The development of poli­tical geography and geopolitics as an academic and research discipline in the Baltic re­gion: the historical contribution of Saint Petersburg University :: IKBFU's united scientific journal editorial office

×

Login
Password
Forgot your password?
Login As
You can log in if you are registered at one of these services:
   
The purpose of science is to transform all that exists into thought
Alexander Herzen

DOI-generator Search by DOI on Crossref.org

The development of poli­tical geography and geopolitics as an academic and research discipline in the Baltic re­gion: the historical contribution of Saint Petersburg University

Author Kaledin, N. V., Chistobayev, A. I., Kaledin, V. N., Elatskov, A. B.
DOI 10.5922/2079-8555-2019-2-8
Pages 136-152
Article Download
Keywords Baltic region, school of thought, political geography, geopolitics, academic and research paradigm, educational programme
Abstract (summary) In this article, we address the little-researched and complicated problems of the genesis, periodisation, and development of political geography and geopolitics as academic and re­search disciplines across the Baltic region in general and the contribution of Saint Peters­burg University in particular. The terms ‘political geography,’ ‘geopolitics’ and the corre­sponding academic disciplines, as well as the first concepts of political geography and geo­politics, emerged in the Baltic. The Russian and German schools of thought made a valuable contribution to these fields of research. Using the historical, structural-genetic, and activity-geospace approaches, we identify and analyse the major historical, research, and academic paradigms in the development of political geography. In doing so, we consider the case of Saint Petersburg University. These paradigms (state-descriptive, anthropogeographical, state-geopolitical, and activity-societal) differ in their methodological frameworks and the­matic priorities. We demonstrate that the term ‘political geography’ and the science it de­notes are of Russian origin, having been developed by German scientists during their aca­demic service for Russia. Further, we analyse the contribution of German and Russian re­searches to the development of the Saint Petersburg school of political geographic and geo­political thought and describe its current state.
References

1. Pekarskii, P. P. 1870, Istoriya Imperatorskoi Akademii nauk v Peterburge [History of the Imperial Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg], Vol. 1, St. Petersburg, 837 p. (in Russ.).

2. Winsheim, H. N. 1745, Kratkaya politicheskaya geografiya k iz"yasneniyu izdannogo na rossiiskom yazyke nebol'shogo atlasa, sochinennaya dlya upotrebleniya gimnazii pri Impe­ratorskoi Akademii nauk [Brief political geography to the explanation of a small atlas pub­lished in Russian, composed for the use of a gymnasium at the Imperial Academy of Scien­ces], St. Petersburg, 365 p. (in Russ.).

3. Erdbeschreibung oder Universal Geographie, 1754, Т. 1, Hamburg.

4. Kaledin, N. V. 1996, Politicheskaya geografiya: istoki, problemy, printsipy nauchnoi kontseptsii [Political geography: origins, problems, principles of the scientific concept], St. Petersburg, 163 p. (in Russ.).

5. Kant, I. 1940, Writings, Vol. II. Moscow, 528 p. (in Russ.).

6. Zyablovskii, E. 1818, Kurs vseobshchei geografii po nyneshnemu politicheskomu raz­de­leniyu [The course of universal geography on the current political division], Part 1, St. Pe­tersburg, 255 p. (in Russ.).

7. Arsenyev, K. I. 1848, Statisticheskie ocherki Rossii [Statistical Essays of Russia], St. Petersburg, 513 p. (in Russ.).

8. Ratzel, F. 1897, Politische Geographie. R. Oldenbourg, München und Leipzig, 715 s.

9. Kjellen R. Der Staat als Lebensform. Hirzel, Leipzig. 1917, 235 s.

10. Kjellén, R. 1899, Studier öfver Sveriges politiska gränser, Ymer, Zeitschrift der Schwedischen Gesellschaft für Anthropologie und Geographie, p. 283—331.

11. Semenov-Tyan-Shansky, V. P. 1915, O mogushchestvennom territorial'nom vladenii primenitel'no k Rossii: Ocherk po politicheskoi geografii [On the powerful territorial posses­sion in relation to Russia: Essay on political geography], Pg., 35 p. (in Russ.).

12. Haushofer, K., Obst, E., Lautensach, H., Maull, O. 1928, Baustеine zur Geopolitik, Berlin, 352 s.

13. Ryabtsev, V. N. 2015, Geopoliticheskaya mysl' v Rossii za poslednie sto let: 1914—2014 gg. [Geopolitical thought in Russia over the past hundred years: 1914—2014], no. 2, Rostov-on-Don, 344 p. (in Russ.).

14. Krafft, G. V. 1739, Kratkoe rukovodstvo k matematicheskoi i natural'noi geografii. S upotrebleniem zemnogo globusa i landkart. Sochineno v pol'zu rossiiskogo yunoshestva [Brief guide to mathematical and natural geography. With the use of the earth globe and landcards. Written in favor of the Russian youth], St. Petersburg, 238 p. (in Russ.).

15. Ratzel, F. 1903, Zemlya i zhizn'. Sravnitel'noe zemlevedenie [Earth and life. Compar­ative geography], Vol. 1, St. Petersburg, 340 p. (in Russ.).

16. Vesin, L. 1877, Istoricheskii obzor uchebnikov Obshchei i Russkoi geografii (1710—1876) [Historical review of textbooks of General and Russian geography (1710—1876)], St. Petersburg (in Russ.).

17. Kaledin, N. V. 1995, Political geography: a change of scientific paradigms. I, Vestnik SPbGU. Seriya 7 [Bulletin of St. Petersburg State University. Series 7], no. 1 (№ 7), p. 74—82 (in Russ.).

