On crisis trends in the legitimacy of the political regimes of the Baltic States
..., p. 21-31.
22. Kalniņš, V. 2014, Background paper on Estonia. In: Anti-Corruption Policies Revisited, Hertie School of Government.
23. Linz, J. 1988, Legitimacy of democracy and the socioeconomic system. In: Dogan, M. (ed.), Comparing Pluralist Democracies: Strains on Legitimacy, Boulder, Westview Press, p. 66.
24. Lipset, S. 1959, Political Man. The Social Basis of Politics, New York, Doubleday, p.77.
25. Mann, M. 1984, The Autonomous Power of the State: Its Origins, Mechanisms, and Results,...
“The point of departure of peoples determines their fate”: Peter Chaadaev and Alexis de Tocqueville
In 1836, Peter Chaadaev in his private letter to Alexander Turgenev mentioned that the French thinker Alexis de Tocqueville had stolen from him a “deep thought” that the point of departure of peoples determined their fate. Russian and foreign scholars interpreted these words differently, trying to assess the seriousness of Chaadaev’s reproach. The article explores the history of the expression ‘le point de départ’ and the use of it in the works by Tocqueville (“Democracy in America”) and Chaadaev...
The transformation of the Swedish political party system in the late 20th/early 21st century
This article studies the process of transformation of the Swedish political party system in the 1980s. The study aims to develop a typology of the Swedish political party system before and after the transformation processes commenced. The article identifies the key prerequisites for such transformation: the crisis of social democracy and an increase in the nationalist attitudes in the society caused by the negative repercussions of the system of integration of migrants into the society based on the...
The philosophical and legal content of Sergey Hessen’s concept of personality
This article aims to consider the concept of personality proposed by the prominent exponent of Russian neo-Kantianism Sergey Hessen and its philosophical and legal content. The frame of reference used to achieve this aim is determined by the personality-culture-the general will-the state coordinates. The author compares Hessen’s ideas with Bogdan Kistyakovsky’s legal concept. Hessen distinguished between several layers of meaning in the notion of culture — civilizedness, level of education, and civic...
The democratic aspects of the notions of "general will" in the social philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Immanuel Kant, and Sergey Gessen
This article analyses the interrelation between general will and democracy in the philosophical systems of J.-J. Rousseau and I. Kant, their influence on the concept of general will, and its connection with democracy in the philosophy of S. Gessen. The author compares the classical system of division of powers, supported by J.-J.Rousseau and I. Kant, and the new system proposed by S. Gessen.
Идея нации // Избр. соч. М., 1998.
Политическая свобода и социализм...
Hessen S. (translated from Polish by N. V. Danilkina)
Hessen S. (translated from Polish by N. V. Danilkina)
Hessen S. I. (foreword and translation from Polish by N. V. Danilkina)
Georges Gurvitch and Sergey Hessen on the Possibility of Forming Social Unity
The early decades of the last century saw European philosophical thought becoming increasingly interested in the sociological extension of the idea of law. From the viewpoint of the sociology of law, law is formed in the process of social interactions and is not sanctioned by the state. Sergey Hessen and Georges Gurvitch base their conceptions of social law on the sociology of law in the 1920s and 1930s. They start a polemic in the pages of the journal Sovremenniye zapiski (Contemporary Notes). Although...
Origins and historical background of German federalism
The number of federal states in the modern world is extremely small. The Federal Republic of Germany is the largest and most famous federation in Europe. However, German democracy and German federalism are often perceived as externally imposed political values as a result of the country's defeat in World War II. Such an attitude needs revising. Of course, Germany did not have the same deep tradition of parliamentarism as France or Great Britain, or federalism like the United States of America, but...
The Notion of Free Will in Sergey Hessen’s Conception of Culture
Sergey Hessen builds his philosophy of culture on Heinrich Rickert’s theory of values. Like Rickert, he believes that the individual plays a key role in the formation of culture. The individual exercises freedom only in creative activity and the degree to which he fulfils his creative potential depends not only on the cultural context in which it happens, but also on the regulation of the opportunities for self-actualisation in any given society. Accordingly, Hessen defines society as the sphere...
The formation of the political elite in Lithuania at the turn of the 1980s—1990s: the role of “moral politicians”
This article considers the trend of structural changes in the political elite of the Republic of Lithuania in the post-Soviet period through analyzing the role of the so-called “moral politicians” — intellectuals, artists, and cultural figures, who played a decisive role in the period of the communist system disintegration and further development of the country's policy. The role of the political elite, which is understood according to R. Putnam and J. Higley's definition, is considered in the conditions...
