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“Kant’s perpetual peace project in the context of modern politics” international research project
«The appropriation of spaces in East Prussia» international research workshop
3.0 University: legislative framework for innovative entrepreneurshipAbstract
This article describes a legislative framework for a new model of higher education institutions, oriented towards business and innovation. The author offers practical recommendations for the development of competitive socioentrepreneurial innovation-based universities. It is shown that the new generation university should be formed on the basis of the socio-entrepreneurial ideology.
A regional level of integration processes: the opportunities for public-private partnership (the case of entrepresneurship)Abstract
This article explores the possibility of using the methods of public-private partnership (PPP) in integration processes, including those at a regional level.The author offers a typology of PPP projects and models of cooperation between business and authorities with regard to integration. The article describes specific practices of implementing PPP projects within foreign economic activity and attraction of foreign investors. The author formulates the priority tasks of developing interaction between public structures and business community.
Actor-based network theory in the context of ideology and political ontologyAbstract
The aim of this research is to consider the possibility of applying actornetwork theory (STS) to political processes. The authors analyze B. Latour’s criticism of the traditional political science and sociological approaches to the understanding of different spheres through the prism of ideology and interest. The initial assumptions and main arguments of the actor-network theory are compared with the post-Marxist theory of hegemony by E. Laclau and C. Mouffe. The conclusion draws attention to the limited possibilities of the practical application of STS since it lacks instruments of political action.
An “ideal city”, its statics and dynamicsAbstract
The article develops an ‘ideal city’ theme and focuses on the relationships of its statics and dynamics in a mobile local-global context. The author offers the definitions of these two notions under historical and modern conditions, and determines the specificity of the ‘ideal city’ as a complex socio-biotechnical system both dependent on the scale of it (local, national, global) and its position within the dynamic global whole. Then, the ideal city notion is analyzed in two aspects: as a channel of presentation of a model of future living environment, and as a form of its application to the goal of making (constructing) of quality model of Russian megalopolises safe and comfortable for its inhabitants and visitors. In any case, the harm produced by their social systems to the biosphere has to be minimal. It means that the megalopolises should simultaneously be well supplied with their own renewable resources and to be well supplied with resources coming from the outside. The megalopolis inhabitants have to be well informed about the inside and outside metabolic processes. In conclusion the author claims the necessity of an interdisciplinary approach to designing and constructing an ‘ideal city’ model in Russia and everywhere. Such interdisciplinary research and development teams of the researchers, tutors, students, journalists, grassroots activists and municipal workers have to be formed. It is stated that a practical realization of any ‘ideal city’ project is neither a ‘social project’ in a traditional sense, nor a set of indices that have to be followed. An ‘ideal city’ project is a model of uninterrupted process of transformation of social, material, informational and other interrelated components of such city mobile whole.
Andreichuk N. V., Gavrilina L. M. The phenomenon of the Kaliningrad regional subculture (socio-philosophical and cultural studies analysis)
Anniversary of Faculty of History
Antecedents to the idea of constitutional control in the French legal thought of the EnlightenmentAbstract
In this article, I consider the institution of constitutional control and its development during the Enlightenment. I stress that enlighteners thoroughly disapproved of French parliaments as forerunners of modern bodies of constitutional justice and explain why this was the case. In an early modern state, conditions for constitutional control and its very possibility were viewed in conjunction with the principles of sovereignty and the division of power. I conclude that the enlightenment doctrine of general will affected the perception by enlighteners of how the function of control over the constitutionality of laws and other normative legal acts was vested in an authority.
Arbushauskaite A. Anschluss and the population of the Klaipeda region
Assessment of Innovation and Investment Activity in the RegionAbstract
The concept of regional innovation system builds upon prospective innovation and takes into account the subsystem generating the knowledge that regulates the context and enterprises in regional innovation activity. This article considers the importance of innovation-investment activity evaluation for the construction of regional innovation systems, technological development of the economy, more efficient knowledge distribution,
and the formation of competitive advantages.
