IKBFU's Vestnik

Natural and medical sciences

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2009 Issue №07

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2019 Issue № 2

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2015 Issue № 01

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About a role of vegetation of deserts of Central Asia in climate change

Abstract

This article focuses on the temperature of various underlying surfaces (rubble-rock on hamadas, sand on the beds of temporary streams, plants) in the southern steppes of Mongolia. The authors present a comparative analysis of soil and plant temperature and address the issue of the impact of overgrowing of desert areas on climate change on Earth.

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New method of physiographic zoning of Kaliningrad re-gion

Abstract

This paper introduces a new approach and criteria to the physical-geographical zoning of the Kaliningrad region. Landscape areas are identified according to their morphological structure. The article summarizes numerous publications and observation records, as well as the results of the author’s field studies.

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An assessment of the role of green belts in creating comfortable microclimatic conditions in summer

Abstract

Against the background of global warming and a decline in urban vegeta­tion, they pose a danger of overheating in summer. In this article, we stress the significance of green spaces as a principal factor in reducing the overheat­ing of urban surfaces. We analyse a high-rise residential area in the left-bank part of the city of Voronezh to perform a simulation of microclimatic condi­tions in summer. The following parameters were used as background climatic conditions: the day of the summer solstice, cloudless and calm weather, air temperature 25° C. We assessed the level of thermal comfort in the current landscaping situation in the residential area, taking into account proposed cli­mate improvement initiatives, particularly, planting evergreen and decidu­ous trees. We evaluated the level of thermal comfort using the PMV index. In the current landscaping situation, the residential area studied is severely overheat­ed. Our simulation, which allows for the effects of planted trees, shows a reduc­tion in the PMV index in parks enjoyed by children and adults. The reduction is accounted for by a decrease in the average radiation tempera­ture.

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An environmental analysis of the activity of bioflavonoid accumulation in medicinal plants

Abstract

This article presents experimental data on the rutin, catechin, and leucoanthocyanin content in medicinal plants (66 species from 31 families). A significant correlation between the catechine and leucoanthocyanin content in plant tissues (r = 0.89) is observed. The study identified promising plant species with a high content of bioflavonoids. These plants can be used as a basis for developing innovative functional foods that exhibit high antioxidant activity.

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Gender and seasonal characteristics of lipid exchange in people of different ages

Abstract

A biochemical assay of blood lipids in military personnel and reservists was conducted. The influence of seasonal changes (spring, autumn) on the lipid compounds of blood serum was analyzed. A dependence between the total cholesterol level, the content of low-density (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL, and triglycerides and age and gender was identified.

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Application of the gravimetric method in the study of paleoincisions on the territory of the Kaliningrad region

Abstract

This paper summarizes the results of gravity surveys conducted across two palaeoincisions cut into the sub-Quaternary surface in the coastal area of the Kaliningrad region near Svetlogorsk. Strong local negative anomalies caused by the palaeoincisions are observed on the gravity anomaly profiles. The analysis of the palaeoincision's spatial distribution by using gravity data assumed that there is the system of intersecting V-shaped depressions rather than individual paleostructures buried in the subsurface.

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Microelement content in lichen hypogymnia physodes in the forests of the Kaliningrad region

Abstract

Samples of epiphytic lichens Hypogymnia physodes were selected in the forests of the Kaliningrad region. Content of Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Ag, Sr, Rb in the lichen thallus was determined by atomic absorption and X-ray fluorescence analysis. The chemical analysis of elements resulted in the maps of spatial patterns of metals distribution. It is proposed to use the data as a "reference point" for monitoring air pollution research in the Kaliningrad region.

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Assessment of hepatic volume ex vivo by the formulas of the ultrasound volumetry

Abstract

The article focuses on determination of the liver volume which is an urgent task for clinical medicine. It is directly connected to the need for an objective quantitative assessment of organ size. The complexity of calculating the volume is due to an irregular geometric shape of the organ, which can not be approximated to an ellipse or any other geometric figure. The aim of the study is to ex vivo evaluate the possibilities of measuring the volume of the liver based on the linear dimensions of the organ according to the formulas proposed for ultrasonic volumetry. The study was carried out on 70 corpses of humans who died of various diseases and examined in the "Bureau of Forensic Medical Examination of the Kaliningrad Region". To measure the liver volume, the most common ultrasound study formulas were used: M. Zoli et al. (1989), D. Glenn et al. (1994), D. Elstein et al. (1997), M. Patlas et al. (2001) and J.T. Childs et al. (2014, 2016). The average weight of the liver according to the results of postmortem weighing of the organ was 1507 ± 500 g, and determined by the method of fluid displacement - 1325 ± 467 cm³. The average volume of the liver, calculated on the linear dimensions of the organ according to the most common formulae, was 1720 ± 687, 1474 ± 639, 1513 ± 516, 1620 ± 702 and 1238 ± 470 cm³, respectively. The authors concluded that the formula given by J.T. Chides and his co-authors is the optimal one for calculating liver volume based on the organ linear dimensions considering the least deviation of the calculation result from the real liver volume.

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Properties of toluidine blue stained mast cells in the experiment with the intake of soluble silicon

Abstract

The article gives morphometric characteristics of thymic mast cells of rats supplied with drinking water for 10 months in a concentration of 10 mg/l in correlation to silicon. It has been shown that the amount of mast cells does not change in interlobular cortical thymus septa with this type of exposure, however, the percentage of mast cells with complete degranulation increases, as well as the proportion of mast cells with a high degree of metachromasia. In this case, the average size of mast cells decreases.

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Assessment of the CNS function in fetuses with different pathology

Abstract

The article focuses on the studies of changes in fetal behavior and general fetal movements which were carried out through the method of H. Prechtl with the help of the Kurjak Antenatal Neurobehavioral Test (KANET). The research evaluated the functional state of the central nervous system of fetuses with different pathologies. The authors describe a number of assessments including the intrauterine development of the central nervous system of fetuses during normal gestation; the intrauterine development of the central nervous system in the presence of somatic pathology of the fetus, revealed by screening ultrasound; and the intrauterine functioning of the nervous system in the presence of an abnormality of the central nervous system. The research shows that in healthy fetuses the average value of the total assessment of general movements is within the limits of the norm (15 ± 0,88), which indicates the normal development of the central nervous system. In fetuses with CNS pathology, the average value of the total assessment of general movements is at the lower limit of the norm (6.3 ± 1.5), which is regarded as a high risk of pathology of the nervous system and can lead to neurologic disorders from minimal brain dysfunction (MBD) to cerebral palsy (CP). In fetuses with somatic pathology, the average value of the total assessment of general movements occupies a boundary value (11.6 ± 1.32). The nervous system functions more efficient is better than in the previous group, which suggests a more favorable neurological outcome after birth.

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Baltic Studies in 2017

Abstract

Amid a worsening geopolitical situation and Big Eurasia plunging into geoeconomic uncertainty, Russian regions are working towards new interregional collaborations and looking for partners in other markets. Russia’s outposts in the Baltic — St. Petersburg and the Kaliningrad region — play a central communicative role in relations with European countries. An exclave under transport and logistics blockade, the Kaliningrad region is increasingly seeking new areas and forms of cooperation with St. Petersburg. In this study, I consider the historical connections between the Kaliningrad region (once, part of East Prussia) and Saint Petersburg in terms of infrastructure, logistics, marketing, production, human resources, recreation, research, and education. I place emphasis on the dependence of the Kaliningrad region on Russia’s ‘hub’ in the Baltic. With a reference to the Framework for a Strategy for Russia’s Spatial Development until 2030, I stress the need for a closer collaboration between Saint Petersburg and Kaliningrad in the new geoeconomic and geopolitical conditions. I explore the opportunities for and barriers to the joint geoeconomic positioning of St. Petersburg and the Kaliningrad region in the Baltic. This study has proved instrumental in inventorying all the factors, forms, and areas of cooperation between the two regions. In the article, I also pay attention to individual projects and initiatives.

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The Factors, Formats, and Avenues of Cooperation between St. Petersburg and the Kaliningrad Region in Today’s Eurasian Geo-Economic Context

Abstract

Amid a worsening geopolitical situation and Big Eurasia plunging into geoeconomic uncertainty, Russian regions are working towards new interregional collaborations and looking for partners in other markets. Russia’s outposts in the Baltic — St. Petersburg and the Kaliningrad region — play a central communicative role in relations with European countries. An exclave under transport and logistics blockade, the Kaliningrad region is increasingly seeking new areas and forms of cooperation with St. Petersburg. In this study, I consider the historical connections between the Kaliningrad region (once, part of East Prussia) and Saint Petersburg in terms of infrastructure, logistics, marketing, production, human resources, recreation, research, and education. I place emphasis on the dependence of the Kaliningrad region on Russia’s ‘hub’ in the Baltic. With a reference to the Framework for a Strategy for Russia’s Spatial Development until 2030, I stress the need for a closer collaboration between Saint Petersburg and Kaliningrad in the new geoeconomic and geopolitical conditions. I explore the opportunities for and barriers to the joint geoeconomic positioning of St. Petersburg and the Kaliningrad region in the Baltic. This study has proved instrumental in inventorying all the factors, forms, and areas of cooperation between the two regions. In the article, I also pay attention to individual projects and initiatives.

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Changes in the ethnic composition of the population of North- West Russia in the 18th -19th centuries

Abstract

The launch of the ‘Historical Geography of Russia’ project in Russia’s larger historical and geographical regions necessitated the development of new research methods and the evaluation of traditional ones. The article considers the use of the time slicing method in the historical geography of Russia’s North-West. The temporal scope of the study is the early 18th — late 19th century. The article describes changes in the selected ethnic groups in North-West Russia (Ozernaya oblast’) and in some other provinces.

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An overview of international environmental education projects in the Kaliningrad region

Abstract

The Kaliningrad Region is an area of intensive international cooperation including that in the field of environmental education. The article offers an overview of joint projects implemented by educational institutions, NGOs, and local authorities and analyses the prerequisites for their efficiency.

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Comparative analysis of the groups of microorganisms in natural and anthropo-genically altered brown forest soils of the Kaliningrad Peninsula

Abstract

This article focuses on the numerical concentration of certain groups of microorganisms in the brown forest soils of natural and urbanised ecosystems of the Kaliningrad Peninsula. An analysis of the microflora was performed in spring, summer, and autumn 2012. This paper presents the average annual data for each key area. It is shown that human-altered ecosystems are characterized by a higher than natural concentration of ammonifying microorganisms and actinomycetes. The numerical concentration of micromycetes in agrophitocenosis and beech-sorrel spruce forests is lower than in the soils of urban ecosystems.

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Cultural landscape system zoning of the European part of Russia

Abstract

The article is devoted to the study of cultural landscape systems of the European part of Russia. The author addresses the problems of the current state of cultural landscape zoning in Russian geography and considers a vari-ant of cultural landscape zoning of the European part of Russia at different territorial levels on the basis of the system approach. The author describes the main criteria used in cultural landscape zoning.