Political elite networks in Latvia and their transformation in 1993-2014
... Democracy. Boulder, 2006.
4. Knoke D. Political Networks: the Structural Perspective. Cambridge University Press, 1990.
5. Lieven A. The Baltic Revolution: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and the Path to In¬de¬pendence. New Haven ; L., 1994.
6. The New Democracies in Eastern Europe: Party Systems and Political Cleavages. Aldershot, 1994.
7. Wasserman S., Faust K. Social Network Analysis: Method and Application. Cambridge University Press, 1994.
8. Розенвалдс Ю. Проблема «(де)герметизации» ...
Uncertainty as a Factor of Decision Making in the Context of the Exclave Problems of the Kaliningrad Region
The article analyses expert influence on decision making process. The author argues that high uncertainty increases political elite’s attention to experts under the conditions of democratic transit. The case of the Kaliningrad exclave is taken as an example.
Калининградская область: социально-политические и геополитические аспекты общественной трансформации 1990-х. СПб., 1998.
регион как полюс экономической интеграции Северо-Запада Российской Федерации и Европейского...
The elite interaction in the post-Soviet Lithuania: the constitutional aspect
... of Human Development: Twenty Years On. 2010/2011. Eesti Koostöö Kogu. Tallinn. 2011.
2. Geddes B. Initiation of New Democratic Institutions in Eastern Europe and Latin America // A. Lijphart & C.H. Waisman (eds.). Institutional Design in New Democracies: Eastern Europe and Latin America. Boulder, 1996.
3. Jurkynas M. Emerging cleavages in new democracies: the case of Lithuania // Journal of Baltic Studies. 2004. Vol. 35. P. 278—296.
4. Kitschelt H. Accounting for Outcomes in Post-Communist ...
Kategorische Rechtsprinzipien in Zeiten der Postmoderne. Interview mit Prof. Dr Otfried Höffe
This interview explores the extent to which Kant’s philosophy, which postulates certain moral principles categorically, has influenced the contemporary theory of justice. Many academics believe such principles to be relative and emphasise that justice lies beyond the remit of science. Otfried Höffe is convinced that categorical legal principles remain a valid subject for an academic discussion. In his works, he often appeals to Kantian philosophy. In the interview, Prof. Dr. О. Höffe refers to such...
The «(Un)Encapsulation» of the Political Elites of Latvia and Estonia and Russian-speaking Minorities
1. Dreifelds J. Latvia in Transition. Cambridge, 1996.
2. Political Representation and participation in Transitional Democracies: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania / Loftsson E., Choe Y., eds. Sodertoerns hoegskola, 2003.
3. Rozenvalds J. Latvia After Twelve Years of Renewed Independence: the Search for Normality // Latvijas Universitātes Raksti. 663. sēj. Rīga, 2004....
The policy of cosmopolitism: from universalism to pluralism
This article is devoted to the search for an adequate justification for the modern policy of cosmopolitism. The author maintains that the legitimation of cosmopolitism is of rather cultural than political nature. Liberal cultural pluralism based on universal political and legal principles (Kant and Rawls) proves to be insufficient. However, it provides the means to solve the problems and to avoid the extremes of cultural cosmopolitism, such as the European “negative identity”, juridification, and...
The political elite recruitment in the Baltic: the role of the ethnic factor
... «(de)germetizacii» [Russian-speaking minority in the political elite of Latvia and Estonia: Perspectives "(de) sealing"]. In: Gaman Golutvina, O. V., Klemeshev, A. P. (eds.) Politicheskie elity v staryh i novyh demokratijah [Political elites in old and new democracies], Kaliningrad, Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, p. 215.
4. Ruus, Ja. 2012, Elity etnicheskih men'shinstv v postkommunisticheskih stranah. Sluchaj Estonii [The elites of ethnic minorities in post-communist countries. The case of Estonia]....
Historical memory in the age of globalization: the case of Russian- Estonian relations
... End of History and the Last Man], Мoscow.
13. Heidegger, М. 1997, Bytie i vremja [Being and Time]. Мoscow.
14. Adams, B. 1902, The New Empire, London.
15. Bernhard, M., Reenock, C., Nordstrom, T. 2003, Economic Performance and Survival in New Democracies: Is There a Honeymoon Effect? Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 36, no. 4, May, p. 404—431.
16. Cornwell, R. 2003, Rumsfeld ‘Mends Fences’ by Lumping Germany with Cuba and Lybia in an Axis of Bad Boys, The Independent, February 8....
The structure of political elite networks in the Republic of Poland in 1993—2013
... Lithuania and Poland, Viesoji politika ir administravimas, no. 29, p. 28—39.