Awards for charity in the Russian Empire: the case of charity departments under the auspicious of the House of RomanovAbstract
This article focuses on the public policy in the field of charity in Russia in the 19th — ealry 20th century and lists state awards for charity handed out to charity departments under the auspicious of the emperor’s family — the Department of Institutions of Empress Maria and the Emperor's Philanthropic Association. The author examines state orders and medals, ranks and uniforms used as social and class motives for charity.
Behavioral geoeconomics: a problem statementAbstract
In this article, I formulate the problem of a search for a new approach to the state in the modern economic system. The aim of this research is a critical analysis of the current scientific picture of the state and a search for a new way to describe interactions among states, organisations, and households. The methodology I employ relies on critical analysis, the noosphere economy concept, and the systemic-behavioural approach to economic processes and phenomena. In analysing existing approaches to the state and the socio-economic evolution, I emphasise the need to develop a special approach – a behavioural geoeconomics. It perceives states as single-order actors in the external and internal segments of the economic space. I propose to treat states as economic agents of a special type, which have resources, fulfil a target function, and interact with organisations and households. I conclude that a behavioural geoeconomics will dramatically change research discourse on the role of the state in the economy.
Between accomplice and victim: Civilians during the siege of Kö- nigsberg in 1945Abstract
The paper analyses the role of the civilian population during the siege of Fortress Königsberg between late January and April 1945. It will discuss the scope of coercion and the living condition in the city, as well as the reasons why civilians decided to stay in Königsberg. Their large presence makes them impossible to overlook if one is to construct a view of the siege of Königsberg.
Bread supply issue and the food independence of the Novgorod landAbstract
This article deals with the issue of the food supply problems on the territory of the Novgorod land in the 11th-16th centuries. Despite permanent bread budget deficit, Veliky Novgorod managed to maintain political and economic independence and avoid purchasing significant amounts of grain. The reconstruction of a budget of a peasant agricultural farm shows that, in the then conditions, it could not rest solely on own-grown corn and livestock products in the Novgorod land. For centuries, peasant diet included products compensating for the shortage of bread. Such adaptability to environmental conditions helped optimise the life of peasant families and minimise the food budget deficit throughout the Novgorod land.
Certain issues of correlation between the international financial law and the EU lawAbstract
The problem if interaction between the international financial law (IFL) and the EU law has become particularly vital in this integrational entity where a special legal system was created. It has been developing until now and carries the features of the both international and municipal law. Global financial crisis and subsequent sovereign debt crisis have substantially changed global financial architecture and led to a comprehensive reform of the financial branch in the EU. The author implementing systematic analysis and formal legal method as well as functional and structural analysis reviews different types of interaction between IFL and the EU legal order. Although international agreements form an integral part of the EU legal order, the rules of their interpretation differ from the primary and secondary EU legislation. The reverse influence of the EU law is carried out by EU institutions and Member States by participating in inter-governmental organizations and other international bodies which work out and review national implementation of International Financial Standards.
Change in the sub-regional asymmetry of the real and financial sectors of the Kaliningrad region economy in the context of economic sanctionsAbstract
The article presents the results of a study of the asymmetry in the real and financial sectors at the sub-regional level. The authors use their own methodology for assessing this asymmetry in the Kaliningrad region. The article describes changes in the sub-regional asymmetry under the conditions of economic sanctions. The authors noted a decrease in its level in the real economy due to the development of import substitution in Kaliningrad municipalities specializing in agriculture.
Chronology Problem of Corded Ware Culture Artefacts in South-Eastern Baltic RegionAbstract
The article presents new series of radiocarbon dates in the context of the South-Eastern Baltic maritime culture chronology. The author emphasises the antiquity of the radiocarbon dates in comparison to the maritime culture period.
Churchill about Gumbinnen: on the history of one quotationAbstract
This article considers the history of one quotation from Winston Churchill’s article on the Gumbinnen battle (1914). The context of this reference is reconstructed on the basis of author’s correspondence with the American historian Richard M. Langworth.