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Demographic development scenarios for the Kaliningrad region

Abstract

The Kaliningrad region has a sub-replacement fertility rate (with a total fertility rate of about 1.8) and a slightly negative rate of natural increase. With a net migration of up to 10,000 people per year (Russian regions account for 37 % of this figure), the population of the region is increasing and the workforce number is stable. Population change and age-sex structure forecasts strongly rely on the estimates of prospective net migration and a rate of natural increase. Accompanied by a decreasing age-specific mortality rate and growing life expectancy, the current age-specific fertility rate and net migration ensure a stable workforce number and a positive rate of natural increase, against the background of an increasing dependency ratio. The article considers possible measures to increase the birth rate, to reduce the morality rate, and to regulate migration processes.

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The evolution of agricultural nature management models in the Baltic States and the Kaliningrad region in 1890—2016

Abstract

In each historical period, regional models of agricultural practices are affected by a combination of natural, political, and economic factors. Such models incorporate indicators of changes in the cultivated land area, land structure, and the intensity of agricultural practices. At early stages, the evolution of a model is affected by natural conditions. Later, political (wars, revolutions, changes in national borders) and economic factors (economic crises, changes in the overall economic situation, and shifts in the structure of the economy) come to the fore. The time series of statistical data from 1890—1900 to 2015—2016 and the major events in the region’s history were juxtaposed and compared to identify the key stages in the formation of regional models of agricultural nature management in the Baltics and the Kaliningrad region. A comprehensive historical and geographical analysis helped to reconstruct balances for each landmark in the evolution of agricultural nature management in the Baltics and the Kaliningrad region. Several models existed in the region over the time – those of production curtailment in the war and post-war years and in the period following the collapse of the USSR and those of booming agriculture observed in 1913—1914, 1975—1980, and the past decade.

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Development factors and regularities of the territorial structure of nature management

Abstract

The Kaliningrad and Pskov regions serve as good examples for comparison of the main trends and patterns of the territorial agricultural structure as the most dynamic type of nature management. The territorial structure of agriculture in the regions and the factors of its evolution are considered on the example of two historical periods (1975—80 and 2016—17). In the Pskov region, the continued decline in the area of cultivated land, the transition from focal to small-scale and dispersed types of nature use was noted. In the Kaliningrad region there is a repeated expansion of agricultural lands, the territorial structure corresponds to a large-scale type. The common pattern for both regions is the decrease in the sizes of the areals and their fragmentation.

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History of creation, modern ecological condition, landscape structure of M. Ashmann park in Kaliningrad

Abstract

The sharp reduction of green zones in Kaliningrad, caused by the rapid modern construction and the increase in the motor vehicles, leads to adverse environmental conditions. Reconstruction and conservation of parks is a priority task for creating an ecological framework of urban areas. The M. Ashman’s landscape park is located in densely populated new districts of Selma and Severnaya Gora and is actively used by the townspeople for recreation. However, its environmental conditions do not meet the standards. The park is a 100-year old historical and cultural heritage. Complex field and historicalgeographical studies were carried out to assess its condition. The study of the ecological state of the park involved landscape mapping, which made it possible to reveal the structure of the landscape of the territory at the level of tracts and to evaluate the efficiency of drainage systems reconstruction. Completed work produced the recommendations on correcting the land reclamation works and the park improvement plan.

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Development of the Zehlau ecosystem (based on the data on peat deposit structure)

Abstract

This article presents new detailed data on the botanical composition of peat and the structure of peat deposits of the Zehlau raised bog. The authors investigate the history of the ecosystem and provide evidence for the idea that the bog developed through the paludification of a forest area, vast reed vegeta-tion, and rapid succession of different Sphagna communities. The article also focuses on the impact of fires and human activities on the development of the Zehlau ecosystem, as well as the need to preserve it.

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Climate Change Impact on the Curonain Lagoon Eutrophication Level

Abstract

The article presents the results of many years' research (1991-2007) on the chlorophyll and nutrient concentrations, biomass and primary production of phytoplankton in the Curonian Lagoon. The main factors affecting the level of biological production and the trophic status are determined by the comparison of hydrological and chemical indicators. Water temperature is a key environmental factor that regulates the phytoplankton production and abundance in the Curonian Lagoon. The greater seasonal rise in water temperatures in 1990-2000, presumably, a consequence of the climate change, alongside with other factors (freshness, slow water flow) creates conditions for cyanobacterial «hyperblooms». Probably, the 1990-2000 climate warming is the cause of the eutrophication of the Curonian Lagoon, which continues despite significant reduction in external nutrient load.

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Ecological characteristics of test sites of Kaliningrad soils for microbiological monitoring

Abstract

This article offers an ecological analysis of urbanized ecosystem used for the microbiological monitoring of Kaliningrad soil. The authors show that the studied ecosystems differ in plant species diversity, types of soils, and physicochemical parameters, which must be taken into account when analyzing the soil microflora.

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The assessment of the antioxidant status of medicinal plants from the collection of the botanical garden of the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University (Kaliningrad)

Abstract

This article analyses the content of phenolic antioxidants and ascorbic acid in medicinal plants of 66 species from 31 families. The study identified palnt species with a maximum content of biologically active compounds (phenolic antioxidants and ascorbic acid) and high antioxidant activity. These plants can be used as a basis for the creation of innovative functional food products
that have high antioxidant activity.

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Ferromanganese nodule neoformations in the soils of the western part of the Kaliningrad region

Abstract

This article examines the concretionary neoformations in soils: hardpans, tubular concretions, ironstone. The results of an analysis of the morphologic properties and chemical composition of concretions are presented. Concretions were found in most regional soils. The preliminary diagnostic significance was identified for different groups of neoformations depending on the soil moistening regime. Concretions are proved to accumulate Fe, Mn, Ni, P, As, and sometimes Zn, Cu, Cr, Y. The structure of concretions reflects the features of the geochemical situation.

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The accumulation of heavy metals by wild mushrooms in the Kaliningrad region

Abstract

This article considers the heavy metal accumulation capacity of wild mushroomson on the basis of calculating the concentration and biological uptake coefficients. An analysis of these data shows that some mushroom species have a high selective capacity for cadmium (B. edulis) and zinc accumulation (R. decolorans) independent of the concentration of these elements in the substrate. A higher concentration of heavy metals was detected in the Russulaceae picked on the Sambia peninsula in comparison to similar species of the Polessk forest.

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Filtration activity of mollusks Mya arenaria L. (Bivalvia) in estuaries of the southern Baltic Sea

Abstract

This article argues that, in the estuaries the South Baltic, the bivalve molluscs Mya arenaria are capable of consuming an average of 6.5 % of the water body primary production. A numerical assessment of the filtration rate of these molluscs shows that they can filter daily an average of 2.41 ± 1.01 m3 of water per a square meter of the river bed. During the vegetation season, molluscs can clear approximately 380 m3 of water in estuaries removing up to 558.9 ± 65.7 g of suspended organic matters.

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Geography of knowledge: clus­te­ring national competence centres of Russia

Abstract

While transiting to an innovation economy, cities are the most important centres of concentration of intellectual capital. However, their distribution around the territory of the country is not even. Various Russian cities also demonstrate significant differences between the systems of new scientific knowledge reproduction. The article focuses on the mesoscale study of spatial patterns in concentration of national centres of competence. The scientific cen­tres are classified according to their ability to produce scientific knowledge and their number in the Russian Federation regions is assessed. The most im­portant clusters of research centres in Russia have been identified.

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The dynamics of agricultural land use in the North-West of Rus­sia and the Baltic countries

Abstract

The agricultural land dynamics is one of the central issues of land use in Europe and Russia. Each historical period is characterized by its own model of agricultural land use. The analysis of its dynamics in the North-West of Rus­sia and the Baltic countries was based on the following parameters: the area of cultivated agricultural land and the rate of change, the grain yield and its dy­namics. Database analysis from 1848—52 until 2015—18 allowed to identify the stages of the agricultural land management dynamics. The stages of ex­pansion and contraction, intensification and transition to extensive agricul­tural production are caused by combined influence of natural, socio-economic and political factors. The periods of decline in agricultural land use coincided with years of economic and political crises. The onset of periods of recovery matches a change in state policy, general economic growth and a rise in the technological level of agriculture, as well as changes in the domestic and for­eign markets. Over the past decade, there has been an increase in cultivated land area in the Baltic countries and the Kaliningrad region, and crop yields are growing throughout the region. Given the characteristic features of agri­cultural land management dynamics, subregions and the main trends in their development were determined.

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Geopolitical turbulence and its economic and geographical projections: the case of Russia’s western border regions

Abstract

The socio-economic development of countries and world regions during recent decades has been affected by the confrontation of global and regional centres of power, their growing geoeconomic and geopolitical rivalry, accom­panied by increasing geopolitical turbulence. The article aims to substantiate the concept of geopolitical turbulence in its socio-geographical projection. Spe­cial emphasis is made on its manifestations in the territorial organization of society and its structures. The author reveals the most relevant aspects of the territorial restructuring of the Russian economy, which is being influenced by recent geopolitical changes. The author assesses the economic resistance of Russia’s western border regions to geopolitical turbulence. Special attention is paid to the typology of border regions, which is built taking into account the impact of geopolitical turbulence and compensatory measures of state support on regional socio-economic systems. The study offers a general conceptual vi­sion of geopolitical turbulence as a permanent (poorly predictable and only partially regulated) series of changes in the global political order as a whole and in the position of a particular country and its spatial units — regions and large urban agglomerations. Such changes are obvious and significant for so­ciety; they are reflected in the public consciousness and embodied in scientific discourse.

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Economic security of a border region: quantitative and qualitative measurements (the case of the Rostov region)

Abstract

The article evaluates the economic security of the Rostov region, a west­ern border region of Russia under the conditions of geoeconomic turbulence. Using complementary methods of the economic-statistical analysis of dynamic series and expert interviewing, the author describes multidimensional intra-regional processes triggered by external economic shifts. Empirical research shows a decrease in several economic indicators and the response of the re­gion's economy to external challenges. The Rostov region is capable of the mobilization of its productive forces while forming new market niches in the process of import substitution. The research shows that the Rostov region is relatively stable economically and has enough potential for progressive devel­opment. However, over the past 4 years, some negative trends have been ob­served. They were mainly caused by the deterioration of the regional business environment. A comparative analysis of the regional and all-Russia economic indicators, as well as the average indicators of Russia's western border re­gions and the Krasnodar Krai, reveals a growing competition between regions in the economically prosperous South-West of Russia. The study identified the main threats caused by both the geoeconomic situation and its projection onto the intra-regional environment. These threats aggravated system-wide eco­nomic problems.

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he new formula of the liver volume calculation: the integration into the automatic ultrasound diagnostic work station (AWS) "Assistant"

Abstract

The previous research work of the team (M. V. Martinovich et al.) developed a new formula for in vivo liver volume calculating using the genetic algorithm method. The purpose of this work was the integration of the formula in the automatic ultrasound diagnostic work station (AWS) "Assistant”. To achieve the goal, a number of the research objectives have been set. The possibility of assessing the size of the liver on the basis of its volume is a means of objectifying the diagnostic process. Integration of a new Martinovich’s formula for the calculation of liver volume in the ARM ultrasound "Assistant" allows you to quickly and accurately calculate the volume of the liver.

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Methodical approaches to "Epithelial tissue" teaching

Abstract

Histology is the morphological discipline of the basic curriculum, the teaching of this discipline requires careful planning. During lessons students learn to practically apply the received knowledge, and also to classify a particular structure by characteristic details. Perceiving and memorizing information is not enough for full comprehension and reproduction. This can be assisted by schematic sketches both in training, and when testing knowledge.