19. Steen, A. 1997, The New Elites in the Baltic States: Recirculation and Change, Scandinavian Political Studies, Bind 20 (New Series), no. 1, p. 91—112.
20. The New Democracies in Eastern Europe: Party Systems and Political Cleavages, 1994, Aldershot.
network analysis, political elites, Republic of Poland
A Critique of Latvian Integration
1. Аустерс И., Голубева М. и др. Многообразие входит в латышские школы:дети национальных меньшинств в латышских школах. Рига, 2006.
2. Друвиете И. Функционирование и статус латышского языка // Коммунист Советской Латвии. 1988. № 12. C. 45—51.
3. Шюц А. Чужак // Избранное: Мир, светящийся смыслом. М., 2004.
4. Apine I. Etnopolitikas analīze // Pretestība sabiedrības integrācijai: cēloņi un sekas. Rīga, 2007.
5. Baetens Beardsmore H. Who is afraid of bilingualism? // Bilingualism:Beyond Basic...
Current Geodemographic Problems in the European Union and Migration Crisis of the 2010s
This article demonstrates the effect of the 2010s migration crisis has had on the demographic development of the European Union. Employing statistics and mapping, the study argues that the demographic development of EU states is not affected by either socioeconomic performance or religious, linguistic, and cultural characteristics. Migration inflow differs significantly by country and EU region. The authors analyse major irregular migration routes and show that their use cannot be always explained...
The legitimation and criticism of violence in international law. A po¬litical science perspective
... S. 639—740.
4. Bothe M. An den Grenzen der Steuerungsfähigkeit des Rechts: Kann und soll es militärischer Gewalt Schranken setzen? // Frieden durch Recht? / Hrsgs. P. Becker [et al.]. Berlin, 2010. S. 63—70.
5. Brock L. The Use of Force by Democracies in the Post-Cold War Era. From Collective Action Back to Pre-Charter Self Defense? // Redefining Sovereignty. The Use of Force after the End of the Cold War: New Options, Lawful and Legitimate? / Eds. M. Bothe [et al.] Ardsley ; N. Y., 2005....
The transitological dimension of constitutional changes in the Slovak Republic
The transformation of constitutional legislation in post-Communist countries follows two models: "reconstruction" and "dismantling". The Czechoslovak experience of constitutional legislation transformation follows that of dismantling. One of the positive features of this model is the rapid adoption of a new constitution. Experts and politicians stress that the main drawback of the Slovakian Constitution is that it has not eliminated the gap between values and rules and the actual...
Different forms of parliamentarism and the factors determining the variations
... system. It is influenced by a number of factors, among others, the type of party system, the way of granting the non-confidence vote and dissolving the parliament, as well as the scope of so called delegated legislation.In contemporary parliamentary democracies aspirations to strengthen executives can be observed.
1. Antoszewski, А. 1999. Studies on Political Theories, Vol. 1.
2. Antoszewski, А., Herbut, R. 2006. Political Systems of Contemporary Europe.Warszawa.
3. Czajowski, A. 2000. Political ...
On terminology to be used in studying the phenomenon of lobbying
This paper examines notions used in studying the phenomenon of lobbying. The authors believe that the notion of lobbying should be distinguished from similar but not equivalent terms – advocacy, governmental relations, public relations and public policy. They suggest defining lobbying as pressure exerted by NGO representatives on central and local governments with the aim of forcing them to take (or not to take) decisions to the benefit of interest groups.
Harry S. Truman and Racial Segregation Problem in USA in Second Half of the 1940s
The article is dedicated to the problem of racial segregation in the USA. Harry S. Truman was the first American president to raise the question of the necessity to eliminate this shameful tradition.
Papers of the Presidents of the United States. Harry S. Truman. 1947. Washington, 1961.
Papers of the Presidents of the United States. Harry S. Truman. 1948. Washington, 1964.
Administration. A Documentary...
Hannah Arendt's political philosophy and the modern age: the internet as a public realm
On the basis of Hannah Arendt's political philosophy, the author analyses the capability of the Internet to fulfil the functions of public realm, as well as the significance and prospects of the World Wide Web as a communication medium for political being.
1. Арендт, Х. Vita activa, или о деятельной жизни / пер. с нем. и англ. В. В. Бибихина; под ред. Д. М. Носова. СПб.: Алетея, 2000.
2. Арендт Х. Истоки тоталитаризма / пер. с англ. И. В. Борисовой и др.; послесл.Ю. Н. Давыдова; под ред. М. С....
On the principles of the constitutional status of a people
This article deals with the types and content of principles of constitutional status of the people of the Russian Federation. Among other principles, the author distinguishes the principle of legality, the principle of harmonious combination of personal and public interests, the principle of priority of national interest over the government's interests, the principle of ensuring the constitutionalization of the people's will.