City transport in Kaliningrad during the Soviet era: family photo archivesAbstract
The article attempts to analyse the socio-cultural significance of transport development in the USSR within the framework of ‘visual turn’ in social sciences and the humanities. The author uses family photo archives of the 1950s—1980s, presented in the "People's Album", a digital project of the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, to explore the role of the public, company and personal transport in the life of the Soviet people.
Conceptual characteristics of procedural units of thinkingAbstract
This article develops a theory of the structure of operational and functional components of the thinking process: the problems of analysing procedural units of thinking are formulated; the content of the “method of thinking” and “technique of thinking” concepts are given a precise definition. The author analyses the content and relational characteristics of procedural units of different types.
Conflict issues in harmonising the legal regulation of administrative divorce procedureAbstract
This article discusses a number of matrimonial legal issues relating to dissolution of marriage at a registry office. Possible ways of legal settlement are proposed and incompatibilities in the legal regulation identified.
Constitutional reforms and stability of the Сonstitution: balance finding problemsAbstract
The article explores consequences of revising the Constitution. Based on 25 years of experience in implementing the supreme law of the Russian Federation, various approaches to changing the text of the Constitution are analyzed. Speial attention is paid to the analysis of proposals to reform the constitutional law, which in effect means replacing the current Constitution with a new one. The author aims to study possible effects of constitutional reforms and the stability of the Constitution. He substantiates his position regarding the amendment of the main law. The author employs methods of historical, systemic, comparative legal and dialectical logic analysis. The following forms of the development of the Constitution have been identified: revision, amendment, adoption or perfection of the existing sub-constitutional normative legal acts, official and casual interpretation of the Constitution by the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation. The author considers all proposals to revise the text of the Constitution groundless since the main law has not exhausted its potential. The evolutionary development of the supreme law, which is the key to the progressive development of both state and society, can be achieved through the application of the above forms, including a non-textual amendment of the Constitution.
Correlation of the notions of the subject of law and the transcendental subject in the theory of lawAbstract
The article examines the correlation between two basic concepts of the theory of law and transcendental phenomenology. Each concept has its own meaning and performs its specific function. The article aims is to identify the specifics of each concept in order to understand the existing theoretical distinctions between them.
Crafts of peasant women in the north-western provinces of Russia in the late 19th/early 20th centuryAbstract
This article explores local crafts of peasant women of the north-western provinces, namely, weaving, needlework, and lacework. The work conditions are examined. The author stresses that workers were highly dependent on dealers who provided them with raw materials and sold their products at the market. The phenomena identified are indicative of the formation of capitalistic forms of using the labour of peasant women practicing crafts, including that of a “dispersed manufactory.”
Desertion as a Social Phenomenon of Late European Modernity, 1871-1918Abstract
The paper analyzes the influence of modernization on social processes of different European states. On the example of desertion of the Central Power’s soldiers to Russia one comes to conclusion that changes in the manning system of European armies during the 19th century were one of the most important components of traditional society’s transformation and a vital source of new social practices.
Developing and testing a balanced scorecard for a trading companyAbstract
This article presents a case of developing a balanced performance scorecard for a Kaliningrad trading company. A general solution includes five stages: analysing economic performance, studying dependencies between performance indicators, building strategic map charts, identifying goals and planning relevant measures, and assessing the efficiency of such measures.
Developing the computer database as a structural element of geoinformation system on the pogrom movement historyAbstract
The article analyzes of the creation of a computer database on the pogrom movement history. In the research, systematization methods enabled to prepare several maps with a breakdown of the pogroms' speeches by time intervals in accordance with the main stages of the revolutionary process of 1917—1918 and the composition of participants. One of the objectives of this work is to demonstrate the need to optimize the databases and offer the most illustrative thematic maps. The study resulted in the analysis of practical experience gained in the “adaptation” of ready-made databases to the formation of geographic information systems.
Development of economy in conditions of liberal reformsAbstract
The author discusses negative influence of globalization processes on world economy, presents global geopolitical and geo-economic trends in the context of system of challenges for Russia.