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Heart and blood vessels remodeling and the estimation of residual risk in patients with myocardial infarction

Abstract

The author uses the notion of residual risk for the assessment of myocardial infarction (MI). In the acute phase of myocardial infarction, the majority of patients have remodelling of the myocardium with a predominant combination of cavity dilatation and hypertrophic left ventricle. One third of patients having endothelial dysfunction have remodelling of the myocardium. It explains a greater frequency of angina pectoris and the development of heart failure symptoms. Persistent remodelling is associated with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation; a significant number of patients develop paradoxical vasoconstriction. A combination of these factors largely determines the degree of residual risk after myocardial infarction. In addition to standard therapy, post-MI therapy should be aimed at correcting the remodelling of blood vessels and the myocardium. It will prevent the development of delayed complications.

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Important Staging Sites of Geese and Swans in the Cross-Border Wetland Complex of the Neman Delta

Abstract

The article presents generalised data on internationally important staging sites of Greylag Goose (Anser anser), Greater White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons), Lesser White-fronted Goose (Anser erythropus), Bean Goose (Anser fabalis), Whooper Swans (Cygnus Cygnus) and Bewick’s Swans (Cygnus bewickii) in the Neman River delta shared by Russia and Lithuania.The authors indicate the decrease in the population of Bean Geese alongside with the increase in the population of Greylag Geese, Whooper Swans, Bewick’s Swans and particularly Greater White-fronted Geese. This phenomenon is brought about by the global climate change, changes of the migratory flyways of certain species (particularly Greater White-fronted Goose) and by human impact.
In order to preserve the wetland complex of utmost importance for migrating birds, it is necessary to develop the cross border Ramsar territory and to grant the corresponding status to the Russian part of the Neman delta.

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Some Biotic Reactions to Climate Change in the Forest Landscape of the Caspian-Baltic Watershed

Abstract

The article considers some biotic reactions to climatic transformation on the basis of the research conducted in 1980—2006 in the primary ecosystems of southern Taiga on the Central Russian Plain. The change of structure, diversity and productivity of small mammal communities are connected to climatic trends, extreme and catastrophic climatic phenomena.

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The development of the industrial port complex of the Kaliningrad region

Abstract

Socio-economic development of the Kaliningrad region requires new scenarios and ways of functioning of the regional economy. Based on recent regional studies, the author proposes to resume the discussion of alternative strategies for the development of the Kaliningrad region. One of the most promising ideas is the marine economic strategy proposed V. V. Ivchenko. On the basis of this strategy, the author defines various possibilities of establishing an industrial port complex in the region. The main goal of the work is the analysis of the dynamics of the modern fishing industry and the infrastructural development of the seaport of Kaliningrad. The author attempts to assess the current potential of the regional port infrastructure and the fishing industry of the region as well as highlights the most important mechanisms for the further development of the port as a part of industrial port complex.

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Influence of hematopoietic growth factors on the activation status and functional activity of human T-lymphocytes

Abstract

The authors present the results of a study proving a direct effect of GM-CSF and Epo on the functional activity and activation status of T-cells in varying degrees of differentiation. The obtained data demonstrate immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of Epo and CSF-GM. The study shows the direct impact of hematopoietins on the T-cells functional activity in hematopoietic immunoregulation.

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Integrity and Objectives of Modern Geography

Abstract

The article considers the concept of geography in the context of integrity of its natural -ecological and socio-economic elements. The change of the postulates of classical geography on the basis of new (non-linear) thinking and the perception of the new picture of the world and its cognition by means of a new interdisciplinary language is proven to be necessary.

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Is demographic development of central Russia facing a tipping point?

Abstract

The article studies current trends and problems of demographic development in Central Russia. Particular attention is paid to the Smolensk region which is considered to be one of the most demographically troubled Russian regions. The causes of the drop in absolute and relative fertility rates in the region have been revealed. One of them is the dramatic change in the age structure of the population due to the fact that demographic development entered the recession phase which in its turn might be partly explained by the "demographic echo" of the Great Patriotic War.

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Geo-demographic typology of municipalities of the Kaliningrad region

Abstract

The article discusses the emergence and development of geo-demographic research in Russia, the US and Europe. It was concluded that despite the differences in purpose and nature of this kind of research, the geo-demographic classification remains the primary methodology in the analysis of geodemographic situation. The cluster analysis is applied to study territorial differentiation of geo-demographic development of the Kaliningrad region.

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Kaliningrad region: coastal position as a geographical factor of economic development

Abstract

The Kaliningrad region is a border and a coastal area in one. Such a combination of geographic features affects the development of this exclave region of Russia. The maritime status has a direct and indirect positive impact on the sectoral structure and the pace of economic growth. The role of the borderline situation is ambivalent: if the relations with neighboring countries and the EU as a whole are favorable, then cross-border links that promote competitiveness and socio-economic development of the border regions also develop. If, as of the beginning of 2018, there are problems in mutual relations, both sides suffer economic losses, and their competitors win. In general, the economy of the Kaliningrad region is developing faster than in most regions of the Russian Federation, and, it can be assume that one of the factors is its geographical situation. These factors must necessarily be taken into account when justifying the strategy of the region’s social and economic development.

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KANET: application in ultrasonography and challenges of protocoling

Abstract

KANET is an abbreviation that stands for Kurjak Antenatal Neurobehavioral Test, the test of antenatal neurologic development proposed by A. Kurjak. KANET is widely used for the differentiated assessment of the fetus during a normal and high-risk pregnancy. The test helps to identify antenatal deviations in the development of the central nervous system of the fetus. The authors describe their experience of doing the test and offer a new technique of the KANET automated protocoling.

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The comparative aspects of breeding bird fauna in Kaliningrad and other European cities

Abstract

The article offers and an analysis of breeding bird fauna of Kaliningrad incomparison to Polish and one Lithuania cities. A total of 168 species breed in the cities under consideration, 94 (57.7 %) of them are common for all cities. Jacquard's diversity index was used to assess the dependence of species compositionon the geographical location in 10 European cities. The Kaliningrad breeding bird fauna exhibits the greatest similarity with the avifauna of Poznan and the least similarity is with the avifauna of Moscow and Saint-Petersburg. Similarity of species composition reduces as the distance increases
(r = – 0,96; p < 0,001).

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Liver elastography techniques and the problems of Russian terminology

Abstract

In this review, we approach Russian terminology in elastography by discussing elastography technique classifications using terms that take into account the essence of physical patterns underlying various elastography techniques. Elastography techniques used in clinical practice are divided into four groups: strain elastography, transient elastography, point shear wave elastography, and 2D shear wave elastography. Based on physical principles, two types are identified: strain elastography and shear wave elastography. Since the techniques are founded on different physical principles, we recommend combining these techniques to improve to improve diagnostic accuracy. We propose a Russian glossary of term used in elastography. An ef­fective use of the glossary requires Russian terminology in elastogrgraphy to be included in the guidelines of the Russian Association of Experts of Ultra­sonic Diagnostics in Medicine, similar to those provided by the EFSUMB.

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Case study: treatment of a patient with Т- cell lymphoma (delta-gamma-variant)

Abstract

In this article, we present a clinical case of a patient with T-cell lympho­ma (delta-gamma variant) complicated by neuroleukemia. We performed a dif­ferential diagnosis from other lymphoproliferative diseases. Our diagnosis was based on trepanobiopsy and immunophenotyping data: delta-gamma-T/NK-cell lymphoma, hepatolienal form. The first NHL-BFM 90 protocol block was obtained. We performed a whole body PET/CT scan and a myelogram to con­firm the diagnosis. Since therapy was ineffective, we conducted two courses of second-line therapy (R-ICE) and received a partial response. Further, alloge­neic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was recommended. After two R-ICE courses, the patient received supportive polychemotherapy (Rituximab + + Gem­zar), without progression. Six months later, the patient's condition wors­ened. We performed spinal puncture and diagnosed neuroleukemia. It was recom­mended that the patient received a specific course of polychemother­apy. There­fore, patients diagnosed with hepatolienal T-cell lymphoma, in view of the highly aggressive disease course, are recommended to undergo allogene­ic trans­plantation of hematopoietic stem cells as early as possible.

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Localization of large business in coastal zones as a factor of transboundary clustering (on the example of the European part of Russia)

Abstract

The factors and features of localization of large business interests in 14 European coastal regions of Russia are analyzed. It is shown that the interest of large business in the coastal zones is commonly associated with the concentration of large oil and gas fields (on the shelf and in the coastal zone), with the logistics tasks (export-import operations), and (to a lesser extent, mainly Black Sea coast) with the implementation of certain recreational projects. Localization of large business (its head offices, branches, individual enterprises) is also conditioned by the general trend for economic activities, infrastructure and population to get advanced to the sea (some parts of the coast), which serves as one of the significant factors (and indicators) of economic activity, and cross-border clustering. Focusing on the most important seaports (Novorossiysk, Ust-Luga, St. Petersburg, Murmansk, etc.) cross-border activity of large business acquires trans-aquatorial properties and characteristics; clustering, thus, receives additional impulses, while the clusters demonstrate networking, dispersed forms in their development.

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An Attempt to the economic and geographical analysis of the differentiation of the Russian Federation subjects on of the level and dynamics of the retail trade development

Abstract

The level and dynamics of development of retail trade in the context of the subjects of the Russian Federation are highly differentiated. Differentiation is influenced both by the income level of the population and by other factors, since there is no functional dependence between per capita income and the volume of per capita retail trade. Even weaker is the connection between the dynamics of these indicators. The article reveals regional features of the level and dynamics of retail turnover in the context of subjects of the Russian Federation in 2000—2016 through the methods of economic statistical and cartographic analysis. The results of the study are presented in graphs and tables. They can be used to justify the regional policy of the Federation in promoting retail trade development. The authorities of the subjects of the Russian Federation can study the experience of more advanced regions, while network retailers can determine geographical vectors of their expansion.

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Long-term forecast of water surface temperature in the southeastern part of the Pacific Ocean

Abstract

The article examines the results of use of the physical-statistical method for the forecast of seasonal trend of the sea surface temperature (SST) with the lead time of 8 months and results of statistical method of SST superlong-term forecast, lead time — 1 year. In the first case mean-squared prediction error of SST according to independent data makes 0,5 оС, in the second case — 0,2 оС, that is much less than the reasonable mistake and meets practical requirements.

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Structural features of upwelling in South-East Baltic

Abstract

The article examines some features of the upwelling observed in the South-East Baltic in October 2005 which were investigated by
means of comparison of the field measurement data and numerical simulated data. The article explores the upwelling which took place after calm weather when thermohaline fields had parameters close to summer ones. Upwelling was produced by North-East wind with sped of about 15 m/s and duration of about 3 days. After the gale the alongshore belt of respectively cold water of width 8 km and placed apart the shore at 8 km had been formed in an area with depth of 25 m. The temperature in the upwelling core had dropped by 4 C. Changes in thermoholine structure due to the gale were simulated by 3D numerical model, based on the Princeton Ocean Model (POM). By means of numerical simulation it was conformed that features of upwelling space structure depend upon bottom topography in an area of observation, strength of wind velocity and its duration. The dependence of the
upwelling scenario on the Froude number was obtained.

