Russian energy diplomacy and international energy security (geopolitics and economics)
This article considers national energy security as a component of foreign policy and diplomacy and analyses the current state of Russian energy policy, the role of Russia in global energy geopolitics and the factors affecting it. The author examines energy diplomacy as an instrument of foreign policy at both global and regional levels taking into account the changes in the corporate policy of energy companies.
global energy, international relations, energy security, geopolitics...
Lithuanian energy policy in 1990—2009 and the prospects of its development until 2020
This article considers the key stages of Lithuanian energy evolution since 1990 and the factors that affected the strategy of Lithuanian energy sector development in the period of preparation and accession to the European Union. The author offers the estimations and general strategic recommendations regarding national energy policy, which were developed by the specialists of the Lithuanian Energy Institute.
energy, energy strategy, European Union, liberalisation of energy markets...
Russia-EU energy efficiency cooperation in the Baltic region: the untapped potential
A stereotypical understanding of EU-Russia energy relations is often reduced to trade in oil and natural gas, which downplays the importance of energy efficiency cooperation. Such cooperation is promoted within the Energy Charter and its Treaty, Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, Energy Dialogue, Common Economic Space, Partnership for Modernisation. However, it lacks practical development, which relates to the instability of the legal environment in Russia, insufficient mechanisms of financial...
Global energy and environmental security in the current global economic crisis
This article considers the problems of the environmental impact of energy. Further reduction of this impact on the global environment can be achieved two ways. The short-term one implies the increase in energy efficiency. In the next 15—20 years, the increase in efficiency should become a priority of the energy policy of all states. The long-term one is based on the gradual expansion of renewable energy. This method is aimed to avoid further economic and energy crises. At the same time, it has an...
EU — Russia energy cooperation: major development trends and the present state
The article analyzes the development of EU — Russia energy relations through the lens of the evolution of three parameters: the political agenda (the Energy Dialogue), the institutional structure, and the legal modalities. The identification of these three aspects for assessing the evolution of EU — Russia energy relations is the novelty in the author’s approach. This study aims to identify the previous stages and assess the current state of EU — Russia energy dialogue, since they set out conditions...
The features of EU energy strategy in the Baltic region
This article analyses the issues of EU energy policy in the 1990s-the beginning of the 2000s in order to identify the features of energy supply and energy safety of the Baltic region countries. The research and practical significance of the work lies in the stepwise description of actions taken by EU leaders and EU member states in order to formulate a common European energy policy. The 2004 EU enlargement posed the problem of taking into account the features of energy supply of Eastern European...
The creation of a common EU energy market: a quiet revolution with far-reaching consequences
The article explores important changes in the EU energy structure and legislation. The authors examine the main stages of the creation of a common energy market in the EU. They analyse recent actions taken by the European Commission and the Court of Justice of the EU against its member states and energy monopolists who directly or indirectly breach the rules of competition in the energy sector. The authors come to the conclusion that liberalization of the European energy sector will eventually have...
Russia’s energy geostrategy in the Baltic Sea region
This article explores Russian energy policy in the Baltic Sea region in the context of the world energy market globalization. The study focuses on the three Baltic States — Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia — which have a similar geographical location and history. The dynamic development of the region as a whole is strongly influenced by the stability of energy supply in each state. The article analyses the role Russia plays in the energy policy of the region from both geopolitical and geostrategic...
The Eurasian Economic Community in the global energy system
The article considers the IEA data on energy reserves in terms of global and national energy security. The authors describe methods for regulating the energy market in the European Union and the Eurasian Economic Community. The authors support the idea of applying the experience of the EU.
риски для глобальной энергетической безопасности и пути их снижения: глобальный обзор / ЕЭК ООН. Нью-Йорк; Женева, 2006. С. 4.
Electric energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region and the role of Russia in it
This article examines cooperation in the electric energy sector in the Baltic region. The author explores the existing undersea HVDC power exchange projects. It is emphasised that cooperation in the electric energy sector is concentrated largely in the EU member states despite earlier plans to establish the Baltic energy ring, which would also include Russia and Belarus. The author stresses that one of the most acute problems for the EU today is overcoming isolation of the energy systems of the Baltic...