Do Historians Need Categories of State Cordiality and Incurable Wounds?Abstract
Historical examples reveal the peculiarities of bilateral intergovernmental relations. There are two non-convertible variants, based on the positive contribution of the actual international agent into the formation of a new state — the prospective added value variant — or aimed at deliberated suspension/breach of relations — the prospective tension variant. This suspension of sovereignty leaves a permanent scar in the national memory and leads to continuous alienation of the states.
Economic and Legal Analysis of Financial Support to Tour Operators (through the Example of the Kaliningrad Region)Abstract
This article examines the economic and legal consequences of the changes in the law on financial support of tourism to small tour operators in the Kaliningrad region.
Elitist reasons behind the German revolution of November 1918Abstract
In 2017-2018, the historical community commemorated the centenary anniversaries of revolutions that took place at the end of the First World War. Although the revolutionary events in Russia attract greater attention, the German revolution of November 1918 is of no less interest. In this article, I set out to highlight the situation of the German ruling elite on the eve of the war. The absence of bright personalities among the country's political establishment, on the one hand, and the lack of unity among the German elite, on the other, were the major causes of the bankruptcy of the Kaiser’s Germany. Social and class conflicts within the German elite, in particular, the tensions between the German bourgeoisie and agrarians rendered it impossible to devise coherent domestic and foreign policies. Incompetent leadership and frequent political scandals, which discredited the German ruling elite in the eyes of the public, created an extremely negative image of the monarchy. Thus, the lack of competent managers and political leaders able to take responsibility and lead the country out of the crisis created a revolutionary situation in the country.
Ensuring the proportional development of the strategic areas of coastal specialisationAbstract
This article presents proposals to ensure a balanced development of the strategic areas of regional specialization based on managerial decisionmaking in the conditions of the system uncertainty of integrated coastal interaction. To this end, it is suggested that a balanced scorecard system identifying the possibility of aligning such decisions and maintaining the synergy effect in the chosen directions of prospective ratio development is applied.
Eparchial archiereis and clerical officers in the first half of the 19th century: an analysis of conflictsAbstract
This article considers the events of the synodal period in the history of Russian Church. In the first half of the 19th century, the formation of governmental bodies – eparchial consistories – was completed. Many consistories faced the opposition of archiereis who still resisted the church reform of Peter I.
Eurasianism in the history of Russian thought and Father Georgy FlorovskyAbstract
This article emphasises the extinction of the classical Euroasian doctrine, which, however, did not become a theoretically substantiated and integral one. This process was hindered, according to G. Florovsky, both by the variety of its genealogical sources, and the attempts of Euroasians to combine scientific-philosophical provisions with ideological attitudes.
European court of human rights’ judgments in the legal system of the Federal Republic of GermanyAbstract
The article evaluates the achievements of Russia’s pre-revolutionary civil law as the basis for the civil law of today. The basic elements of the Russian system of civil law are unique in their character. The authors argue that there is a certain correlation between the legal position of the state in the prerevolutionary Russia and Russia of today. The article ends with a conclusion It is necessary to develop a new conception of the participation of the state in civil relations.
Evolution of the Regional Religious Policy in the Saratov region (1989—2017)Abstract
The article shows the development of political practices of the regional government bodies in the field of protecting the rights of citizens to the freedom of conscience and the freedom of religion. The author analyses the principles of regulating the activity of religious organizations, and monitoring their interaction with different religious confessions in the Saratov region. Special attention is paid to the emerging system of partnership between the state and religious institutions, which is a key vector in the development of religious policy at the subnational level.
Factors and risks of modern ecionomic dynamics: post-crisis tendencies in RussiaAbstract
Russian economy is overcoming the crisis; its further restoration and growth depend on different factors: abrupt and not always predictable changes in the world economic situation, dynamics and fluctuations of oil prices, inflow and outflow of capital from financial markets, and other external economic and political factors. However, there is increasing awareness that the restoration and growth largely depend on internal fundamental factors: modernisation of economy and the prospects of increase in national labour productivity.