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Maritime transport as a system-building element of the Baltic transnational transport region

Abstract

The object of research presented in the article is maritime transport as a system building type of the Baltic transborder transport region identified within the Baltic region. The author describes maritime transport as a key element of the transnational transport region ensuring the activation and development of new forms of international cooperation in the Baltic area.

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Measurement of liver volume using imaging techniques of various modalities

Abstract

Evaluation of liver volume is of great importance in the management of certain liver diseases and systemic disorders involving the liver. With the development of innovative technologies for the partial liver resection and transplantation lifetime assessment of liver volume is of great interest. The volume of the liver is a sensitive indicator for ectopic fat deposition and metabolic syndrome in obesity. Manual assessment of liver volume using percussion and palpation methods has disadvantages associated with the reliability and accuracy of the study, particularly in obese patients. Using formulas based on anthropometric measurements, it is possible to calculate the estimated size of a normal liver. Accurate non-invasive assessment of liver volume of the individual can be performed using imaging techniques. This article describes methods to measure the liver volume using imaging techniques of various modalities (CT, MRI, ultrasound). Ultrasonography is a simple, affordable and reliable tool for the structure and size of the liver estimates using formulas for calculating the volume of the liver.

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Determination of hyperglycemia in patients with acute coronary syndrome

Abstract

In patients with acute coronary syndrome, hyperglycemia is observed, which is represented by elevated fasting plasma glycemia and glycated hemoglobin levels. It was found that an increase in the level of glycated hemoglobin was accompanied by an increase in the level of triglycerides, total serum cholesterol. At the same time, glycated hemoglobin correlated especially with the parameters of fat metabolism — total serum cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins and triglycerides. At the same time, the level of glycated hemoglobin mainly stayed in the values of 7—8 %, which corresponded to the figures of systolic blood pressure of 140—160 mm Hg; and a body mass index of 30 kg / m2, total blood serum cholesterol 6.0—6.5 mmol / l and an ejection fraction of 30—40 %. The article concluded that developing hyperglycemia in patients with ACS is associated with both risk factors of ACS, and with the manifestation and prognosis of this pathology.

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The indicators of sustainable development of rural territories: regional dimension

Abstract

This article considers the methodological aspects of implementation of the rural area sustainable development concept in Russia. The authors show the advantages of indicative assessment of sustainable development at the regional level. The article presents a methodological approach to the development of sustainable development indicators for rural areas at the regional level.

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Metal accumulation in urban ecosystem plants

Abstract

The paper presents the results of a study of metal accumulation (Cu, Zn, Mn, Sr, Ni, Ca, Fe, Br, Rb) in the leaves of trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants (a total of 22 species) in the urban environment of Kaliningrad. The study area includes major geochemical landscapes – residential, industrial, and recreational districts. The background concentration of metals in plants is studied. The study establishes the presence of significant anthropogenic sources of metal pollution of vegetation in Kaliningrad. The leaves of plants found in the urban environment show excessive background concentrations of iron, manganese, zinc, and strontium. The maximum content of pollutants in plants is registered in industrial areas with high traffic load. Species-specific features of metal accumulation are established. Plants with a high metal accumulation capacity can be used in the phytoremediation of polluted urban areas.

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The human impact on the chemical composition of plants in large industrial centres: The case of the city of Gomel

Abstract

This article considers the features of heavy metal accumulation in individual plants of the true grasses and spurge families in two industrial areas in the city of Gomel and outside the city. The author analyses the heavy metal accumulation in the aquatic vegetation in the city’s waterways. It is shown that, in industrial areas, the Gramineae are charactersied by higher cadmium, barium, nickel, and molybdenum concentrations and the Euphorbiaceae by those of chromium. Aquatic plants show higher levels of heavy metal accumulation in comparison with meadow vegetation.

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On the discovery of rare and extinct plant species in the Kaliningrad region

Abstract

This article focuses on the history of some rare species in the Kaliningrad region. The authors provide information on new locations of the species’ occurrence in the Kaliningrad region. The article contains a schematic map of new discoveries of rare and extinct species in the Kaliningrad region. A geobotanical analysis of the mentioned biotopes is conducted. The authors present preliminary qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the cenopopulations of these species.

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The lichen flora of Zadovskoye raised bog in the Slavsk district of the Kaliningrad region

Abstract

This article provides a historical overview of studies into the lichen flora of raised bogs of the Kaliningrad region. A list of the lichens of the Zadovskoye raised bog (Slavsk district, Kaliningrad region) as well as a taxonomic analysis and data on the ecology of lichens are presented. A schematic map of the occurrence of lichens on Zadovskoe bog is given. The article contains a comparative table of the lichen flora of raised bogs in the Kaliningrad region.

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On the influence of lithogenic factors on the condition of motorways in the Smolensk region

Abstract

This article offers information on the condition of motorways in the Smolensk region. The condition of local roads is considered in relation to the particle size structure of covering rocks. The authors conducted an analysis of performance characteristics of road surfaces within different natural complexes and identified certain patterns in road damage depending on the local lithogenic conditions.

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On the formation and dynamics of eddy at the cost of Southeaster Baltic based on the data of remote sensing

Abstract

This article presents an analysis of coastal eddy in the area of Cape Taran of the Sambia Peninsula (South-Eastern part of the Baltic Sea) on the basis of MODIS and ASAR remote sensing data. It describes the location, spatial and temporal scale, dynamics and hydrometeorological conditions of eddy formation.

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Ontogenesis of Dracocephalum nutans L. and Dracocephalum grandiflorum L. in the Alma-Ata region

Abstract

The article is dedicated to the research on ontogenesis development of the Dracocephalum nutans L. and Dracocephalum grandiflorum L. species in the Alma-Ata region. The research results include the following: growth and development rhythm of the species corresponds to the natural climatic fluctuations of the new environment; i. e. vegetation period coincides with the period
of stable positive air temperatures in the Alma-Ata region. The vegetation period of Dracocephalum nutans L. lasts 160—170 days; Dracocephalum grandiflorum L. — 140—150 days.

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Fetal behavior and the prediction of neuropsychiatric development

Abstract

Over the past 30 years, ultrasound examination during pregnancy revealed a surprising variety of fetus movements. It has been proven that the fetal activity begins at the end of the embryo period, week 7—9 of gestation. The analysis of the movemental patterns of the fetus has led to the hypothesis that these patterns directly reflect the development and maturation of the central nervous system. The 2D-4D ultrasound makes it possible to identify measurable parameters for assessing the neurological and behavioural development ofthe fetus. Multicentre studies were performed to identify normal and abnormal movements of the fetus. Having analysed the obtained data, the authorspropose a set of criteria for assessing the fetus neurological behaviour, allowing clinicians to better predict neurological outcome of a high-risk pregnancy.

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Physical foundations of liver elastography

Abstract

The problem we address in this paper is how the meanings of terms de­noting various liver elastography methods are understood when translated in­to Russian. We provide an overview of various elastography methods and their physical principles in order to give a better understand specific terms. The goal of this paper is to propose a glossary of elastography terms for dis­cussion by the professional community while relying on the physical princi­ples of ultrasonic methods for determining the rigidity of the liver.

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The indicators of the quality of life in patients with a terminal stage of chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis

Abstract

In this article, we present an assessment of the quality of life in patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease, receiving replacement therapy by he­modialysis. We give definitions of hemodialysis, chronic kidney disease, the mental component of health, and the physical component of health. The aim of this work is to evaluate the quality of life indicators in patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease, undergoing hemodialysis. The objective of the study is to identify the relationship between the quality of life indicators on the one hand and the nutritional status and the duration of hemodialysis on the other. We present the current KDQOL-SF questionnaire tailored for assessing the quality of life indicators in patients with chronic kidney disease. The nutri­tional status of the patients was assessed using clinical data: the body mass index, the skin and fat folds over triceps, the shoulder muscle circumference, the albumin laboratory values,​​and the absolute number of lymphocytes in 20 patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease. All of them were receiving treatment in the dialysis department of the Kaliningrad Regional Hospital. In conclusion, we establish the relationship between the quality of life in patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease, receiving hemodialysis, and the dura­tion of treatment by hemodialysis.

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Quality of Life and Environmental Safety as Sustainable Development Targets of the Kaliningrad Region

Abstract

The article is dedicated to the main principles of the sustainable development concept and the life quality of the population of the Kaliningrad region. The authors outline four sets of objectives crucial for the socio-economic development of the region as well as their key functions.

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Quality of life and its social and environmental indicators

Abstract

This article presents social and environmental indicators of life quality affecting the health of population. The authors focus on the dynamics of such diseases as tuberculosis, HIV infection, and malignant neoplasms. The factors determining the unfavourable situation relating to life quality and disease rate in the Kaliningrad region are identified.

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Environmental condition as a factor affection the health of Saint Petersburg residents

Abstract

This article analyses the state of health of Saint Petersburg residents in the changing conditions of connatural and social environment. Saint-Petersburg is presented as a Russian metropolis and, simultaneously, an integral component of the Baltic region. The authors compare the health state trends in Saint Petersburg residents and the population of other Baltic countries. The environmental dependence of some diseases, including oncological ones, is emphasized. Three variants of population health forecasting are presented: inertiadepressive, stabilization, and stabilization-progressive ones. The article discusses the ways to increase the level of health of the city’s residents.

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Population Migration as an Evidence of Regional Economic Attraction (through the Example of the Pskov Region)

Abstract

The administrative territorial division of the Pskov region is considered in historical context. The author distinguishes the stages of formation of the Pskov region as an administrative territorial unit of the Russian Federation and analyses the population dynamics, natural population increase and migrations on the territory of the present-day Pskov region in the 19th-21st centuries. Special attention is drawn to migration control as a factor of the economic development of the region.

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Seasonal dynamics of actynomyces in Kaliningrad green zone soils

Abstract

The systematic and quantitative composition of Actinomyces (genus Streptomyces) in the soils of Kaliningrad was analysed according to the level of soil contamination. The authors proved the seasonal activity of Actinomyces in the soils of the city and identified the changes in the dependence between the number of Actinomyces and the temperature and pH of soil environment
throughout seasons. The article offers a preliminary systematic analysis of Actinomyces in the city soils.

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The antioxidant status of plants in the conditions of urban cadmium pollution

Abstract

This article analyses the level of antioxidants (water-soluble antioxidants, carotenoids, and anthocyanins) in plants under the conditions of environmental cadmium pollution. The authors emphasise excessive background concentration of cadmium in plant samples collected in Kaliningrad and note a positive correlation between cadmium concentration and traffic intensity. A negative
correlation between the Cd content and the antioxidatic status of plants and a positive one with the anthocyanin content were established in the course of research.

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Seasonal Larva Number Dynamics and Settlement of Juvenile Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha Pallas) in the Prybrezhny Quarry (the Kaliningrad region)

Abstract

The article analyses the seasonal dynamics of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha Pallas), larva length composition and juvenile recruitment in perennial natural colonies in the Prybrezhny Querry (the Kaliningrad region). In 2002, zebra mussel larvae were found in plankton from the second part of July till the end of August. The peaks of abundance were registered in the middle of July and in the beginning of August. The larvae accounted for 33% of the total zooplankton abundance. The size of larvae varied from 100 to 375 μm. The beginning of the juvenile settlement was observed in July. Colony mud accumulation is considered having a negative effect on successful settlement and survival of juveniles.