On ensuring the energy security of the Kaliningrad region
This article analyses possibilities for minimising energy threats to the economy of the Kaliningrad region — an isolated Russian exclave. The au-thors consider the key aspects of the region’s economic security, identify threats, and provide a critical assessment different solutions to this problems. The research is based on the data of Rosstat and international statistics (IEA), analytical materials, and publications on the problems of global and regional energy security.
The articles suggests that...
Russia’s energy policy in the Baltic region: a geoeconomic approach
This article analyses certain issues of implementation of Russian energy policy in the Baltic region fr om the geoeconomic perspective. The purpose of the study is to explain Russian energy policy in the region as dependent solely on the import capacity of its partners. Russian energy policy is viewed as one of the most important activities of the state and its business structures. As such it aims to achieve both general economic goals (generation of profit, market domination) and more specific geoeconomic...
Energy security in the scientific and institutional discourse in Russia and Poland: problems and solutions
This article examines fundamental and applied approaches to energy security. The authors explore differences and similarities in the views of scientists and politicians on the issue and analyse energy security policies pursued in Poland and Russia (the Kaliningrad region). On this basis, the authors propose rational principles for solving the problem of energy security in the region.
1. Ергин Д. Добыча: Всемирная история борьбы за нефть, деньги и власть. М., 2011.
2. Косов Ю. В., Маллон В. Глобальная...
Research and technology agreements in the Norwegian concession system of the 1970s—1990s
This article is devoted to research and technology agreements in Norway, and their positive impact on the development of relations with foreign oil and gas companies during the period of formation of the Norwegian oil and gas industry. Based on archival documents, the article considers Norway’s experience of conclusion of research and technology agreements for transferring the latest technologies of exploration and oil and gas production to national oil and gas companies in the process of developing...
Nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region: the history of emergence and the political and economic features of its development
This article focuses on the development of peaceful nuclear power. The author draws attention to the fact that nuclear power is a rather young branch of national economy. However, over recent decades, it has already seen rises and falls, and a number of states have had tragic experiences of nuclear emergencies. Nevertheless, many countries — including the three Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania — express a strong interest in development, generation, and application of nuclear power....
Economic and geopolitical aspects of the Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline
The Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline project (NS 2) along the bottom of the Baltic Sea is aimed to increase gas supply from Russia to Germany and other EU countries. It serves mutual economic interests: the predicted growth in gas demand in the EU markets and the need to strengthen the energy security of the EU. The implementation of the NS 2 project is complicated by the need to allow for the EU energy legislation and by the expanding influence of geopolitical factors on EU – Russia cooperation, including...
Energy in the contemporary world and international energy policy
The assessment of the influence of energy industries on the economic development prospects and the social environment of the Kaliningrad region of the Russian Federation
This article offers the results of research conducted in the Kaliningrad region in the framework of the "Development of Russian Energy Sector: Social and Environmental Consequences and Prospects" network project by the Centre for Advanced Studies and Education. The authors assess the structure of regional energy sector and its influence on the economy according to key parameters. The article analyses the social effect of energy sector on the basis of a survey conducted for Kaliningrad....
When to expect the unexpected singularities: the anthropic principle and the dark energy universe
The anthropic explanation of the smallness of the observed amount of dark energy implies the presence of a variable component compensating for the magnitude of the vacuum energy. According to Garriga and Vilenkin, this component should decrease slowly, leading to a change in the accelerated expansion regime to the collapse phase, but not earlier than in a trillion years. However, a decreasing scalar field can lead to unexpected singularities with a finite value of the scale factor. We analyze...
Major infrastructure projects and the foreign policy of the Baltic states in 2010—2014
At the current stage of social development, particular attention is drawn to studies that assess major infrastructure — and thus political — projects aimed at a qualitative breakthrough in the socio-economic development of the countries under investigation. The scheduled multi-billion investments into energy sector are of political rather than economic nature. The projects to develop alternative power grids and high-speed railways can result in large-scale economic downturns diminishing the prospects...
