Current problems in Russian-Latvian relations
Current relations between Russia and Latvia are still influenced by a series of mutual claims that appeared after the demise of the USSR. Latvia — as well as Estonia and Lithuania — is both an EU and NATO member state. However, unlike the above mentioned countries, its relations with ...
The «(Un)Encapsulation» of the Political Elites of Latvia and Estonia and Russian-speaking Minorities
1. Dreifelds J. Latvia in Transition. Cambridge, 1996.
2. Political Representation and participation in Transitional Democracies: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania / Loftsson E., Choe Y., eds. Sodertoerns hoegskola, 2003.
3. Rozenvalds J. Latvia After Twelve Years of Renewed ...
The ethnopolitical movement as a vehicle for nationalism institutionalisation in modern Latvia
This article investigates the Popular Front of Latvia, a public ethnopolitical movement that substantially contributed to the independence of the modern Republic of Latvia. The study aims to identify how much the movement influenced the development of ethnic nationalism, which has become essential ...
Russians in Latvia: Peculiarities of Socio-cultural Adaptation and Identity
The author identifies trends and variations of the socio-cultural identity and integration of Russians in Latvia. According to the author, since the middle 1990s, two trends have been recognized - first, the “ingrowing” of ethnic Russians into the life of independent Latvia, and second, forming their new identity. The article presents a number of factors ...
International Migration in the Periods of Transition and Crisis: the Case of Latvia
... processes are amongst the most relevant issues in the geography of the Baltic States. The authors analyse the changes in migration patterns from the early 1990s until today. The focus of the study is the recent trends of migratory movements in the case of Latvia. Due to the country’s economic recession, migration has accelerated in the recent years. Empirical results show the response of the migration system to the changing internal factors and external influences in the times of transition and global ...
Work-life balance during the Covid-19 outbreak: the case of Latvia
This paper aims to shed light on work-life balance in Latvia during the state of emergency. The Covid-19 outbreak has led many governments to introduce lockdowns. While imposed restrictions may help to contain the spread of the virus, they may also result in substantial damage to population well-being. The ...
The role of transit in the economy of Latvia
Transit is an important issue in the history of world economy, including the economy of Latvia. Transit makes a significant contribution to the budget of many transit countries, one of which is the Republic of Latvia. These countries do not have significant natural resources and prefer to focus on logistics and infrastructure in order to ...
The Effect of Migration on Latvia’s Sex and Age Composition
... sub-replacement level of the total fertility rate is growing. In these conditions, population dynamics and the sex and age composition are increasingly affected by migration. The above holds true for Eastern European countries. Population decline has haunted Latvia for two and a half decades. Since 1990, the net migration rate has been negative, which contributes to depopulation. This study aims to reveal the effect of migration on the sex and age composition across Latvia and its largest cities. The authors ...
Latvia in the System of European Territorial Security: a View from the Inside and Outside
... combination of interconnected institutions with Latvian participation operating in the field of security, Latvian cooperation with other European countries in the field of security, and the European perception of major security challenges and threats (that Latvia may or may not agree with). A systemic approach to studying the role of Latvia in the territorial system of European security requires a solid theoretical framework. The theories of international relations discussed in this article fall into two ...
Youth unemployment in the Latgale region of Latvia: causes and consequences
Youth unemployment is a serious problem in Latvia, as unemployed young people make up 16.3 % of the total number of unemployed in the country, while in the Latgale region the number of unemployed young people aged 15—24 years was 18.8 % of the total number of unemployed in the country in 2015....
Latvian policy on the Russian-language education
The article studies the development of Russian-language school education in independent Latvia from 1992 to 2020, as well as the process of reforming this system by official authorities. At the time of declaration of independence and withdrawal from the USSR, a bilingual education system which was formed in Latvia, made it possible to get ...
The assessment and factors of increase in innovative competitiveness of Latvian regions
Latvia’s participation in the process of integration and globalization within the European Uni on creates a need to improve tools of competitiveness and management assessment of the country’s regions. It also requires the development of common approaches ...
