The Baltic Region

2015 Issue №4(26)

Back to the list Download an article

Legal aspects of the EU policy on irregular immigration

DOI
10.5922/2079-8555-2015-4-4
Pages
55-65

Abstract

This article addresses the issues pertaining to the adoption and development of legislation on irregular migration in the context of uncontrolled growth in the number of immigrants from North Africa and the Middle East to the EU. The article attempts at studying the EU legislation on irregular migration, classifying it, and analysing the prospects of EU migration legislation in the light of an increase in irregular immigration into the EU. The author systematises, classifies the current EU legislation on irregular immigration, and analyses the conditions, in which this legislation was developed. Using the legislation analysis method, the author proposes the following system of EU legislation on irregular immigration: rules preventing assistance to irregular immigration, rules preventing employment of irregular immigrants, rules on the return of irregular migrants and readmission, rules on border control, and rules on collaboration with third countries. The author pays special attention to analysing the current state of irregular immigration to the EU, which was dubbed the ‘greatest migration crisis in Europe’. The conclusion is that the European Union succeeded in the development of pioneering legislation on irregular immigration, which can serve as the basis for reception by other states. However, changes in the political and economic situation in the EU’s southern borderlands made the current legal mechanisms incapable of withstanding new threats. It necessitates a radical reform of the legislation on irregular immigration.

