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2017 Том 9 №1

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Коалиция внутри коалиции: страны Бал­тии в Евросоюзе

DOI
https://doi.org/10.5922/2074-9848-2017-1-1
Страницы / Pages
7-26

Аннотация

Рассматривается в целом проблематика малых стран, в частности их поведение в составе коалиций и склонности к фрирайдерству. Утверждается, что для реализации собственной повестки и увеличения значимости в больших объединениях малые страны склонны создавать «коалиции внутри коалиций», в то же время выступая в роли фрирайдеров, передавая издержки и политическую ответственность за принимаемые решения более крупным игрокам. Такая асимметричная стратегия позволяет малым странам обеспечить успешную реализацию своих интересов в больших альянсах и при этом экономить ресурсы. Наш аргумент мы проверяем на поведении малых государств Балтии внутри Европейского союза, показывая, что Литва, Латвия и Эстония сформировали устойчивую малую коалицию в ЕС и, кроме того, активно включились в создаваемые ad hoc коалиции по принятию решений в рамках Союза с участием крупных стран-лидеров. Такую стратегию страны Балтии использовали при решении вопроса о беженцах. При этом в других сферах эти государства пользуются преимуществами фрирайдерства.

Abstract

This article gives an overview of small power problem focusing on the behav­iour of small power states within coalitions and their proneness to free riding. To pursue an independent agenda and increase their significance within large associa­tions, the authors argue, small powers tend to create ‘coalitions within coalitions’, essentially acting as free riders and transferring costs and political responsibility for decision-making to larger players. Such an asymmetric strategy makes it possi­ble for small powers to advance their interests within alliances and save resources. The authors test this hypothesis on the behaviour of the Baltics in the European Union. It is demonstrated that Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia have created a stable small coalition within the EU and actively form ad hoc alliances with the leading states to push union-level decisions, as it was the case with settling the migrant issue. In other areas, these states tend to benefit from the free rider behaviour.

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