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Ontogenetic Dynamics of Hydrocortisone Quantitative Content of the Common Octopus Octopus vulgaris, Lamark (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae)

Abstract

The article describes the quantitative content dynamics of the hydrocortisone steroid hormone in different organs and tissues in the course of the common octopus ontogenesis. The author detects general patterns of its quantitative distribution in the octopus organism and formulates a hypothesis on the functional significance of hydrocortisone in the examined tissues of mollusks.
Hydrocortisone level is one of the most important organizers of general adaptation syndrome in the organisms of vertebrates under different forms of stress. It may be also used as an indicator of organism state of invertebrate hydrobionts in biotesting and bioindication of water biocenoses.

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Shore ground monitoring methodology

Abstract

The method of ground shores monitoring includes a set of activities on local sites with reference to a network of reference benchmarks. The greatest amount of information is given by the data of the transverse shore leveling. The combination of a number of different profiles allows one to obtain speed and direction quantitative characteristics of the coastal processes at a particular morphodynamic site over a specific time interval. It is important to have a reasonable choice of a marker, i. e. an element of the relief, the change in position of which makes it possible to obtain the magnitude of deformations of the shore as a whole or its individual forms. The choice of marker depends on the purpose of the study. The disadvantage of this method is the local nature of the works while its accuracy, objectivity and comparability create a certain advantage.

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On the benthic foraminifera species of Alabaminella weddellensis and Epistominella exigua in paleo-oceanologic reconstructions

Abstract

The article examines the ecology of benthic foraminifera species of Alabaminella weddellensis and Epistominella exigua based on published works. Micropaleontological and statistical data of three long sediment cores taken from the southwestern part of the South Atlantic and one core obtained in the northwestern Pacific were used to study the characteristic of the species distribution in the sediments during last 300 thousand years. These areas belong to the oligotrophic ecosystems of the open ocean, remote from the upwelling regions and located outside the seasonal ice cove zones. It is shown that unlike E. exigua, the maximal content of the species A. weddellensis corresponds to the intervals characterized by increased species diversity and, probably, more productive conditions.

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Regional-geographic approach to «tourist-recreational cluster»

Abstract

The notion of «tourist-recreational cluster» is viewed as a new object of territorial organization of tourism adapted to modern conditions.The elements and features of tourist cluster, its structure, stages of establishment and ways of development are identified. The article also provides examples of the Kaliningrad region.

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Sustainable development of coastal territories as a basis for integrated management of coastal zones

Abstract

This article provides a detailed definition of the concept of ‘territory capacity’ and its role in the integral management of coastal zones. The term ‘coastal territory’ and its management are considered from the perspective of the Russian and several foreign legislations. Special attention is paid to the concept of sustainable development and the need to apply its key provisions in strategic planning and the integral management of coastal zones.

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Recreational zoning of the territory of the Kaliningrad region

Abstract

This article provides a detailed definition of the concepts of ‘tourist area demarcation’ and ‘tourist zoning’. The earlier proposed components of competitiveness index help identify four major groups of factors of recreation zone differentiation. The recreation zoning of the Kaliningrad region was carried out in view of the geopolitical position, development of tourist infrastructure, and current and potential tourist specialisation of municipalities.

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Sustainable tourism as an alternative development path for coastal towns: The case of the Kaliningrad region

Abstract

The authors present a function-based typology of towns located on the coast of the Kaliningrad/Vistula Lagoon. It is shown that the recreational function of these towns is either poorly developed or absent, which complicates the sustainable development of coastal territories. Grade-based assessment makes it possible to identify factors both facilitating and hindering the recreational development of coastal towns. Towns with the highest recreational potential are identified.

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Dynamics and natural population change in Belarusian Lake District in the post-war period

Abstract

Researches is established, that the mode of reproduction of the population of region steadily has passed in a condition of a natural loss. In foreseeable prospect the birth rate be unable to break growing смертность. By high natural decline in population all village areas differ, thus distinction in rates of a loss more time reaches(achieve) 2 and.

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Territorial community local spaces

Abstract

The article explores the intersection of the concepts of spatial networking and territorial community. The author offers a typology of various forms of spatial networking and describes the main characteristic features of each type. It is substantiated that any form of spatial networking is based on territorial сommunity. The article describes a theoretical approach to studying the formation and transformation of a territorial community. There are different types of proximities within the territorial community: geographic, formative, dominant interaction and development proximities among others. Using clusters as an example the author proves that the formation of unique characteristics of various forms of spatial networking is defined by the essential features of the territorial community underlying them.

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Innovative security of the region: the problem of the formation of the innovation environment of the Kaliningrad region

Abstract

The article is devoted to the topical issue of providing innovation security of the Kaliningrad region, Russia’s exclave on the Baltic Sea. The author discusses the importance of creating a favourable innovation environment in the region for sustainable implementation of the innovative model of economic development. The author assesses the innovation environment in the Kaliningrad region and performs a retrospective analysis of its transformation. Special attention is paid to the institutional aspects of the problem. The author explores constraints and threats to the development of innovation and innovation security of the Kaliningrad region.

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The assessment of the groundwater resource sustainability in the European part of Russia

Abstract

This article presents a method to assess the resistance of groundwater resources to anthropogenic impact and the fresh groundwater withdrawal as well as the results of such assessment for different territories of the country ranging from a federal district or a region to an artesian basin. The assessment was carried out with the help of the system of indicators and indexes of groundwater resource sustainability under the influence of groundwater withdrawal developed by the author.

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CHPP related anthropogenic impact zones

Abstract

This article offers a concept of an integral CHPP related anthropogenic impact zone (AIZ), representing a complex of industrial units, organizations and communications, which support the life cycle of a CHPP. The author conducted an analysis of the basic features of an integral CHPP AIZ and its elements. This concept may have a certain theoretical significance in solving optimizing environmental problems at the level of individual territories and the country in whole.

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The biogeochemical activity of exotic gymnosperm species in industrial urbanised ecosystems

Abstract

This paper presents data on the biogeochemical activity of 9 exotic gym-nosperm species in a model urban ecosystem with a high level of anthropo-genic pollution (Russia’s Non-Black Earth zone). The author examines data on the biogeochemical activity of Thuja occidentalis, Juníperus sabína, and Picea pungens in the conditions of polymetallic contamination of air and soils in the area affected by iron and steel plants. It is shown that most Gym-nospermae species accumulate such macroelements as K, Ca, and Cl. Thuja occidentalis accumulates V, Cr, Fe, Ni, and As in the area affected by iron and steel plants and is sensitive to emissions. The Ni concentration in the or-gans of Thuja is reduced in the conditions of polymetallic pollution. Picea pungens can accumulate iron in the area affected by iron and steel plants; its shoots can also accumulate Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn when affected by transport emis-sions. Juníperus sabína, Thuja occidentalis, and Taxus baccata accumu-late significant amounts of V, Cr, Fe, Ni and As in vegetative organs.

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The features of heavy metal accumulation in forest mushrooms in the Kaliningrad region

Abstract

This articles examines the ability of wild mushrooms to accumulate heavy metals. The concentration of Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb in the fruit-ing bodies of forest mushrooms was determined using AAS techniques. It is established that certain mushroom species accumulate cadmium and silver, whereas the most pronounced ability is found in Boletus edulis. The correla-tion between the concentration of metals in the upper soil layer and fruiting bodies is questionable, however, areas in the vicinity of emission sources are characterized by a tendency of heavy metal accumulation

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The boundaries of the territorial community

Abstract

The study clarifies the concept of spatial networking inherent of various forms of interactions within the territorial socio-economic system of a region. The author offers a classification of spatial networks, identifies and describes types of spatial boundaries of different types of territorial communities: geographic, organizational, cognitive, cultural, institutional, social and technological. The complex of factors and conditions that influence the dynamics of the boundaries of spatial networking are defined.

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The development of science as a factor in the Kaliningrad region innovative security

Abstract

The paper examines the role of research institutions in the system of innovation security of the region and highlights vital interests and security threats to the regional innovation system in the field of research. The author describes important factors having a positive and a negative impact on the competitiveness of the research component of the innovation system of the region. The evaluation of the development of science in the Kaliningrad region in the Soviet (1958—1985) and contemporary (2000—2014) periods of history is undertaken. It is concluded that the regional innovation system of the Kaliningrad region, having undergone a major structural adjustment in the 1990s, is currently in its formative stage, and the research sector makes a significant contribution to its formation. Both the strengths of the research component of the innovation system of the Kaliningrad region — its competitive advantages, and the weaknesses — threats to its innovative security, are defined.

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The characteristics of the energy spectrum of mixture ratio and air temperature in the troposphere of the Antarctic

Abstract

This article analyses the characteristics of the energy spectrum of mixture ratio and air temperature in the troposphere of the Antarctic obtained by Fourier analysis. Selected peaks of spectral density of mixing ratio and air temperature monthly averages are interpreted as annual and semi-annual fluctuations. The spectral density of random function is considered as the energy spectrum of functions. It is shown that activity zones are present in the troposphere of the Antarctic.

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Climate change in the mountainous regions of the Republic of Tyva: The case of the Bay-Tayginsk district

Abstract

The most considerable increase in the temperature of soil surface was observed in the cold period (1,5 °С, a 53,9% rise in temperature), the smallest in August (0,3 °С, 2,1 %), whereas, in May-June, the increase was negative (–1,3 °С, 27,1 %). Major increases in air temperature take place in April-July, September, and October (68,8 %), summer and winter accounted for 35,0 % and 29,9 % respectively. Soil surface and air temperature increased by 1,7ºС. In the warm period, air temperature is lower than soil surface temperature; in the cold period, on the contrary, it is higher. The air temperature increase is 33% lower than that of soil surface.

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The lichens of the “Mikhailovskoye” A. S. Pushkin historical-literary and natural-landscape memorial museum (the Pskov region)

Abstract

This article focuses on the lichens of the “Mikhailovskoye” A. S. Pushkin historical-literary and natural-landscape memorial museum (the Pskov region). The authors compiled a list of 154 lichen species of 63 genera and carried out a taxonomic analysis as well as an analysis of lichen life forms. The article also considers the distribution of lichens by substrates. 3 species are protected at the national level, 14 are rare in the Baltic region, and 30 of the listed species are new for the memorial estate.

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The coastal factor in spatial development programmes for the municipalities of the Kaliningrad region

Abstract

The geographical location of the Kaliningrad region calls for the coastal factor to play a greater role in the development of the region. Created in the Soviet period, the backbone of local maritime activities is highly polarized along the coastline of the region. Similarly polarized along the coastline is the settlement system, which incorporates both the growing cities of the Kalinin­grad agglomeration and areas of low population density, the latter located primarily along the bays. These circumstances determine what effect the coastal factor has on the socio-economic development of a certain municipality in the Kaliningrad region. We believe that the municipalities that use this fac­tor to a limited degree do not fully realise the potential of their geographical location. Alongside employing other development resources, it is logical for the municipalities to run projects taking advantage of the coastal factor. In this work, we set out to examine how the coastal municipalities of the region plan to benefit from the coastal factor in terms of socio-economic devel­opment. From our analysis of strategic documents and programmes of region­al municipalities, we conclude that the most diversified approach to the coastal factor is employed in the Kaliningrad and Svetly city districts. In the other coastal municipalities, projects have a narrow thematic focus, most of them dedicated to developing waterborne transport as an element of the tourism and recreation industry.