Reference

1. Frontex Annual Risk Analysis 2015, 2015, available: http://frontex.europa.eu/assets/Publications/Risk_Analysis/Annual_Risk_Analysis_2015.pdf (accessed 09.06.2015).
2. Communication from the Commission on Policy priorities in the fight against illegal immigration of third-country nationals, Brussels, 19.7.2006, 2006, COM, no. 402 final, available: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/com/2006/com2006_0402en01.pdf (accessed 10.05.2015).
3. REPORT FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL Fifth bi-annual report on the functioning of the Schengen area 1 November 2013 - 30 April 2014. Brussels, 26.5.2014, 2014, COM, no. 292 final, available at: //http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/home-affairs/e-library/documents/policies/borders-and-visas/schengen/docs/fifth_biannual_report_on_the_functioning_of_the_schengen_area_en.pdf (accessed 11.06.2015).
4. Voinikov, V. V. 2013, Pravovoe regulirovanie Evropejskogo prostranstva svobody, bezopasnosti i pravosudija [Legal regulation of the European area of freedom, security and justice], Kaliningrad, 397 p.
5. Protokol protiv nezakonnogo vvoza migrantov po sushe, morju i vozduhu, dopolnjajushhij Konvenciju Organizacii Obedinennyh Nacij protiv transnacional'noj organizovannoj prestupnosti, prinjat rezoljuciej 55/25 General'noj Assamblei ot 15 nojabrja 2000 goda [The Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, adopted by General Assembly resolution 55/25 of 15 November 2000], 2000, available at: http://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/conventions/protocol2.shtml (accessed 25.08.2015).
6. Potemkina, О.Yu. 2010, Immigracionnaja politika Evropejskogo Sojuza: problemy i perspektivy [The migration policy of the European Union: Challenges and Prospects], Moscow, p. 38.
7. Communication from the Commission to the Council and European Parliament on a common policy on illegal immigration, 2001, COM, no. 672 final, available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2001:0672: FIN:EN:PDF, (accessed 25.08.2015).
8. Proposal for a comprehensive plan to combat illegal immigration and trafficking of human beings in the European Union, 2002, Official Journal C, no. 142, 14.06.2002.
9. Council Directive 2002/90/EC of 28 November 2002 defining the facilitation of unauthorised entry, transit and residence, 2002, Official Journal L, no. 328, 5.12.2002, p. 17–18.
10. 2002/946/JHA: Council framework Decision of 28 November 2002 on the strengthening of the penal framework to prevent the facilitation of unauthorised entry, transit and residence, 2002, Official Journal L, no. 328, 5.12.2002, p. 1–3.
11. 2006/616/EC: Council Decision of 24 July 2006 on the conclusion, on behalf of the European Community, of the Protocol Against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organised Crime concerning the provisions of the Protocol, in so far as the provisions of this Protocol fall within the scope of Articles 179 and 181a of the Treaty establishing the European Community, 2006, Official Journal L, no. 262, 22.9.2006, p. 24–33.
12. 2006/617/EC: Council Decision of 24 July 2006 on the conclusion, on behalf of the European Community, of the Protocol Against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organised Crime concerning the provisions of the Protocol, in so far as the provisions of the Protocol fall within the scope of Part III, Title IV of the Treaty establishing the European Community, 2006, Official Journal L, no. 262, 22.9.2006, p. 34–43.
13. Directive 2009/52/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 June 2009 providing for minimum standards on sanctions and measures against employers of illegally staying third-country nationals, 2009, Official Journal L, no. 168, 30.6.2009, p. 24–32.
14. Directive 2008/115/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on common standards and procedures in Member States for returning illegally staying third-country nationals, 2008m Official Journal L, 348, 24.12.2008, p. 98 – 107.
15. Council Directive 2003/110/EC of 25 November 2003 on assistance in cases of transit for the purposes of removal by air, 2003, Official Journal L, no. 321, 6.12.2003, p. 26–31
16. 2004/573/EC: Council Decision of 29 April 2004 on the organisation of joint flights for removals from the territory of two or more Member States, of thirdcountry nationals who are subjects of individual removal orders, 2004, Official Journal L, no. 261, 6.8.2004, p. 28–35.
17. Council Directive 2001/40/EC of 28 May 2001 on the mutual recognition of decisions on the expulsion of third country nationals, 2001, Official Journal L, no. 149, 2.6.2001, p. 34–36.
18. Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on on EU Return Policy, 2014, COM, no. 0199 final, available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:52014DC0199 (accessed 10.08.2015).
19. Council Recommendation of 30 November 1994 concerning a specimen bilateral readmission agreement between a Member State and a third country, 1996, Official Journal C, no. 274, 19.9.1996, p. 20–24
20. Return & readmission, European Commission, 2015, available at: http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/home-affairs/what-we-do/policies/irregular-migration-returnpolicy/return-readmission/index_en.htm (accessed 10.08.2015).
21. Regulation (EU) No 1052/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2013 establishing the European Border Surveillance System (Eurosur), 2013, Official Journal L, no. 295, 6.11.2013, p. 11–26.
22. Council Regulation (EC) No 377/2004 of 19 February 2004 on the creation of an immigration liaison officers network, 2004, Official Journal L, no. 064, 02.03.2004, p. 0001 – 0004.
23. U beregov Sicilii spaseny bolee 740 migrantov [Off the coast of Sicily rescued more than 740 migrants], 2015, BBC, available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/russian/rolling_news/2015/05/150529_rn_mediterranean_migrants (accessed 29.05.2015).
24. Terror v Evrope: opasny li migranty Sredizemnogo morja? [Terrorism in Europe: whether workers are dangerous Mediterranean Sea?], 2015, BBC, available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/russian/international/2015/02/150224_migrants_sea_terror_europe_is (accessed10.07.2015).
25. Newton, J. 2015, ISIS terrorists are arriving in Europe hidden among migrants crossing the Mediterranean on boats, warns EU’s top prosecutor, Dailymail, available at: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3151326/ISIS-terrorists-arriving-Europe-hidden-migrants-crossing-Mediterranean-boats-warns-EU-s-prosecutor.html#ixzz3joky50lG (accessed 10.08.2015).
26. Candau, A. 2015, Pour les migrants, le prix de la traversée à Calais varie en fonction du risque encouru, Le Figaro, available at: http://www.lefigaro.fr/conjoncture/2015/08/18/20002-20150818ARTFIG00119-pour-les-migrants-le-prix-de-la-traversee-a-calais-varie-en-fonction-du-risque-encouru.php (accessed 18.08.2015).
27. Voinikov, V. Krizis v Kale: problemy nezakonnogo peresechenija francuzsko-britanskoj granicy [The crisis in Calais: the problem of illegal crossing the French-British border], Rossijskij sovet po mezhdunarodnym delam (RSMD) [Russian Council on International Affairs], available at: http://russiancouncil.ru/inner/?id_4=6476#top-content (accessed 20.08.2015).
28. Soeren Kern. 2015, Europe's Great Migration Crisis, Gatestone Institute, July 12, available at: http://www.gatestoneinstitute.org/6146/europe-migration (accessed 20.08.2015).
29. Special meeting of the European Council, 2015, 23 April 2015 – statement, European Council – Council of the European Union, available at: http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2015/04/23-special-eucostatement/(accessed 11.06.2015).
30. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. European Agenda on Migration. Brussels, 2015, 13 May, COM, no. 240 final, available at: http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/home-affairs/what-we-do/policies/european-agenda-migration/background-information/docs/communication_on_the_european_agenda_on_migration_en.pdf (accessed 10.06.2015).
31. Livija protiv idei ES o specoperacii protiv sudov s migrantami [Libya against the idea of the EU's special operation against the ship with migrants], 2015, RIA Novosti [RIA News], available at: http://ria.ru/world/20150511/1063862485.html (accessed 01.07.2015).
32. OUTCOME OF THE COUNCIL MEETING, 2015, Justice and Home Affairs Brussels, 3405th Council meeting, 20 July 2015, available at: http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/meetings/jha/2015/07/20/ (accessed 10.08.2015).
33. Consolidated version of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, 2012, Official Journal C, no. 326, 26.10.2012, p. 47–390.