Implicit memory, or Once again on German civilians in Königsberg during the fortress siege in February — April 1945
Within a polemic with B. Willems's article, the author analyses the size of civilian population of Königsberg remaining in the city during the siege of 1945. The article considers approaches of Soviet and German command to evaluating the role of civilians in defending the fortress during the siege.
1. Вик М. Закат ...
Between accomplice and victim: Civilians during the siege of Kö- nigsberg in 1945
The paper analyses the role of the civilian population during the siege of Fortress Königsberg between late January and April 1945. It will discuss the scope of coercion and the living condition in the city, as well as the reasons why civilians decided to stay in Königsberg. Their large ...
The concept of the European Union’s normative power
... Bickerton, C. J. 2011, Legitimacy Through Norms: The Political Limits to Europe’s Normative Power. In: Whitman, R. (ed.), Normative Power Europe: Empirical and Theoretical Perspectives. Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, p. 25–44.
11. Bull, H. 1982, Civilian power Europe. A contradiction in terms? Journal of Common Market Studies, Vol. 21, no. 2, p. 149–170.
12. Cochran, M. 1999, Normative Theory in International Relations: A Pragmatic Approach. Cambridge.
13. Damro, C. 2011, Market power Europe,...
Festung Königsberg in 1945: The garrison and its population. A reply to G. V. Kretinin’s remarks
This article presents primary sources for studying the siege and battle of Königsberg of 1945. The work aims to distinguish between the civilian population remaining in the city and combatants defending it. It is shown that the inflated Soviet estimate of the garrison strength, which was uncritically reproduced by Prof G. V. Kretinin, should be revised as a result of Soviet memory distortion....
Transformation of life strategies of the individual under the conditions of armed conflict
The author investigates the transformation of life strategies of people living in the area of armed conflict in Donetsk People’s Republic. Due to difficult life circumstances, civilians in the area of armed conflict lose their life goals and priorities, and their attitudes and value orientations change. These basic categories are structural elements of the value-semantic and motivationaldynamic spheres of personality, which ...
The international legal regulation of the status of voluntary human shields
... International Humanitarian Law // International Review of the Red Cross. 2008. Vol. 90. №
on the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 / ed. by J. Pictet. Vol. 4. Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. Geneva, 1960.
to the Additional Protocols of 8 June 1977 to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 (Protocol I) / C. Pilloud, Y. Sandoz, Ch. Swinarsky. ICRC, 1987.
on the HPCR Manual ...