Factors of Legal Classifier Construction and Improvement MethodsAbstract
The article defines and compares four groups of factors influencing the construction and development of the united legal classifier in the Republic of Belarus and the classifier of legal acts in the Russian Federation: legal systems and all its structures, legislative system and all its structures, the system of public administration; electronic system of legal information collecting, processing, storage, systematisation and dissemination. The author offers to methods to improve the inner structure of the legal classifiers of the Republic of Belarus and the Russian Federation: (a) possible changes in the organisation of regulatory material alongside with the conservation of today’s approaches to comprising legal classifiers by means of current legal sources; (b) improvement of legal classifiers by new content, new forms of law’s being and new sources of law in force.
Financial Support for the Red Army Personnel During the Great Patriotic WarAbstract
In this article, I analyse the improvement of the system for financial support for military personnel during the Great Patriotic War. Financial support included a monetary allowance, material bonuses for involvement in combat, and welfare benefits for families and veterans. The financial support system was vertically integrated from the centre (the Financial Directorate of the Red Army) to an individual soldier through the financial bodies of military units. The financial situation in the country was stabilized through non-cash transactions using deposit books. The transactions were carried out in not only roubles but also foreign currency. The allowance system was improved through the introduction of rewards. The initiative accounted for most of public spending, which increased 5.4-fold during the war years. I stress that financial incentives for involvement in combat contributed to greater professionalism and personal commitment of the personnel, which were major factors in the victory.
Forecasting knowledge as a tool for cognizing political realityAbstract
The theoretical and methodological approaches to forecasting political processes are considered. The relevance of forecasting knowledge for contemporary political management and designing is grounded. The methods and implements for forecasting are evaluated not only within the context of the forecast function of political science but also as a means to cognize political
reality. The advantages and disadvantages of various methods and approaches are compared; the constraints of political forecasting are demonstrated.
Formation and Development of Furniture Manufacturing in the Kaliningrad RegionAbstract
The paper considers three basic stages of formation and development of furniture manufacturing in the Kaliningrad region. Based on official statistics, the authors define pre-competitive assets of the furniture industry in the region on each of the stages of its development.
Frank’s philosophy of history and social philosophyAbstract
This article considers and offers an overview of Semyon Frank’s sociophilosophical and historiosophical ideas. Special attention is paid to the philosopher’s perception of contemporary history as being fraught with catastrophes and tragedies. It is demonstrated why Frank claimed that the true history of philosophy was that interpreting the concrete expression of supra-temporal unity of human spiritual life as the only meaning of history. The author describes the methodological consequences of this assumption.
Functionalist evaluation of the effectiveness of political institutions in RussiaAbstract
The article investigates the specifics of the interaction between political institutions and civil society. Analyzing relevant research literature, the author studies the effectiveness and legitimacy of political institutions in Russia. The author identifies the main trends in their activity of political institutions, which should be given special attention when establishing functional connections between civil society as such and political institutions.
Geopolitical development potential of the Russian exclusive region: search for key strategy and mechanisms for its implementation in new conditionsAbstract
The challenges of regional strategic development planning for contemporary Russia are of major socio-economic and political importance. With regard to the Kaliningrad region since when it was established, the problem of choosing a development strategy has always been and remained an urgent issue. Especially sharply, it arose with a change in the geopolitical position of the region after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the Baltic economic area. Exclavity is the most important geopolitical factor in the life of the region. The dialectic of exclave is in the discretion of not only the obstacles, but also of the development possibilities of the region. Another major factor is the immediate proximity of the European Union. Through understanding the geopolitical potential of development, by comparing various theoretical and practical solutions, the authors search for mechanisms that would allow a regional society to develop an adaptive strategy that can ensure the absolute priority of all-Russian civic identity and effective social, economic and humanitarian cooperation with its Baltic neighbors. Such a mechanism could be the expansion of cross-border cooperation in non-political scope.