The political elite recruitment in the Baltic: the role of the ethnic factor
The role of the ethnic factor in political processes in Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia has been rather significant since these countries’ independence. The author investigates the assumption that after the completion of major Eurointegration procedures, the ethnic factor — which became especially important in the ...
Smirnov V. A. Political elites of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia: recruitment factors and structural dynamics. Monograph. Kaliningrad. IKBSU Publishing House, 2016
Smirnov, V. A. 2016, Political elites of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia: recruitment factors and structural dynamics. Monograph. Kaliningrad. IKBFU Publishing House.
Mezhevich Nikolai M.
The Baltic economic model: some results of the 1990—2015 transformations
... 2009: growth of 5.6%], 2013, Delovye vedomosti [Business News], available at: http://dv.ee/Default2.aspx?ArticleID=d329f296-517d-452b-8fef-70a83e1d52cb&open=fou (accessed 14.07.2008).
16. Economist: Latvija smogla dostich' nevozmozhnogo [Economist: Latvia managed to achieve the impossible], 2010, DELFI - Vadošais ziņu portāls Latvijā, available at: http://rus.delfi.lv/news/daily/business/economist-latviya-smogla-dostich-nevozmozhnogo.d?id=30262511 (accessed 01.03.2010).
17. Pylendik, K. 2014,...
The problems and prospects of higher education mod-ernisation in Latvia
This article examines the socio-economic factors that determine the possible outcomes of modernization of higher education in Latvia, as well as the promising directions of improving the quality and effectiveness of higher education and science in Latvia.
1. Министерство образования и науки Латвии : [информационный сайт]....
The income differentiation among the residents of Latvia in 2000—2008
... the dynamics of changes in the income of population of Latvian regions over nine years (2000—2008). The authors put forward a hypothesis that the changes in the state social and economic policy tend to influence the level and dynamics of income of Latvia’s population.
1. Litvinov, V. A. 1999. Uroven' zhizni naselenija regionov Rossii. 1. P. 40—48.
2. Staroverov, O. V. 2006. Otdel'nye modeli jekonomicheskoj sociologii.Moskow.
3. Centrālā statistikas pārvalde 2009. [online] Available ...
Russia and the Baltic States: Some Results and a Few Perspectives
... v global'noj politike [Russia in Global Affairs], Vol. 3, no. 4, p. 111—212
6. Le Goff, J. 1992, History and Memory, New York, p. 54.
7. Feldmanis, I. 2015, Okkupacija Latvii — istoricheskie i mezhdunarodno-pravovye aspekty [The occupation of Latvia — historical and international legal aspects], The official website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Latvia, available at: https://www.mfa.gov.lv/ru/information/history/history-juridicalaspects/?print=on (accessed 03.04.2014)....
Political elite networks in Latvia and their transformation in 1993-2014
.... 1989. № 19. P. 89—126.
3. Higley J., Burton M. Elite Foundations of Liberal Democracy. Boulder, 2006.
4. Knoke D. Political Networks: the Structural Perspective. Cambridge University Press, 1990.
5. Lieven A. The Baltic Revolution: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and the Path to In¬de¬pendence. New Haven ; L., 1994.
6. The New Democracies in Eastern Europe: Party Systems and Political Cleavages. Aldershot, 1994.
7. Wasserman S., Faust K. Social Network Analysis: Method and Application. Cambridge ...
Natural Increase in the Baltic South and South-West
This article analyses the natural population increase (decrease) in the postcommunist part of Baltic Europe (the federated state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, West Pomeranian, Pomeranian, and Warmian-Masurian Voivodeships, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, the Kaliningrad and Leningrad region, and the federal city of Saint Petersburg) in 2002—2011. The study uses standard methods of demographic analysis, the data provided by national statistical services and Eurostat. All regions analysed ...
On crisis trends in the legitimacy of the political regimes of the Baltic States
... States by analysing three major parameters: confidence in political institutions, level of corruption, and the development of their party systems. The author identifies the major crisis trends in the legitimacy of the political regimes of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. The article stresses the problem of legitimacy reproduction resulting from the limited representation of the national party systems. Special attention is paid to compensatory mechanisms used by political elites to ‘artificially’ ...