Peat as Local Energy Source: Methodological Aspects
This article considers the topicality of elaborating the theoretical and methodological framework of energy complex functioning and development management. The author stresses the importance of developing the methodological aspects of improving regional energy complex development management under the condition of exploiting local energy sources.
Основы региональной экономики. М., 2000.
Ресурсы под ногами // Российская газета-Экономика УРФО. 2009. №
Gas infrastructure development in the countries of East Baltic as a way to increase energy security
In the context of regional gas infrastructure development this paper considers the issue of energy security of the countries of East Baltic, which depend heavily on a single energy supplier — Russia. In recent years, the countries of the region have announced several LNG terminal construction projects. The European Union will provide political and financial support to only one of these projects. The paper explores the role of gas and energy in the economy of the Eastern Baltic countries. The author...
The energy of biosphere and the evolution of the Earth's crust
This article discusses the role of bioaccumulation of solar energy by sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The authors corroborate the idea that the interaction between solar energy and biosphere play the decisive role in the Earth’s crust formation.
1. Коржинский Д. С. Преувеличение солнечной энергии в энергетике земной коры // Изв. АН СССР. Сер. геол. 1955. № 1. С. 52—64.
2. Кропоткин П. Н. Современные геофизические данные о строении Земли и проблемы происхождения базальтовой и гранитовой...
Lithuania on the way to energy independence: an experience or a lesson?
The article considers the steps taken by Lithuania towards gaining energy independence in the interbellum and the Soviet periods. The author analyses the peculiarities of the republic's energy policy after achieving independence in the early 1990s and estimates the methods of diversifying energy supply in Lithuania.
Беркманас Э. Основные черты экономики буржуазной Литвы // Литва за полвека новой эпохи. Вильнюс, 1967.
Деловая Литва. Т. 13—14. Энергетика. Агропром. Транспорт...
Carbon isotope substitution and quasi-intersection of energy levels in diamond
The paper presents the results of a study of spin States in the main electronic state of the only nitrogen-vacancy center (NV–) in a 13C-enriched diamond. The analysis is based on applying a method that uses a full set of commuting operators. The results show that there are two double degenerations of energy levels in this system, which can be considered as a special case of LAC. Changes in the properties of the spin States of the NV–-center at the quasi-intersection level are considered as a...
Negative externalities and sustainability of energy sector
The article evaluates negative externalities of the electricity industry and possibilities for the sustainable development. The concept of negative externalities of the electricity industry and evaluation and internalization of the negative externalities are reviewed from the viewpoint of principles of environmental economics and sustainable development.
Arrow K. J. (1970). The organization of economic activity: issues pertinent to the choice of market versus nonmarket allocation. /...
The characteristics of the energy spectrum of mixture ratio and air temperature in the troposphere of the Antarctic
This article analyses the characteristics of the energy spectrum of mixture ratio and air temperature in the troposphere of the Antarctic obtained by Fourier analysis. Selected peaks of spectral density of mixing ratio and air temperature monthly averages are interpreted as annual and semi-annual fluctuations. The spectral density of random function is considered as the energy spectrum of functions. It is shown that activity zones are present in the troposphere of the Antarctic.
1. Аверьянов В....
Oscillations, resonances and waves in a non-local medium with sources
New exact solutions are obtained for a spatially non-local wave equation with sources. The results are set out in the terms of the heat transfer theory. The non-locality of the problem is determined by the value of the fourth spatial derivative. We considered two types of volume energy sources which are alternating with respect to the temperature. For a technical source the derivative is positive, since «higher» temperatures arise from the energy release. For a biological source the source function...
Construction of transport and energy networks in the Baltic region as an impetus for regional development
In light of some new aspects of the EU functioning, particularly, the recovery from the 2008-2009 global crisis, transportation and energy development projects are coming to the forefront in the Baltic region. At the same time, there is a need to consider EU’s recent adoption of a common seven-year financial program (2014—2020), which serves, in effect, as the Union’s budget. Given that, one may conclude that the countries of the Baltic region are entering a new stage of development. We look at the...