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On trends in the development of cross-border cooperation in the Kaliningrad region of the Russian Federation

Abstract

In this article, I examine trends in the development of cross-border coop­eration between the Kaliningrad Region of the Russian Federation and the Republics of Lithuania and Poland within a range of cross-border cooperation programmes. I analyse all the projects approved within three cross-border co­operation projects over the past ten years. I focus on the projects that were successfully completed by the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University — a key actor in cooperation. I examine collaborations between municipalities on either side of the border when preparing and running projects under cross-border cooperation programmes. I classify the municipalities of the Kalinin­grad region by their involvement in the projects and try to explain why a cer­tain municipality is closely or under- involved in the collaborations. I conclu­de that the rate of development of cross-border cooperation is likely to remain at the current level unless the municipalities are provided with recommenda­tions on enhancing cross-border cooperation.

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The conflicts of woodland management and the methods of these conflicts resolution in the Kaliningrad Region

Abstract

The article examines the conflict situations, caused by the anthropogenic transformation of forest landscapes in some areas of the Kaliningrad region. The ways of timber exploitation optimization, including the possibilities of the development of forest bee-keeping are examined.

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The corrosion of mild steel protected with modified paint coatings under the influence of Phialophora fastigiata

Abstract

The microbiological activity is a principal factor of metallic and nonmetallic material damage. Mould fungi, as metal destroying microorganisms, are of particular interest in this connection. The Phialophora fastigiata mould fungi are studied as mild steel corrosion promoters. The authors show the biocidal and inhibitory role of a number of organic substances in steel corrosion under the influence of deuteromycetes Phialophora fastigiata. The protective effect observed in the best organic compounds reaches 70-90 %.

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The current state and problems of fishing industry development in the coastal regions of the Russian Fede­ra­tion

Abstract

The study discusses the key current problems and parameters of the mo­dern fishing industry in Russia. Given the EU and US restrictive measures towards Russia and reciprocal food import restrictions by our country, the condition of the domestic fishing industry is of particular interest. The article analyzes the quantitative parameters of the industry, identifies key leading companies, shows the dynamics of the number of enterprises in the coastal regions from 2007 to 2017, and reveals the geographical features of locating fid­hing enterprises. The authors analyse the companies’ financial indicators, as well as the change in the average annual number of employees. The study reveals that the key areas of activity for fishing companies are the regions of the Far East (Kamchatka, Primorsky Krai and the Sakhalin region) and the Murmansk, Kaliningrad regions and St. Petersburg. The main share of the catch is in the Far Eastern Federal District (more than 70 % of all fish and biological resources).

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The influence of the transport factor on the investment competitiveness of coastal regions in the European part of Russia.

Abstract

Given the combination of the basic territorial growth factors, the coastal regions of the European part of Russia, where large urbanized spaces have already been developed or are being developed, are of the greatest potential compared to other regions of the country. It makes perfect sense to set up large economic centers capable of harnessing the benefits of agglomeration and seaside factors in such regions. A tool to improve the level of economic deve­lop­ment and investment attractiveness of these regions is the imp­le­mentation of large trasnsport infrastructure projects. The article analyzes how the implementation of projects under the Federal Target Program “Deve­lop­ment of the Transport System of Russia (2010—2021)” contributed to an increase in the economic efficiency of the transport industry in the region and, as a consequence, to an increase in the level of investment attractiveness. Using the classical economic and geographical research methods, the authors come to the conclusion that result-wise the regions under study are heterogeneous.

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The development of ideas about the formation of Arctic sea fauna and its biogeographical connections

Abstract

The author arrives at a conclusion on the vast biogeographical connections of the Arctic, Atlantic and Pacific faunas in the Phanerozoic faunas on the basis of the comparative analysis of modern and ancient communities of invertebrates and the changes in their habitats.

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The development of mutual external commerce of the Baltic Sea region countries as a sign of integration processes in the Baltic Sea Region

Abstract

The article continues the analysis of the social and economical development of the Baltic Sea region, conducted by Baltic Center for
Advanced Studies and Education (BaltCASE) in frames of the research project «Russia and EU: Past, Present, Future».

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The eco-geochemical assessment of the zone of dumped waste from the Tuvacobalt industrial complex in the Republic of Tuva

Abstract

The dumped waste from the industrial complex still threatens the biosphere. The solution to the problem lies in integrated research and the resumption of plant operation accompanied by complete waste utilization and extraction of all commercial components.

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The ethological ideas of Konrad Lorentz and research on mammal ecology by means of footprint tracking

Abstract

The specific features of mammals' behaviour in response to external information is determined by innate mechanisms and experience acquired through ontogenesis. The author genetically defines the unstable boundaries of behavioural responses and offers a methodology of research on quantitative animal-habitat interaction. The article emphasises the variability of behavioural
parameters in the course of the adaptation of the carnivorous to anthropogenic conditions.

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The Evolution, or Seasonal and Interannual Variability, of the Diurnal Variation of Hydrometeorological Fields in the Southern Baltic Sea

Abstract

We present the results of an analysis of field observations of the air temperature Ta, the dew point Td (relative humidity f), the sea-level atmospheric pressure P0, and the wind speed W. The data were obtained by a Mini- KRAMS-4 hydrometeorological facility installed within Russia’s exclusive economic zone in the southeastern Baltic Sea on the LUKOIL-KMN (D6) offshore ice-resistant fixed platform and at MARNET monitoring stations of the German Oceanographic Datacentre (BSH / DOD (M41)) in 2002—2016. Alongside meteorological elements, we studied the temperature Tw and the salinity S of the upper sea layer. Using our own time series model, we estimated the contributions of each mode to the total temporal variability. In the article, we examine the intrannual and interannual variability of the specific contribution of the daily component of hydrometeorological elements. We show that the time series structure (including the daily component) for the hydrometeorological elements in the southern Baltic Sea depends both on the location of the station and on the nature of each meteorological element.

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Suspended Particulate Matter Distribution Along the Northern Coast of the Kaliningrad Peninsula

Abstract

The study of suspended particulate matter in the southeastern Baltic Sea is motivated both by human-induced impact and by the natural features of the Baltic Sea, namely, the high levels of eutrophication and complicated sedimentation conditions. The study area is human-occupied, which contributes to the significance of the findings for sustainable nature, and coastal zone, management. The main aim of this research is to study the spatial distribution variability of suspended particulate matter north of the Kaliningrad Peninsula — in the southeastern Baltic Sea — to gain a better understanding of sedimentation conditions in a semi-enclosed stratified water basin. The data on suspended particulate matter concentration were obtained by filtering seawater through nuclear filters with a 0.45 μm pore diameter, at a pressure of 0.4 mbar. The water samples were taken on a regular grid of stations at standard horizons. The fifteen years (2003‒2017) of regular measurements confirmed a multiple increase in the concentration of suspended matter in the coastal zone and revealed potential zones of sediment supply within the coastal zone.

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The feature of soil mantle in Kaliningrad

Abstract

This article focuses on the main trends of changing in the morphological properties of urban soils. It was established that urbiquasisoils of a predominant sandy-loam grain-size composition and neutral medium reaction prevail in the Kaliningrad soil mantle. Soddy-podzol, soddy-gley, and brown forest (cambisols) soils are found in some parks and suburban territories.

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The features of the chemical composition of integumentary loams in the Vaytka-Kama loess province

Abstract

This article presents the chemical analysis of integumentary loams in the eluvial landscapes of the Vyatka-Kama Cis-Ural region. The authors focus on the features of microcell migration and the composition of petrogenic oxides. The inheritance of the microcell dispersion features of integumentary loam from the bedding rock was established on the basis of statistics.

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The influence of environmental factors on the main parameters of woodcock (Scolopax rusticola L.) roding in the Kaliningrad region

Abstract

This article analyses the 2009—2010 data on woodcock roding. The authors assess the impact of meteorological conditions, light level, food availability, and other factors on the duration and intensity of woodcock roding in the Kaliningrad region. A direct correlation was established between the duration of daylight hours and the basic parameters of woodcock roding. Other
environmental factors may also affect woodcock roding.

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The genetic patterns of severe therapeutically resistant asthma as shown by a transcriptomic study: An analysis of gene ontology and KEGG pathways

Abstract

The leading mechanisms and causes of severe therapy resistant asthma are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to define global patterns of gene expression in adults with severe therapy-resistant asthma. Performed 24-week prospective interventional study in parallel groups. Severe asthma patients was aposterior divided at therapy sensitive and resistant patients according to ATS criteria. Global transcriptome profile was characterized using the Affymetrix HuGene ST1.0 chip.

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Age-related changes in the structural and functional properties of skin

Abstract

This article focuses on the current state of research on the properties of skin chronoaging. The authors analyse the possibility of practical application of the existing diagnostic methods of assessing age-related skin transformations for establishing the age of living persons in the framework of forensic identification tests. Major trends in the development of the methodology of age estimation from skin and its appendages are described.

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The history and modern condition of the urban fieldfare (Turdus pilaris L.) population in Kaliningrad

Abstract

This article examines the history of formation of fieldfare population in Kaliningrad and describes its current condition. The fieldfare population density during the 2010—2013 nesting period was 0—1.5 breeding pairs/10 hecares in urban forests, 1.1—3.7 b. p./10 ha in city parks, and; 0—1 b. p./10 ha in city streets. The dynamics of nesting density in peripheral abandoned parks is characterized by a clear negative trend, whereas, in cultivated city parks, nesting density has significantly increased since the beginning of the 21st century. Despite the significant expansion of city habitat and population growth in the first decade of the 21st century, the fieldfare population in Kaliningrad remains small and slightly exceeds 170 pairs across the city territory. Some factors affecting the formation of urban populations are discussed.

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An environmental analysis of the red-backed shrike’s and barred warbler’s nutrition in the conditions of sympatric habitation in natural and anthropogenic stations

Abstract

We studied the features of altricial trophism in the barred warbler and red-backed shrike in 2004—2013. The collection of data on the nutrition of altricial chicks was carried out in the Ryazan region both in natural (Spas-Klepiki district) and in manmade (Ryazan outskirts) habitats. A comparative analysis of the data showed that both species are characterized by considerable dietary plasticity. In each station, the species composition of prey and the mass concentration of trophic groups differed substantially. The taxonomic composition of the birds’ diet is largely determined by the structure of the insect fauna of foraging microstations, thus, the identified plasticity of both species’ nutrition makes it possible for the birds to adjust to the local conditions, which, in its turn, optimises foraging and contributes to a decrease in competitive pressure in each community. The main dietary differences between these species lie in the foraging tactics: ambushing in the red-backed shrike and searching in the shrub layer and tall grass in the barred warbler. The preference of barred warbler and red-backed shrike for large food items is a significant limiting factor for their synanthropization, since, in human settlements and their outskirts, such invertebrates are more vulanerable to human activities.

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The impact of spruce plantations on burozem in the Kaliningrad region

Abstract

Monodominant 30-50 year old fir plantations develop a specific forest floor and are characterised by general humus accumulation, the qualitative composition of which is, however, subject to degradation, which is revealed in increasing migration ability and the impoverishment in nitrogen. Semi-hydromorphic gleysols show the initial signs of podzolization.