принципах организации местного самоуправления в Российской...
Actor-based network theory in the context of ideology and political ontology
The aim of this research is to consider the possibility of applying actornetwork theory (STS) to political processes. The authors analyze B. Latour’s criticism of the traditional political science and sociological approaches to the understanding of different spheres through the prism of ideology and interest. The initial assumptions and main arguments of the actor-network theory are compared with the post-Marxist theory of hegemony by E. Laclau and C. Mouffe. The conclusion draws attention to the...
Isaac René Guy Le Chapelier and the Flight to Varennes: sum-mer — autumn, 1791
This article analyses the influence of the Varennes crisis on the balance of political forces in the National Constituent Assembly and Le Chapelier’s and other constitutionalists’ opposition to the radicals in the Assembly and in the streets in order to strengthen the position of the king and constitutional mon¬archy.
1. Блуменау С. Ф. «Ненасильственный» вариант развития французской революции // Вестник Брянского государственного университета. Сер. История. Литературоведение. Право. Языкознание...
The features of the genesis of modern Lithuanian multiparty system
The delegitimation of single-party dictatorship in the 1980s brought about fundamental political changes. The abolishment of the Communist party monopoly in December 1989 marked the formation of the modern Lithuanian multi-party system. The author pays attention to the role of confrontation between the social and political movement „Sajudis» and the Communist party of the Lithuanian SSR in the formation of the bipolar party system based on the ideological confrontation between the two dominant political...
Lithuania's Lonely Leadership 2.0.
The article scrutinizes Lithuanian foreign policy within the framework of the regional leadership concept first introduced in the early 2000s. The reasons of failure of the first leadership attempt in 2004—2008 are analyzed, as are the reasons behind the revival of the concept in 2010 and onwards. While the overall economy seems to be on the mend and the relationships with the adjacent countries (Poland, mostly) are improving, Lithuanian leadership, argues the author, is still very much a subcontract...
The problems of the development of political democracy in Russia in the period of diarchy (February — October 1917)
This article considers the formation of the new democratic dynamics in Russia in February-October, 1917. The author focuses on the forms of the participation of population in the establishment of new political regime, the activity of political parties and local government bodies and attempts to build an optimal model of the formation of a republic in the conditions of diarchy.
Местные Советы и органы буржуазной власти (
.). М., 1983.
Bogdan Kistiakovy’s Project of “State of the Future” as Synthesis of the Ideas of Liberalism and Socialism
This article is devoted to the correlation between liberal and socialist ideas in the social and philosophical conception of the prominent methodologist of social sciences and a Neo-Kantian legal theorist Bogdan Kistyakovsky. The author stresses the uncertainty of both the definition of liberalism and the principles behind attributing concrete thinkers to this movement. The article emphasises the inconsistency of classifying Kistyakovsky’s socio-philosophical concept as liberal. The analysis performed...
The concept “people” in the modern European political thought: Hobbes, Spinoza, Pufendorf
The author considers the evolution of the concept “people” in the political philosophy of Thomas Hobbes, Samuel Pufendorf and Benedict Spinoza. The political thought of Europe in the 17th century demonstrates a conscious turn from the medieval scholastic tradition of thinking about people and power. Politics begins to be thought of as a complex of human actions aimed at achieving certain human goals. This, in turn, leads to the rationalisation of politics and, as a consequence, to the rejection...
Big data in modern education
The paper describes possibilities and prospects of big data analysis in education given a rapid development of technology. The author explores new approaches to the modernization of the system of education, which are based on big data technologies, including unstructured data. The article offers techniques and tools that could help to solve the existing problems in education and describes some negative consequences of the massive use of big data in modern digital society.
1. 152,000 Smart Devices...
Some aspects of John Rawls’s first principle of justice
The article considers the first of the two principles of justice proposed by the American philosopher John Rawls as universal principles that would be chosen by every reasonable and rational person in an ‘original position’. The work analyses the problematic aspects of the principle’s formulation (the vagueness of the list of key rights and freedoms and the value criterion for ranking them) and of the methods used by Rawls to overcome them in the works published after the acclaimed book A theory...
The discourse of “European identity” in the conditions of the EU crisis
This paper considers the problem of European identity in the conditions of the current European crisis. European identity developed over a long time on the moral and political grounds. The author arrives at a conclusion about the need to reconsider the concept of European identity in the EU crisis conditions. European identity cannot develop in an institutional crisis. The concept of European identity requires structural reconstruction, new foundations, since the old ones are, to a great degree,...