Economic Aspects of Russian-Baltic Relations in 2007—2008
... remains and the monument to Soviet soldiers in central Tallinn on the Russian cargo transit flows through the Baltic Sea region is described. The author shows that there has been a redistribution of Russian cargoes and their shipment through the ports of Latvia and Lithuania lately. According to the author, the positive dynamics of Russian-Latvian and Russian-Lithuanian relations should be sustained, proceeding from the assumption that sooner or later, the logic of economic cooperation may prove stronger ...
The system of financing political parties in Latvia
This article considers the mechanism of financing of political parties in the Republic of Latvia. The author analyses the participation of financial and economic groups in the country’s political life. Key business actors affecting the formation of Latvian political system are identified. It is concluded that, since regaining independence ...
Cyrillic Business (the development of Russian language media in post-soviet Latvia)
Land Use Change and Economics of Land Degradation in the Baltic Region
... no. 1, p. 168—182.
7.Van der Ploeg, S., de Groot, R. S. 2010, The TEEB valuation database — A searchable database of 1310 estimates of monetary values of ecosystem services, Foundation for Sustainable Development, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
8. Latvia MOE (Ministry of Environment), 2006, National report to the UNCCD, History of the convention and its ratification by Latvia.
9. Karklins, A. 2000, Soil degradation status and data availability in Latvia. In: Batjes N and Bridges E, Implementation ...
Gas infrastructure development in the countries of East Baltic as a way to increase energy security
... provide political and financial support to only one of these projects. The paper explores the role of gas and energy in the economy of the Eastern Baltic countries. The author concludes that the countries mostly dependent on Russian gas are Lithuania and Latvia. The announced LNG terminal projects are being reviewed in detail. Their necessity is estimated from the perspective of the current and future demand for natural gas, including the terms and conditions of contracts concluded with OAO Gazprom. Different ...
The Development of International Tourism in Lithuania: a Comparative Analysis of Regional Aspects
... growth of competitiveness on the international tourism market. Service standards applied in Lithuania at the international tourism market uphold and improve the image of Lithuania in the Baltic Sea region. The interregional cooperation between Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia in the field of international tourism development is based on the principle of public private partnership. It has been recently acknowledged that the three Baltic States form an integrating region in the field of international tourism ...
Multidimensional poverty in the Baltic States in the EU context: theoretical and practical aspects
... as access to social services. Despite the versatility and severity of multidimensional poverty in some European countries, this phenomenon has not been sufficiently explored in socio-economic studies carried out in the Baltic countries of the EU — Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia. This article aims to identify the characteristics of multidimensional poverty in the Baltic countries and the EU. Its objective is to examine the spread of multidimensional poverty in the Baltic countries and compare it ...
Text localization as a task of translation
... translatology). Collection of articles. Volgograd, VolSU Publ., pp. 18—30 (in Russ.).
20. AIG Worldwide. About us. URL:
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Nuclear power in the Baltic Sea region: the history of emergence and the political and economic features of its development
... branch of national economy. However, over recent decades, it has already seen rises and falls, and a number of states have had tragic experiences of nuclear emergencies. Nevertheless, many countries — including the three Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania — express a strong interest in development, generation, and application of nuclear power. In the Baltic States, nuclear power dates back to the Soviet times, but its development was suspended pursuant to the EU regulations (the ...
The structure of political elite networks in the Republic of Poland in 1993—2013
... Knoke, D. 1990, Political Networks: the Structural Perspective, Cambridge University Press.
13. Agh, A. 1998, The Politics of Central Europe. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi, Sage Publications.
14. Lieven, A. 1994, The Baltic Revolution: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and the Path to Independence, New Haven, London: Yale University Press.
15. Kirchanov, M. V. 2007, Latvija i strany Baltii: problemy diplomaticheskoj i politicheskoj istorii [Latvia and the Baltic States: the issue of diplomatic and ...
Estimating the Development of the Latvian - Estonian - Russian Transboundary Tourism and Recreation Region
In 2004, the Pskov — Livonia Euroregion was established across the borders of Estonia, Latvia and Russia (the Pskov region). Tourism became a cooperation priority in the Euroregion. This necessitated research on the local tourism and recreation areas. This study aims to estimate the development prospects of transboundary microregions which ...