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The new locations of rare vascular plant species in the conservation areas of the “Vepsian forest” nature park and their immediate vicinity (the Tikhvin district of the Leningrad region)

Abstract

This article offer information about the locations of rare vascular plant species in the eastern part of the Leningrad region (the Tikhvin district) on the territory of the "Aschozersky", Urya-Kanzhaya", and "Carboniferous Outliers" conservation areas of the "Vepsian Forest" nature park and their immediate vicinity. Isoëtes echinospora and Lobelia dortmanna appear in the Red List of the Russian Federation. These species, as well as Viola selkirkii are included in the Red List of the Leningrad Region. Poa remota, Hammarbya paludosa, Caltha radicans, Polemonium caeruleum are new to the Tikhvin District.

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The impact of water dynamics on biomass and the distribution of biological resources of the pelagic zone of the southern parts of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

Abstract

This article examines seasonal and interannual changes in the parameters of mesoscale water dynamics in the upper 200 m layer of the ocean due to the biomass and biological resources distribution, as well as the specific dynamics of the atmospheric processes. The authors identify the scope and mechanisms of the impact of oceanological conditions on the biomass and distribution of commercial horse mackerel concentrations in the southern part of the Pacific Ocean and the Antarctic krill in the Antarctic part of the Atlantic. The possibilities of using the results obtained for the rational commercial use of biological resources in the studied areas of the global ocean are described.

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The dynamics of air temperature extrema as an indicator of climate warming in the Central Tuvan basin of the Tyva Republic

Abstract

Climate warming results in an increase of air temperatures extrema. The dynamics of anomalies in air temperature absolute maxima are described through unusual biquadrate polynomials. The minimum peak was observed in 1989—1992, afterwards a steep increase followed. The authors examine the possibility of an increase in the frequency of air temperature anomalies in the form of heat waves. The patterns of dynamics of anomalies in the absolute air temperature minima is accurately formalized through linear equations. The authors identify inconsistencies in the patterns of dynamics of anomalies in the absolute air temperature minima and maxima presented by different weather stations: the rate of increase in absolute minima is more than three times that of maxima.

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The introduction of the open source GIS tools into the procedure of environmental planning

Abstract

The practical solution for the most acute problems of biodiversity preservation in the region requires the restoration of the conservation area network. This article gives an assessment of the previous and perspective conservation area networks on the basis of landscape design experience and biological indicators.

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The «Lithuania-Poland-Russia» neighbourhood programme in the framework of the formation of the cross-border tourism region in the South-eastern Baltic and the promotion of the sustainable development of the territory

Abstract

The «Lithuania-Poland-the Kaliningrad region of the Russian Federation» (2004—2006) neighbourhood programme implemented in 2004—2009 and the « Lithuania — Poland — Russia: 2007—2013» programme being drawn up in 2010 identify tourism development as one of priorities, which does not only contribute to the increase in competitive advantages of the participating territories but also facilitates the formation and sustainable development of the cross-border region of the South-eastern Baltic.

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The lithodynamic and geomorphological features of a terraced underwater slope of the Sambian peninsula (South-East Baltic)

Abstract

The submerged (ancient) wave-cut cliffs have been mapped as a result of seabed exploration using the side-scan sonar, echo-sounding and grain-size analysis methods in the area of Cape Taran; they have been classified according to the morphological features; a detailed electronic lithological map has been drawn. The authors analyse the correlation between bottom currents and meteorological conditions. The sediment trend analysis based on statistical parameters of grain size distribution helped identify the sediment trend from the 10 m isobath northward towards the open sea and that along the shore at a 20 m depth eastward.

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A study into the passive tracer and Lagrangian particles propagation in the coastal area of South-East Baltic

Abstract

This paper studies the passive tracer and Lagrange particle propagation in the coastal area of South-East Baltic using hydrodynamic numerical modelling. The inclusion of an additional parameter, which describes the variation of the passive tracer concentration as well as its connection with the Lagrange particle random walk model, into the model made it possible to identify the features of the coastal water dynamics during upwelling. The possibilities of the penetration of suspended particles of different origin from the coastal area into the open sea and vice versa are investigated.

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The modern concept of coast protection and hydraulic engineering on the sea coasts of the Kaliningrad region

Abstract

This article analyses the current state of the Baltic Sea coast protection system in the Kaliningrad region. It is stressed that the critical condition of hydraulic structures hampers effective protection of the seacoast. The modern concept of sea protection suggests that coast protection structures must con-trol the movement of deposits in the coastal zone to preserve and restore the beach strip as a basic element of coast protection.

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Profitability and return on investment in urban areas

Abstract

This article examines the correlation between investment and a high cost of land in the region. The author presents an approach to calculating returns on investment based on a corresponding model. Special attention is paid to analysing the nature of investment in certain parcels of land. The article esti-mates the role of investment tools in solving the problem of sporadic develop-ment of urban spaces. The proposed model makes it possible to conduct a pre-dictive spatial analysis of investment activity to identify the priorities of urban development at the level of individual parcels of land.

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The modern natural-anthropogenic prerequisites for the transformation of eolian coastal-marine natural complexes

Abstract

This article offers the results of an analysis of natural and anthropogenic impacts on eolian coastal marine natural complexes of the Curonian and Vistula spits. The authors identify the contribution of natural and anthropogenic factors to the transformation of the spits’ natural complexes.

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The morphological features of the renal corpuscles in laboratory mice during a soluble silicon compound experiment

Abstract

An excess of silicon compounds in the body leads to systemic deficiencies. Regardless of the way by which silicon compounds (silicon dioxide, asbestos, silicon, and silicon nanoparticles) enter the body, they always have a marked effect. It is established that these compounds play a part in the pathogenesis of renal diseases. The article provides a morphological description of the renal corpuscles of laboratory mice (n=10) during three months’ ad libitum administration of silicon in a concentration of 10 mg/l. Silicon compounds cause morphological changes in renal corpuscles – a reduction in the size of glomeruli and an increase in capsular space.

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Acute renal failure and acute kidney injury: The historical aspects of the syndromes

Abstract

This paper addresses the historical development of the renal failure concept from antiquity to the present. The authors define the term ‘acute renal failure’ and ‘acute kidney injury’. The article presents a classification of these diseases. It is shown that the development of renal failure is associated with a significant increase in age-independent mortality. The main biomarker of a kidney injury, which may be elevated in patients with ischemic heart disease, is creatinine.

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The Relationship between Heart Rhythm Variability and the Heart Rate in Adolescents and Young Adults

Abstract

In this article, we study the degree of dependence of heart rate variability in healthy adolescents and young adults on the average rhythm frequency. In the study group, heart rate variability decreased as heart rate grew. Although there was no difference in the increase in the heart rate, the variability of the heart rate decreased less significantly in young women than in young men. An increase in the average heart rate by 10 cardiac cycles per minute reduced the heart rate variability by 25.6 ms in young men and by 14.9 ms in young women. We believe this to be a result of differences in the hormonal backgrounds within the study groups.

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Accidental Detection of Cardiac Lipomas

Abstract

In this work, we present a clinical case. A woman (57 y. o.) was referred to echocardiography because of arrhythmia and a cardiac lipoma was accidentally detected. This case is of interest due to the rarity of this cardiovascular disease. The patient was not treated surgically because of high risks associated with such a treatment. This case emphasizes the importance of meeting the standards of specialized medical care when atrial fibrillation and flutter are concerned.

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The role of endogenous factor in increase of ocean level for the last 140 years

Abstract

The article examines the structure and dynamics of the World Ocean level during the past 140 years. The role of endogenous factor
in constant increase of water supply and subsequent rise of the sea level is defined as dominating. Two principle cycles in the sea level fluctuations were distinguished: a high-amplitude short-term cycle (2—3 years) and a low-amplitude long-term one (40—50 years). The concurrency of two events is traced: short-term cycles and major earthquakes in oceanic regions. It was shown that it is possible to estimate the area and amplitude of the seafloor submergence in the epicenter in relation to changes in water volume. Short-term cycles of sea level fluctuations usually coincide with changes in surface layer temperatures in middle latitudes, which could be regarded as a precursor of anomalous climatic conditions in the Northern hemisphere.

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The subspecies affiliation of some birds nesting n the Kaliningrad region. Part 2.2: Рasseriformes

Abstract

This article presents data on the taxonomy of birds in the Kaliningrad re¬gion as compared to the taxonomic reviews of birds of Belarus, the Baltic States, Poland, and other European territories. This is the final part a study into the subspecies affiliation of some nesting species of the order Passeriformes. Studying ample data collections and analysing publications made it possible to present a review of the subspecies affiliation of ten nesting bird species.

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The system of conservation areas as the basis for biodiversity preservation in the south-eastern Baltic

Abstract

The practical solution for the most acute problems of biodiversity preservation in the region requires the restoration of the conservation area network. This article gives an assessment of the previous and perspective conservation area networks on the basis of landscape design experience and biological indicators.

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The transformation of roadside geosystems of the Smolensk region under the impact of motor transport complex

Abstract

This article shows that the annual increase in traffic in the Smolensk region affects the environmental features of roadside land pollution by oil products, heavy metals, waste, calcium chloride, and magnesium. The author emphasizes an increase in traffic accidents and road-traffic fatality on the Moscow — Minsk international route. The environmental — geographical situation on regional roads is proved to be more favorable.

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The geoecological conditions of apiculture product manufacturing in the Kaliningrad region

Abstract

This article focuses on the problem of agrarian land use transformation in the Kaliningrad region in 1960-2011. The author offers and assessment of the geoecological conditions of administrative units, as well as an index of favourable apiculture development conditions.

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The types of atmospheric water circulation over the Atlantic and the formation of the extreme North Sea water inflows into the Baltic Sea

Abstract

This article emphasises that one of the conditions for the formation of extreme inflow events from the North into the Baltic Sea is the long-time impact of same-type atmospheric processes on the water surface. There is a need to consider the intensity and the duration of one-direction atmospheric processes. The authors focus on the features and types of large-scale atmospheric circulation over
the North-East Atlantic, which determined the regional atmospheric processes over the Baltic Sea during the formation of a large inflow. The article analyses the inflows of December 22, 1975 — January 14, 1976, and the inflow of January 16—222003, as well as baric topography (500hPa) and daily synoptic maps.

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The ulrasonographic semiotics of diffuse liver disease: Verification using the point shear-wave elastography

Abstract

This article estimates the severity of ultrasonographic changes in the liver at different stages of fibrosis. Sixty-three patients underwent B-mode ultrasound scanning of the spleen and the liver and ARFI-elastography of the liver. Elastography measured the shear wave speed from the 9th, 8th, and 7th intercostal spaces in the anterior axillary line at a depth of 6.0 cm from the skin surface. It was established that patients with fibrosis stages F1 and F2 exhibited from one to four and those with fibrosis F3 and F4 from three to eleven ultrasonographic symptoms. In most cases, as fibrosis progressed, the number of ultrasonographic symptoms increased. Twelve patients with elastographyconfirmed fibrosis stage F2-F4 did not exhibit any apparent ultrasonographic symptoms. Within this group, 42 % of the patients with fibrosis stage F3 and F4 – or 8 % of all the patients – did not exhibit any ultrasonographic symptoms. One or two ultrasonographic symptoms appeared in 12 % of the patients with fibrosis stage F3-F4. It is concluded that even a single ultrasonographic symptom should be interpreted by the ultrasound specialist as a possible sign of fibrosis or cirrhosis.