18. Tanaevsky, V. A. 1927, Obzor razvitiya ekonomiko-geograficheskoi mysli [Review of the development of economic and geographical thought], Vyatka, 127 p. (in Russ.).

19. Petri, E. Yu.1892, Metody i printsipy geografii [Methods and principles of geogra­phy], St. Petersburg (in Russ.).

20. Danilevsky, N. Y. 1871, Rossiya i Evropa. Vzglyad na kul'turnye i politicheskie otno­sheniya Slavyanskogo mira k Germano-Romanskomu [Russia and Europe. A look at the cul­tural and political relations of the Slavic world to the German-Romanesque], 2 ed., St. Peters­burg, 552 p. (in Russ.).

21. Metchnikoff, L. 1889, La Civilisation et les grands fleuves historiques. In: Avecunep­réface de M. Élisée Reclus, Paris, 369 p.

22. Semenov-Tyan-Shansky, V. P. 1928, Raion i strana [District and country], Moscow, Leningrad, 311 p.

23. Novikov, L. I., Sizemskaya, I. N. (eds.) 1993, Rossiya mezhdu Evropoi i Aziei: evrazi­iskii soblazn [Russia Between Europe and Asia: Eurasian Temptation], Moscow, 368 p. (in Russ.).

24. Gumilev, L. N. 1990, Etnogenez i biosfera Zemli [Ethnogenesis and the biosphere of the Earth], Leningrad, 526 p. (in Russ.).

25. Den, V. E. 1922, Novaya Evropa [New Europe], Pg., 152 p. (In Russ.).

26. Bolshakov, I. G. 1934, Politiko-ekonomicheskaya karta mira [Political and Economic Map of the World], Leningrad, 73 p. (in Russ.).

27. Wolf, M. B., Mebus, G. A. 1924—1926, 1928, Statisticheskii spravochnik po ekono­mi­cheskoi geografii SSSR I drugikh gosudarstv [Statistical reference book on the economic geography of the USSR and other states], Moscow, Leningrad (in Russ.).

28. Semevsky, B. N. 1957, Kurs ekonomicheskoi I politicheskoi geografii zarubezhnykh stran. Istoriko-geograficheskoe vvedenie: Lektsii [The course of economic and political geog­raphy of foreign countries. Historical and geographical introduction: Lectures], Leningrad, 59 p. (in Russ.).

29. Kaledin, N. V. 1995, Political geography: a change of scientific paradigms. II, Vestnik SpbGU. Seriya 7 [Bulletin of St. Petersburg State University. Series 7], no. 3, № 21, p. 102—107 (in Russ.).

30. Chistobaev, A. I. 2003, Geografy-ekonomisty: sud'by i nasledie uchenykh [Geogra­phers, economists: the fate and legacy of scientists], Tyumen, 76 p. (in Russ.).

31. Chistobaev, A. I. 2002, V. E. Den — the leader of the scientific school, Izvestiya Russkogo geograficheskogo obshchestva [News of the Russian Geographical Society], no. 2, p. 47—55 (in Russ.).

32. Semevsky, B. N. 1964, Voprosy teorii ekonomicheskoi geografii [Issues of the theory of economic geography], Leningrad, 87 p. (in Russ.).

33. Semevsky, B. N. 1981, Teoreticheskaya ekonomgeografiya [Theoretical economog­raphy], Leningrad, 172 p. (in Russ.).

34. Kondratyev, N. D. 1925, Large market cycles, Voprosy konyunktury [Conjuncture is­sues], Vol. 1, no. 1, p. 28—79 (in Russ.).

35. Kolosov, V. A., Ibragimov, A. I. (eds.) 1987, Politicheskaya geografiya: problemy i tendentsii [Political geography: problems and trends], Materials of the All-Union Conference, Baku, 126 p. (in Russ.).

36. Lavrov, S. B. (ed.) 1989, Politicheskaya geografiya i sovremennost': tendentsii sta­nov­leniya nauchnogo napravleniya [Political Geography and Modernity: Trends in the For­mation of a Scientific Field], Leningrad, 148 p. (in Russ.).

37. Lavrov, S. B. (ed.) 1991, Politicheskaya geografiya i sovremennost': regional'nye i prikladnye aspekty [Political Geography and Modernity: Regional and Applied Aspects], St. Petersburg, 196 p. (in Russ.).

38. Lavrov, S. B. (ed.) 1995, Geopoliticheskie i geoekonomicheskie problemy Rossii [Ge­opolitical and geo-economic problems of Russia], St. Petersburg, 230 p. (in Russ.).

39. Lavrov, S. B., Kaledin, N. V. (eds.) 2002, Ekonomicheskaya, sotsial'naya i politiche­skaya geografiya mira. Regiony i strany [Economic, social and political geography of the world. Regions and countries], Moscow, 925 p.

40. Elatskov, A. B. 2017, Obshchaya geopolitika: voprosy teorii i metodologii v geo­graficheskoi interpretatsii [General geopolitics: theoretical and metodological issues in geo­graphical interpretation], Moscow, 251 p. (in Russ.).

41. Kaledin, N. V., Mikheeva, N. M. (eds.) 2017, Geografiya mira. V 3-kh tt. T. 1: Poli­ti­cheskaya geografiya i geopolitika [Geography of the world. In 3 vols. Volume 1: Political Geography and Geopolitics], Moscow, 295 p. (in Russ.).



Back to the section