Harry S. Truman and Racial Segregation Problem in USA in Second Half of the 1940sAbstract
The article is dedicated to the problem of racial segregation in the USA. Harry S. Truman was the first American president to raise the question of the necessity to eliminate this shameful tradition.
Implicit memory, or Once again on German civilians in Königsberg during the fortress siege in February — April 1945Abstract
Within a polemic with B. Willems's article, the author analyses the size of civilian population of Königsberg remaining in the city during the siege of 1945. The article considers approaches of Soviet and German command to evaluating the role of civilians in defending the fortress during the siege.
In search of post-crisis development models
Institution of Constitutional Complaint in the Russian Federation: Some Questions of Legal RegulationAbstract
Constitutional complaint is an efficient instrument of constitutional right protection in Russia. The judicial body dealing with such complaints is
the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation. However, certain problems arise due to the legislative regulation of constitutional complaints in the Constitutional Courts practice.
Institutional support for the strategic management of regional developmentAbstract
This article justifies the need and system-and-function-based methodology for institutional support for strategic management of regional development. The author offers an empirical analysis and proposes recommendations for updating and establishment of institutions of strategic management of socio-economic development at the federal and regional levels.
Inter-organizational networks as seen by western economic sociology: An analysis of theoretical approachesAbstract
This paper analyses theoretical approaches to studying interorganizational networks offered in foreign economic sociology. The authors describe main conceptual problems, the key aspects of network form of interorganizational interaction, and embeddedness effects.
International conference “Contacts and Cultural Transfer in the Historical Region of East Prussia (1700—2000)”
Investigative situation and organisation of particular investigationAbstract
This article examines the connection between establishing the investigation objective and investigative situations at the initial stage of investigation. The author describes the role of investigative situation in establishing the objective of investigation.
Isaac René Guy Le Chapelier and the Flight to Varennes: sum-mer — autumn, 1791Abstract
This article analyses the influence of the Varennes crisis on the balance of political forces in the National Constituent Assembly and Le Chapelier’s and other constitutionalists’ opposition to the radicals in the Assembly and in the streets in order to strengthen the position of the king and constitutional mon¬archy.
Kant and the contemporary theory of international relationsAbstract
The main purpose of this article is to answer the question of the role of Kantian political philosophy for the theory of international relations. The answer is giving through the examination of the main trends in the interpretation of Kant's place in one of the major paradigms of the theory of international relations: realism, idealism, liberalism, and institutionalism. Author shows that Kant’s inclusion in a particular paradigm of international relations cannot be directly done. Otherwise, inevitably it comes to distortion and incorrect interpretation of the texts and ideas of Kant.
Key trends and features of the Canadian military-industrial complex during the Second World WarAbstract
The article deals with the development of the Canadian military industry in 1939-1945. The effectiveness, organisation and scale of production of aircraft, ships, armored vehicles, artillery and small arms are analyzed. The author reveals the influence of geographic, economic, home and foreign policy factors on the type of weapons produced and the volume of their production. Using official Canadian documents and statistical publications, the author concludes that the military-industrial complex of Canada showed good performance indicators during WWII. However, having an impressive economic growth and rapid development of new industries, Canada, for several reasons, still failed to make the most of its economic, natural and human resources. As a result, Canada was only a junior partner of great powers in military production. Based on the structure of the Canadian military industry, the author draws a conclusion about the initial stage of globalization of the Canadian economy in the period under study.
Königsberg’s urbal elites: Between the tradition and innovation (1815—1914)Abstract
The paper focuses on Königsberg’s elites faced with fast changes in the 19th century. The city’s old merchant families were up against increasing competition from new actors – industrialists and bankers – trying to take advantage of the former. The author examines changes in the elites in the course of major economic, social, and political changes
Krivosheev Y., Sokolov R. Alexander Nevski. Epoch and Memory: Historical Sketches
Lannik L. Pobedonosnye proigravshie: germaskaya voennaya elita v 1914—1921 gg. [Victorious losers: The German military elite in 1914-1921] SPb.: Evrazia, 2015. 528 s.