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Estimating the accuracy of standard volume calculations using liver volumetry

Abstract

This article estimates the accuracy of various formulas used to calculate the standard volume of the liver. The authors identify formulas most adequate for a comparison with volumetry results obtained using JT Childs’s easy-touse formula. The study employed the anthropometric data (age, sex, and weight) and the calculations of body height, body surface area (BSA), and liver sizes of 36 healthy volunteers. The volume of the liver was determined using different formulas that take into account either the body surface area or the product of the three dimensions of the liver (the oblique vertical size of the right lobe, the thickness of the right lobe, and the thickness of the left lobe). JT Childs’s formula was chosen as producing the most accurate results and as the most adequate for the use by a practicing ultrasound specialist. The deviation percentage of results obtained using the other formulas was calculated in relation to Childs’s formula. It is concluded that the most accurate formula for calculating the standard volume of the liver is that proposed by A Chouker. The formula can be used for reference purposes when conducting ultrasound volumetry of the liver according to JT Childs.

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The ultrasound volumetry: selecting optimal formula based on linear liver dimensions (ex vivo study)

Abstract

The authors aim to identify the most optimal formula for calculating the volume of liver based on its linear size ex vivo. The authors measured liver volume in thirty-three corpses by placing the liver in water and calculating the displaced volume of the liquid. Liver was measured in each case. The data were then compared with the ones obtained by using five different formulas comprising linear liver measurements.

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Three development strategies of the Kaliningrad region (1991—2018)

Abstract

After the demise of the USSR the Kaliningrad region became a Russian exclave, geographically separated from the rest of Russia by foreign states. The development of the region became dependent on external factors, including Russia’s political relations with foreign countries, NATO and EU. Geopoliti­cal changes required adjustments in the region’s socio-economic development strategy. In the period of 1991 to 2018 three comprehensive strategies suc­ceeded one another: Special economic zone (SEZ) strategy, Cooperation region strategy, International development corridor strategy. The article describes specific characteristics of each strategy. It is based on the analysis of academic publications, data from the Russian Federal State Statistics Service and the Federal Customs Service of Russia. Common economic and statistical methods are used to process the data. The article identifies the factors contributing to the strategies development and provides qualitative and quantitative assess­ment of their implementation. The article also demonstrates the potential of the Kaliningrad region in the Greater Eurasia project and the importance of the project for the development of the region as the International development corridor.

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Information metabolism and innovation dynamics in the Rostov agglomeration: the role of the coastal factor and economic clustering

Abstract

The article focuses on the issues of innovative development of coastal ag­glomerations, as advancement drivers for the regions of Southern Russia, which experience a reduction in contact potential in modern geo-economic conditions that complicates international economic and technological coopera­tion. The aim of the study is to identify the specifics of the information metab­olism processes as the basis of innovative development taking place in the Ros­tov agglomeration being the largest coastal agglomeration in the South of Russia. Given the proposed concept model of information metabolism, the study recreates the general picture of the cyclic spatio-temporal dynamics of innovations in coastal agglomerations, and reveals the role of economic clus­ters, as well as the nature of coastal component’s influence in achieving inno­vative development and metabolism processes of explicit and tacit knowledge. Theoretical positions and hypotheses are tested through analyzing official re­gional statistics, as well as the data of the expert survey. The study revealed the intra-system mechanisms to compensate for the reduction of codified knowledge flows in the Rostov agglomeration via the active clustering of in­novation sector, accompanied by the dynamics of tacit knowledge and the shrinking of its spatial imbalances. Moreover, the research uncovered the neg­ative side effects of geo-economic trends that threaten the reproduction of in­novations in the agglomeration space.

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Opportunities for eco-tourism development in the Kaliningrad Region (focusing on the pilot Russian part of the territory adjacent to the Vistula (Kaliningrad) and the Curonian Lagoons)

Abstract

This article provides information about the potential of the Kaliningrad region in eco-tourism, obstacles and prospects for the development of natureoriented types of tourism. It presents the areas with the highest potential for eco-tourism and a list and a map of the most important sites on the South-East coast of the Baltic Sea (Russian part). The research emphasizes "Curonean Spit" National Park as a "pilot" area for sustainable tourism development in the Kaliningrad region.

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Typological differences between the coastal regions of Russia's Western borderlands

Abstract

The “gravitational force” of the sea is an important factor in regional de­velopment, and though it has not been sufficiently studied, it has received in­creasing attention in the last two decades. The article focuses on the economic features of 11 federal subjects of the Russian Federation located along its mar­itime borders in the west of the Arctic, Baltic and Azov-Black Sea basins. The regions under study vary from each other, but each of them plays a vital role in the country's economy. The author aims to identify their typological differ­ences in order to improve federal and regional policy towards to the coastal re­gions of the Western Borderlands. To attain the goal, first, the types of regions under study were identified (according to the selected typological features re­flecting the main natural and socio-economic characteristics of the regions) then GRP level, structure and growth rates were considered. The analysis re­sulted in the overall assessment of the socio-economic situation in regions of different types. Considering the typological features of the regions, the pro­spects for their future development based on the strengthening of the coastal factor are outlined.

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The geographical image of Kaliningrad and its branding policy (the case of a sociological survey of the city residents)

Abstract

The article focuses on the results of a sociological survey of the city resi­dents the main purpose of which is to identify the features of the geographical image of their city. The authors attempt at answering the question whether the comprehensive image of urban geospace coincides with the urban devel­opment tasks stated by the urban planners, city government and architects. The methodology designed by the authors determines the interview as a pri­mary tool for collecting research material. The online platform attracted the citizens’ attention to the issues of urban development and drew the most open answers to a number of key challenges in the development of Kaliningrad. The obtained results indicate that the popular image of the city is not fully con­sistent with its development strategy. The findings brought a number of rec­ommendations to promote the image strategy of Kaliningrad.

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Vegetation succession in Svinoye Bog (south of the Curonian spit, Russia)

Abstract

In this article, we present an analysis of the taxonomic diversity of plant macro-remnants retrieved from the peat deposits of Svinoye Bog in the south­ern part of the Curonian Spit, Russia. The initial mire formation stage is probably associated with the alder carrs and stretches of Phragmites, which were successively replaced by fen, transition mire, and raised bog communi­ties. Based on a diagram of the botanical composition of peat, we identified eight stages of the formation of the Svinoye Bog ecosystem.

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The current state of the climate system of the Kaliningrad region and global warming

Abstract

In this article, I examine climate change facts relating to study objects of different scales, particularly, the Arctic, which serves as an indicator of global processes taking place across the planet. I track long-term fluctuations in the climatic parameters of the Kaliningrad region. Further, I estimate the rate of temperature change in Kaliningrad and other locations that have weather sta­tions and establish the cause-and-effect relationship in the behavior of various indicators.

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Western border regions of Russia: delimitation, structure, typology

Abstract

This article is devoted to the western border regions of Russia, which play an important role in terms of history, geopolitics, geoeconomy, culture, and mind­set. Relying on the interpretations of ‘border’, ‘frontier’, and ‘border­lands’, which are traditional for Russian limnology, I outline the geo-concept of ‘wes­tern border regions of Russia’ and provide a rationale for its under­standing as a continuous-discrete, dynamic, multi-scale, transboundary socio-geogra­phi­cal phenomenon. I pay particular attention to the principles of, and approach­es to, the delimitation of western border regions. As a result, I classi­fy seventeen constituent entities of Russia as western border regions. Another focus is the structuring of border regions based on environmental, climatic, positional, polit­ical-territorial, resource and economic, settlement-related, and other factors. I provide a multi-criteria typology in view of the actual and po­tential effect of ge­opolitical and geoeconomic turbulence on regional socioeco­nomic systems.

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Methods of spatial scientometrics in the study of countries and region

Abstract

The article focuses on the approaches that explain the essence of scien­to­metrics as a set of methods for studying science. The paper also discusses the use of scientometric instruments in the spatial analysis of the geography of knowledge. The countries of the Baltic region were taken as an example. The empirical base of the research was the international database Scopus and an analytical tool for monitoring and analyzing scientific research — SciVal. On the basis of three methods of spatial scientometrics, the main aspects of the pub­lication activity of selected countries were analyzed. The results of the stu­dy showed that scientometrics is an important basis for analyzing the degree of countries and regions scientific potential development, and its methods ma­ke it possible to study the dependence of scientific productivity on a specific spa­tial level, to identify the most relevant and popular research topics and as­sess international relations between organizations and individual authors.

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Гидрогеохимическая характеристика малых рек Калининградской области

Abstract

По многолетним данным представлен обзор гидрологических и гид­рохимических особенностей малых водотоков региона, подверженных интенсивному загрязнению. Приведены результаты расчета биогенной нагрузки от малых рек Калининградской области на Балтийское море. Информация может быть использована при организации и планирова­нии экологического мониторинга водотоков.

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Sea surface temperature determination in the North Atlantic based on planktonic foraminifera with the help of diverse biometric methods

Abstract

This article presents the results of the reconstruction of surface temperature above the northeast part of the Iceland basin (Northeast Atlantic) for the last 300,000 years with help of the M. S. Barash method, as well as the RAM, MAT and TFT methods on the basis of the planktonic foraminifera data. The M. S. Barash method helps calculate the mean annual sea surface temperature
changes, while the used nowadays MAT and RAM methods help calculate seasonal changes. The comparison of methods proves the use MAT and RAM methods appropriate in the middle latitudes.

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Сultural landscapes and socio-economic conditioning of modern landscape development

Abstract

The article deals with modern concepts of cultural landscapes in Russian and foreign geography, as well as approaches to the zoning of cultural landscapes. The approaches to landscape-cultural and historical-geographical zoning considered in the article appear to be logical and scientifically substantiated; they give an exhaustive picture of the origin of the cultural landscape, both natural and historical-cultural. However, they do not determine the state of the cultural landscapes of a particular territory, because, depending on their development trend, cultural landscapes can remain stable or completely disappear. A technique is proposed for determining the degree of socio-economic background of modern landscape development. The latter defines the landscape development trend, whether it comes to their stability or disappearance.

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The intensity of population movements through the Russian- Polish border after the suspension of the local border traffic mechanism: 2016 outcomes

Abstract

The mechanism of the local (or small) the cross-border movement is a form of cross-border cooperation. On the border between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Poland this mechanism worked from 2012 to 2016, and provided for a significant intensification of mutual border-crossing. In this case the suspension of the local border traffic regime on the Polish side, as well as the regime itself, caused a mixed reaction among both Polish and Russian regional experts and specialists. The article provides the analysis of the mutual intensity of the Russian-Polish border crossing in the period from 2002 to 2016. The author analyzes the contribution made by the cross-border movement mechanism to the development of relations between the border regions of the neighboring countries. The article concludes that in spite of shortcomings and negative effects for both countries, the mechanism of the mechanism of local border traffic in 2015, launched in 2012, became an important development tool for socio-cultural and business contacts between Kaliningrad and the neighboring province of the Republic of Poland. Rejection of this instrument seriously affected the intensity of the local contacts between the regions located on both sides of the border.

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