Social inclusion of people with disabilities de jure and de facto: the included, the self-inclusive and the non-self-inclusive
The article presents an analysis of the social systems, in which human health is not limited to its inclusion in social relations, processes and practices. The main aim of this research work is to study the impact of self-identification of people with disabilities on their social integration and inclusion. The complexity of internal contradictions of these processes and a limited number of research works on the problem determined the need for a new integrative analysis and synthesis of the existing...
Kant and his time — the essay Toward Perpetual Peace against the background of the French Revolution and ensuing wars
This article considers the events and ideas that served as a background to the creation of the essay Towards Perpetual Peace, as well as the earliest reviews of it. The author pays special attention to the objections voiced by Kant’s student Friedrich Gentz who turned from the advocate of his teacher’s ideas into his opponent. The conclusion offers an attempt to envisage the philosophers’ reactions to the current state of international politics.
1. Bahner W. Der Friedensgedanke in der Literatur...
Forecasting Actions of Baltic elites: A Scenario Approach
This paper provides an overview of different approaches to forecasting the future of the three Baltic States. The author’s theoretical approach to studying Baltic elites is used to forecast changes in the action models of the Baltic elites. The article stresses the scarcity of internal political processes in the Baltics. However, a significant number of scenarios focusing on military aspects in the Baltics have recently been published. The author distinguishes between inertia, confrontation, and...
The Denominational Space of Modern Sweden: Christianity
This article considers spatial and temporal diffusion of Christian values in Sweden and examines the features of the country’s confessional space. The work aims to identify historical and geographical characteristics of the formation of Sweden’s Christian space and of its current transformation. Another objective is to introduce data on the economic activities of large religious organisations into scholarly use. The relevance of this work lies in the fact that Christianity is the most popular religion...
The regional approach in the policy of the Russian Federation towards the Republic of Estonia
This author uses regionalism as a theoretical framework for analyzing the foreign policy of the Russian Federation towards the Republic of Estonia. Regionalism is interpreted as a situation, when a political leader’s beliefs change depending on what region of the world is considered. Leaders of great powers often assume that, for example, small European countries are subject to a treatment different from that of small Middle Eastern countries. The method of operational coding is employed to identify...
The concept of the European Union’s normative power
Traditionally, studies into a state’s foreign policy focus on the international situation and national interests of the parties. However, such approach does not completely conform to the objectives of studies into the foreign policy of the European Union – an example of unique integration of states. One of the modern approaches aimed to describe the nature of the EU as an actor in world politics is the concept of the EU’s ‘normative power’ arguing that the ‘power’ of the EU lies in the ability to...
The Vilnius issue in international relations: the historiography of the problem
This article considers certain historiographical aspects of the Vilnius issue as an international problem. The author analyses the origins of the Polish-Lithuanian conflict, the role of the struggle for Vilnius in the general context of the Polish-Lithuanian confrontation, and the origin and nature of Lithuanian nationalism. The article also examines historiographical perspectives on the seizure of Vilnius by the troops of the Polish general, L. Żeligowsky, and the international consequences of the...
Transformations in the Communicative Characteristics of Political Discourse in the Current Information Space
The article analyses the main causes and the genesis of transformations in political discourse (PD) and provides a comparative analysis of the present and earlier forms of PD. The author examines the ontology and principal characteristics of PD, describes the state of political discourse prior to its current transformation and identifies the key problems and actual results of political communication in modern society. Considering the rise of populism, the author stresses that the current problems...
Territorial differences in the attitudes to the migration crisis in Germany: The political aspect
... Albertson, B., Gadarian, S. 2012, Who's Afraid of Immigration? The Effects of Pro- and Anti-Immigrant Threatening Ads among Latinos, African Americans and Whites. In: Freeman, G., Hansen, R., Leal, D. L. (ed.) Immigration and Public Opinion in Liberal Democracies, New York, p. 286—306.
15. Fetzer, J. 2011, The Evolution of Public Attitude toward Immigration in Europe and the United States, 2000—2010. In: Research report “Improving EU and US Immigration Systems; Capacity for Responding the Global ...
Was heißt Fortschritt im Wissen? Gnoseotopische Überlegungen zur Aufklärung und ihren Folgen
This article focuses on the question of what “progress in knowledge” (Fortschritt im Wissen) since the Enlightenment could mean. The answer is rooted in a shift in perspective in our understanding of the Enlightenment, and in an awareness of the gnoseotope at the center of this perspectival shift. Given the fact that human knowledge has always been considered limited, the axiom called gnoseotope (from Greek gnōsis: cognition, knowledge and topos: place, area, field) can be defined as the area of...