012 based on the screening by the Nezavisimaya gazeta and the results of surveys of students at the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University and the Universities of Gdansk and Klaipeda using a similar ...
The labour market of Russia’s Kaliningrad exclave amid Covid-19
The Covid-19 pandemic, which has swept across the globe, is a serious challenge to the Russian labour market. This article examines the consequences of Covid-19 for Russia’s Kaliningrad exclave and how its territorially isolated and lockdown-affected small labour market responds to drastic changes in employment, income, and consumption. Another question is how the immigrant-rich labour market will rebalance the supply-demand equation....
Formation of monitoring system for food security (at the example of the Kaliningrad region)
The author substantiates that among basic elements of mechanism of food security provision one should consider monitoring and forecasting
of factors defining threats for food security in the exclave region.
ежегодник: статистический сборник. Калининград, 2008.
область в цифрах, 2008: статистический ...
The organisational economic aspects of developing the GLONASS system implementation programme in the exclave region of Russia
This article presents the results of a study of the applied research approach to the development of the GLONASS system implementation programme in the Kaliningrad region as a coastal territory.
О концепции эффективного использования ГЛОНАСС в специфичных условиях Калининградской области // Вестник БНЦ.
Калининград, 2010. №
. Принципы построения и функционирования / под ред. А.
Перова и В.
Н. Харисова. 3-е изд. перераб.
Geographical factors as a principle of strategic planning of municipal entities
... стратегического планирования развития территорий // Материалы 10-й юбилейной Междунар. конф. местных властей. СПб., 2000.
Pogrebnyakov P. V.
strategic planning, geographical factors, exclavity, sustainable development.
On the assessment of cross-border regions' development potential
... v 2010 godu. 2011.In: Territorial'nyj organ federal'noj sluzhby gosudarstvennoj statistiki po Kaliningradskoj oblasti. Kaliningrad.
5. Tinbergen, J. 1956. Economic Policy: Principles and Design, p. 276.
cross-border cooperation, exclave region, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, potential, modeling and forecasting of cross-border processes
Uneven development of administrative-territorial entities as a threat to the economic security of the Kaliningrad region
The author considers topical issues of ensuring the economic security of the Kaliningrad region. The main indicators of economic development that affect the current state of economic security of the exclave region are identified and analyzed.
1. Об утверждении перечней субъектов Российской Федерации в соответствии с положениями пункта 5 статьи 130 Бюджетного ...
Foreign trade of the Kaliningrad region: major trends
The author exposes major trends of foreign trade development in the Kaliningrad region in new geopolitical situation, basic features of exports and imports in the exclave region.
деятельность предприятий и организаций Калининградской области за 2000—2007 гг.: статистический сборник....
Prospects for the development of the Kaliningrad region in the Eurasian Economic Union
Given the new geopolitical situation, increasingly more attention is paid to the further development of the Special Economic Zone in the Kaliningrad region within the framework of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU). The author examines the future of the exclave within the EEU. The article contains an assessment of the EEU’s activity in the context of the sanction policy imposed by certain countries.
1. Информационный портал «Калининград. ru». 2016. URL:
«Special» Socio-economic Regions: Conceptual Approach and Typology
... контексте глобализации. СПб., 2005.
8. Клемешев А.
Российский эксклав: преодоление конфликтогенности. СПб., 2005.
'special', socioeconomic region, enclave/exclave, overseas territory, free/special economic zone, new forms of spatial economic integration, еuroregion, international production cluster.
Large business in the coastal zones of Russia: features and factors of localisation
... economic complexes and the formation of sea-land economic structures, including cross-border ones. The study identifies which national coastal zones are most attractive to Russian large businesses. Special attention is paid here to the Baltic Sea and the exclave of Kaliningrad where both local (Sodruzhestvo and Avtotor) and interregional/transnational companies (United Shipbuilding Corporation, Gazprom, LUKOIL, etc.) are benefitting from the coastal factor in the socio-economic development.
One Belt - One Road Initiative: A Window of Opportunity for Russia’s Western Border Regions
... a positive re-evaluation of the Russian space as a whole and holds special relevance for Russia’s western borderlands. We analyse the possibility of including Russia’s Baltic regions — the infrastructural and economic island of the Kaliningrad exclave among them — into the One Belt — One Road Initiative.
Druzhinin A. G., Dong Y.
geoeconomics, China, Eurasia, transport and logistics corridors, regional development, core-periphery system, Russia’s western borderlands