Energy and the Ways of its Conceptualisation in Cognition: an Attempt at an Epistemological Analysis
Thе article examines the connection between conceptualisation and transfer of knowledge in the humanities and analyses the role of these processes in the formation of conceptual and terminological framework for different types of discourse. The study draws on an analytical description of the development of the concept of energy in the Christian Orthodox discourse. The description was provided from the perspective of transferology — a new metadiscipline aimed to study the meaning-focused transformations...
The use of renewable energy sources in the Kaliningrad region: Current state and prospects
This paper examines the current condition and development prospects of the fuel and energy industry of the Kaliningrad region specified in regional programmes. The authors compare the potentials of different renewable energy sources and provide information on the exploitation of different renewable energy objects in the region. The article presents a preliminary assessment of the thermal capacity necessary for the residential area of an ecovillage with a population of 50,000 and suggests ensuring...
The power industry of the Kaliningrad region: an analysis of the current state, future development, and cooperation with the energy systems of the Baltic Region states
This article analyses the current state of the power system of the Kaliningrad region and gives recommendations regarding the increase in energy efficiency. The author considers the prospects of its development taking into account the possible accession of the Baltic States to the UCTE.
В едином ритме с Европой // Мировая энергетика. 2007. № 6. С. 66—69.
Белей В. Ф.
Возобновляемые источники энергии и перспективы их использования в Калининградской области // Известия...
The prospects of nuclear power development in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea region as a factor of the formation of international relations system in the region
The current development of economic diplomacy in the world is determined by a combination of globalization and regionalization. In addition, it has an economic dimension. At the same time, the Baltic Sea region demonstrates large-scale politicisation of economic cooperation. The development of nuclear power in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea is indicative of the effectiveness of political and economic cooperation in the region. The author believes that Russia and the three Baltic States of Estonia...
Method for Calculating the Optimal Configuration of a Wind Generator
Paper is devoted to development of calculation method for optimal configuration of wind generators. Electromechanical features of permanent magnets synchronous generators with round rotor are researched, formularization is made for these features. Also mechanical properties of wind turbines with horizontal rotation axis are described. Reviewed theoretical materials allowed to develop calculation method of wind turbine parameters and gearbox parameters for performing nominal output power with normal...
Competition and cooperation problems in the energy sector of the Baltic region
This article considers the problems of competition and cooperation in the field of energy in the Baltic region, first of all, those related to the export of Russian oil and oil products, the Nord Stream gas pipeline, and the construction of nuclear plants in Poland, the Kaliningrad region, Lithuania, and Belarus. The author shows that, though Russia and the EU occasionally pursue opposite goals, there is considerable interdependence between them, and a confrontation is disadvantageous for both parties...
Enhancing the effectiveness of singlet-triplet energy transfer in a donor-acceptor pair of phosphor molecules under the influence of an external spin-orbit perturbation
This article studies the effect of an extern heavy atom (KI salt) on the effi-ciency of nonradiative spin-forbidden singlet-triplet (S-T) transfer of elec-tronic energy between the rhodamine 6G (donor) and acriflavine (acceptor) dye molecules in polyvinyl alcohol films. The delayed fluorescence intensity enhancement and an increase in the lifetime of the acceptor triplet states in the presence of KI have been established. The constant rates of deactivation of the singlet and triplet states of dye...
Investigation of operating modes of a mobile solar power plant with non-stationary load
The object of the research is a power supply system based on a solar power plant with a non-stationary load on the example of an automatic trading unit (vending machine Coffemar G-546). The aim of the work is an experimental study of the influence of solar radiation power dynamics on the volume of electricity generated, the study of the energy balance of the test facility, the study of the possibilities and development of recommendations for optimizing energy losses in the low-voltage mode of the...
The calculation of the spectrum of nuclear quadrupole resonance deuterium replaced methyl group
Values for quadrupole energy levels of CD3 molecule are obtained. Besides the energy values stationary states of this system is marked by total spin projection on the molecular symmetry axis. Nuclear selection rule for radiative transitions is M 1. The radiative transition frequencies are calculated and it is obtained, that spectrum have a dublet and triplet structure.
1. Варшалович Д. А., Москалев А. Н., Херсонский В. К. Квантовая теория углового момента. Л., 1975.