The Role of Small Countries in Post-Soviet Territorial Restructuring: the Baltic Case
This author analyses the 2013 Lithuanian presidency of the EU in the context of the Ukrainian crisis and evaluates the contribution of Latvia and Estonia (the former Soviet republics set to preside over the EU in 2015 and 2018) to the shift in the power balance in the post-Soviet space. Through assessing the actions of small countries in promoting the Eastern Partnership programme with ...
The prospects of nuclear power development in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea region as a factor of the formation of international relations system in the region
... economic cooperation. The development of nuclear power in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea is indicative of the effectiveness of political and economic cooperation in the region. The author believes that Russia and the three Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have the economic and technological opportunities for building up cooperation in the field of energy. This points to a question whether the traditional patterns of relations that developed among these countries in the past can be ...
East Baltics: Economic Dilemmas of Security
This article considers military security in the Eastern Baltic. The research focuses on the economic sustainability of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania in the context of military spending. The authors maintain that an increase in military spending can either strengthen or weaken national economic and technological potential. In Germany or Sweden, military spending accounts for a ...
A Critique of Latvian Integration
... integrācijai: cēloņi un sekas. Rīga, 2007.
8. Brands-Kehris I. Citizenship, Participation and Representation // How integrated is Latvian society? Rīga, 2010.
9. Clark H. Using Language. Cambridge, 1996.
10. Diatchkova S. Ethnic Democracy in Latvia // The Fate of ethnic democracy in post-communist Europe. Budapest, 2005.
11. Dribins L. Sabiedrības integrācijas tendences un prettendences Latvijā un Igaunijā // Sabiedrības integrācijas tendences un prettendences, Latvijas un Igaunijas ...
Russian soft power in the Baltic States through the lens of research: traditions, competition, confrontation
In this article, we aim to analyse the research discourse in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) as regards Russian soft power, which is considered as hard power, and to compare the theses that dominate this discourse with the actual interactions between Russia and the three states in media, education, and culture. Each Baltic ...
The transformation of the Baltic countries’ political elites: general and specific features
... foreign policy aspects. The thesis is put forward that despite some differences between the Baltic States their political elites have undergone very similar transformations since the 1990s. At the time, Baltic elites asserted continuity with pre-war Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia and detachment from the Soviet past. The 1990s elite struggle for power led to sharp ethnic, linguistic and political divides in Baltic societies. These rifts limit competition between power groups and reduce the ability ...
The formation of the political elite in Lithuania at the turn of the 1980s—1990s: the role of “moral politicians”
... Models of Post-communist Political Elites in Central
Europe and the Baltics: Comparative Analysis, Budapest papers on Democratic transition, no. 158, Hungarian Center for Democracy Studies Foundation.
9. Lieven, A. 1994, The Baltic Revolution: Estonia, Latvia Lithuania and the
Path to Independence, New Haven; London.
10. Lopata, R. 2010, Politikai ir Istorija. Algirdo Brazausko ir Vytauto Landsbergio istorija sampratos [Politics and History. Algirdas Brazauskas and Vytautas Landsbergis history of the ...
Russian foreign trade and integration processes in the Baltic region
... Балтийского региона в 1990—2007 годах. Калининград
2007. Statistisches Bundesamt,
, 2008. URL: www.destatis.de
of the Development of the National Economy of
: Ministry of Economy
Statisticzny. Warszawa, 1995.
of Estonia.URL: www.stat.ee
The Role of Political Elites in the Development of Politics of Memory in the Baltic States
... А. R. 2008, «The soviet story»: Mehanizm lzhi [«The soviet story»: The mechanism of lies], Moscow.
9. Djukov, А. R., Simindey, V. V. 2011, Gosudarstvennaja istoricheskaja politika Latvii: materialy k izucheniju [The state historical policy of Latvia: the study of materials], Moscow.
10. Zepa, B., Supule, I. 2005, Latvijskaja submarina [Latvian submarine], Jekspert Severo-Zapad [Expert North-West], 12—18 September, no. 34, p. 9.
11. Miller, А., Lipman, М. (eds.), 2012, Istoricheskaja ...
Coalition Within a Coalition: The Baltics in the European Union
... Such an asymmetric strategy makes it possible for small powers to advance their interests within alliances and save resources. The authors test this hypothesis on the behaviour of the Baltics in the European Union. It is demonstrated that Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia have created a stable small coalition within the EU and actively form ad hoc alliances with the leading states to push union-level decisions, as it was the case with settling the migrant issue. In other areas, these states tend to ...
The development of nationalist identities in the Baltics: The Latvian aspect
This article discusses the development of post-Soviet nationalist identity in Latvia under the influence of nationalist neo-Nazi organizations and persuasion. The ethnic component occupies a central place in today's political identification in Latvia. It is proved that major political groups and parties recognize and proclaim nationalist ...
Major infrastructure projects and the foreign policy of the Baltic states in 2010—2014
... of the past], Savaitės ekspresas, 2009,available at: http://www.nedelia.lt/news-lt/14377-leo-lt-uxodit-v-proshloe.html (accessed 04.12.2009).
6. Prezident: Latvija dazhe na svojo predsedatel'stvo v ES tratit vdesjatero bol'she drugih [President: Latvia even its presidency of the EU spends ten times more than any other], 2013, DB.lv, available at: http://rus.db.lv/nachalo/vsenovosti/prezident-latvija-dazhe-na-svoe-predsedatel-stvo-v-es-tratit-vdesjatero-bolshe-
drugih-56091 (accessed 07.11.2013)....
Electric energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region and the role of Russia in it
... despite earlier plans to establish the Baltic energy ring, which would also include Russia and Belarus. The author stresses that one of the most acute problems for the EU today is overcoming isolation of the energy systems of the Baltic States (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia) from that of the major part of the EU. This task has become especially relevant after the closing of the Ignalina NPP (Lithuania), which used to be the primary energy source for the three Baltic States. The article examines key projects ...
On the potential and opportunities for cooperation between the Baltics in the field of innovations
This article compares the research and innovation potential of Russia in general, the Northwestern federal district and the Baltics (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia) and explores the opportunities for cooperation between the Russian Federation and the Baltics in the field of innovations. The authors identify possible areas of cooperation and describe its mechanisms.
1. Zverev, Yu. М., Batorshina,...
Population Ageing as a Sociodemographic Problem in the Baltic Region
... continue to drive the dependency ratio up. This research aims to forecast dependency ratio in the Baltic region until the end of the century. A more detailed population analysis and forecast is provided for the case of the Baltic States — Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. The authors use Bayesian probabilistic predictions based on data from the Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Principle research methods include multi-factor simulation modelling; ...
Latvia After the Referendum: What Comes Next?
1. Веб-сайт референдума о придании русскому языку статуса государственного. URL: http://www.cvk.lv/pub/public (дата обращения: 03.03.2012).
2. В Рижском замке подписан Манифест доброй воли. URL: http://www.baltic-course.com/rus/opinion/?doc=53023 (дата обращения: 20.03.2012).
3. Гражданские дебаты об интеграции. URL: http://www.providus.lv/upload_file/RU_zinojums.pdf (дата обращения: 18.0.2012).
4. Latvijas statistika. 2011. URL: http://www.csb.gov.lv (дата обращения:14.03.2012).
The Russian language in modern Estonia: functioning, learning, features
... пространстве новой Европы. Рига, 2005. Вып. 1.
13. Ее же. Отличительные особенности языка современной русской прессы Эстонии // Scientific Papers University of Latvia. Slavonic Traditions of the Baltic area. 2006. 707.
14. Ее же. Прагматика перевода атрибутивных словосочетаний // La lengua y literatura rusas en el espacio educativo international: estado actual ...
Key actors of German ‘soft power’ in the Baltics
This article focuses on Germany’s key ‘soft power’ actors promoting the country’s interests in the Baltics. The authors analyse the policies of ‘soft power’ aimed to create a positive image of Germany in Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. The article examines the activity of German political foundations, research institutions, communities, language centres, and scientific and cultural organisations. It is stressed that Germany makes use of the Baltics’ historical ...