2. Иванов А. А., Иванов...
Features of the account of thermal and electric energy network losses at the automated tariff setting in the system of regulating activity of the subjects of the energy supplying complex in the region
The article presents the analysis of activity regulation issues in the regional power supply complex and the main ways to improve the efficiency of its subjects. The authors also focus on the issues of automated tariffs setting for production, transportation and transfer heat and electric power. Main attention is paid to automated registration of losses during producing and transferring heat and electric energy.
1. Арунянц Г. Г., Воронин Т. А., Айрапетов С. А. Процесс регулирования деятельности...
Earth's Crust Energy: New Approach
The article examines different sources of chemical energy bound in crystals and minerals and its role in metamorphic
processes and the Earth's crust formation. The author justifies the idea of the key role of the solar energy in the formation and development of crust.
Геохимические аккумуляторы // Тр. Ин-та кристаллографии АН СССР. 1952. Вып. 7. С. 73—80.
В., Лебедев В.
Источники энергии геохимических процессов // Природа. 1957. №
ΛCDM-model with δ-function
We study a dynamic model of a scalar field, the evolution of which leads to SFS-singularities. To estimate the characteristic SFS arrival time, we introduce a simplified model with the δ-function and use the weak anthropic principle. It is shown that our model predicts a rather soon appearance of the SFS-singularity.
1. Yurov A. V., Astashenok A. V., Yurov V. A. The Cosmological Models with Jump Discontinuities // Eur. Phys. J. C. 2018. Vol. 78, iss. 7, 542. URL:
Energy policy in the context of socioeconomic problems
Energy of North-West Russia: current situation and future prospects
Energy strategies of the Baltic Sea States
The dynamics of chiral cosmological fields in the canonical phantom model
The latest results of space and ground-based mission WMAP, Planck, BICEP2 discussed widely by the scientific community and indicate the need for research on new models of inflation, other than the basic model of inflation, based on a single self-interacting scalar field. In this paper we consider the inflationary model based on chiral cosmological model, which takes into account the various forms of kinetic interaction between the phantom and the canonical field. This study determines the dynamics...
The main environmental problems of the Baltic Sea and the ways to solve them
The Baltic Sea is a unique ecological system, an integral part of the global ecological system, which is in urgent need of protection from destructive anthropogenic impact stemming from the production and consumption of nuclear energy and artificial radionuclides, agriculture, oil and oil product transportation, and sewage and solid waste treatment. The article outlines the main environmental problems of the Baltic Seas and the ways to solve them.
1. Emelyanov, E. M. 1995. Baltic Sea: geology, geochemistry...
The Abel equation and cosmological scalar field zeroes
This article presents a new simple analytical method that makes it possi-ble to design solutions in describing the dynamics of the universe near the ze-roes of the scalar field potential.
1. Yurov V. А. An application of Abel’s equation of first kind to the search of solutions of Friedman’s equations // Вестник РГУ им. И. Канта. 2010. Т. 4. С. 43—47.
2. Yurov A. V., Yurov V. A. Friedman vs. Abel: A connection unraveled // Journal of Mathematical Physics. 2010. Vol. 51. P. 082503: 1—17.
From Energy of Word to Energy of Thing: Development of Linguistic and Philosophical Ideas of Alexander Potebnya in Works of Sergey Bulgakov
The article focuses on the scientific heritage of Alexander Potebnyа, the central figure in the history of Russian linguistic and philosophical tradition, and Sergey Bulgakov's doctrine of word and language, presented in the work «Philosophy of Name». The comparative analysis reveals the following: a) the key elements of S. Bulgakov’s doctrine historically genetically rooted in A. A. Potebnya's linguistic research; b) the basic difference between the philosophical bases of two concepts (gnoseological...
The Baltics on Their Way towards a Circular Economy
Circular economy has been studied extensively both in Europe and worldwide. It is largely viewed as a potential strategy for societal development, aimed to increase prosperity while reducing dependence on raw materials and energy. Many businesses regard circular economy as a way to enhance economic growth and increase profits. Governments across the world actively engage in the discussion about the benefits of a transition to a circular economy and about its impact on employment, economic growth...