Legal consciousness in the context of cultureAbstract
This article examines legal conscience in view of its little-studied generating function. The author considers the ideas affecting legal consciousness in different types of cultures – humanocentric and sociocentric ones. The idea of power underlies legal consciousness in sociocentric cultures, and the idea of freedom that of person-oriented cultures. The deformations of legal consciousness characteristic of modern Russia are explained by an incomplete transition from socio- to himanocentrism.
Legal monitoring of justices of the peace: the notion and significanceAbstract
This article describes the category of legal monitoring, its essence and object. The author considers the possibility of legal monitoring in justices of the peace and stresses its significance.
Legal regulation of public control in the Russian FederationAbstract
This article considers the public control institution at the federal level and that of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. Based on an analysis of the current legal regulation of public control in different constituent entities, the authors formulate recommendations for the development of a relative legal framework in the Kaliningrad region
Library collections and publishing according to Pliny the YoungerAbstract
In Rome, libraries played the role of cultural centres and were closely linked with publishing. The latter was a subject of correspondence between Pliny the Younger and Suetonius. The way to the birth of a book is complicated: writing, recitation, reference-review, and proofreading. Donation was one of the ways to build up library collections. The copyright was not known to Rome. A book was treated as an intellectual value. Pliny the Younger became the founder of a society of devotees of certain literature works and historical subjects in the 1st century AD.
Light and shades of the Enlightenment. Reflections on “Utopias of the Age of Enlightenment” a book by A. V. Chudinov. M. : Integration: Education and Science, 2017. 96 p.Abstract
The article focuses on the book "Utopias of the Age of Enlightenment" by A. V. Chudinov. Analyzing this work, the author reflects on the contradictions and paradoxes of the Enlightenment: the utopian ideals of the Enlightenment, aimed at achieving universal happiness and prosperity, in practice were often associated with terror and violence.
Logistics management and its application for interregional tradeAbstract
The article reveals major tasks and logistics trends as one of instruments for effective management.
Magistrates’ and volost courts of the Russian Empire on their way to amalgamationAbstract
Historically, the magistrates’ court — being a public institute in its nature — has co-existed with community (communal) authorities, including judiciary institutions. As a result, under certain conditions, community courts are subject to the magistrates’ court or even included in its structure, absorbed by it. This article investigates the background and course of this process in the history of the Russian Empire of the 19th/early 20th centuries. The author explains how volost courts gradually became part of the Justice of the Peace.
Materials on the architectural and urban development history of CranzAbstract
Studies published as early as the 19th century, prewar guidebooks, postcards, books of model projects, and archive materials serve as the sources of information about the architectural and urban development of the resort of Cranz. The collection of cadastral plans and maps of 1844—1943 settlements held in the Secret Archive of Prussian heritage in Berlin remains virtually unstudied. A project used in the construction of the wooden music pavilion in the park Plantage in Cranz was found in a textbook for architects published in 1894.
Max Egremont. Forgotten Land. Journeys among the Ghosts of East Prussia. London : Picador, 2011. 368 pp.
Measuring performance of cultural organizations on the data of the envelopment analysisAbstract
The article focuses on the issue of cultural organizations performance measurement. The author explains the benefits of applying a non-parametric “Data Envelopment Analysis” that is based on comparison of input and output indicators, to performance measurement of cultural organizations. Using statistical data on Russian federal theatres, the author empirically tests their performance that relates to such aspects as organization’s reputation, artistic excellence, maximization of access to cultural assets, etc. Based on statistics of the Russian Ministry of Culture in 2012—2016, the author analyses overall trends in performance of federal theatres, as well as provides results concerning each research object. Efficiency indices of theatres allow the author to distinguish four groups of Russian federal theatres in terms of performance aspects under research.
Medium-term models of SMEs development in modern RussiaAbstract
The article is devoted to forecasting the development of small and medium- size businesses (SMEs) in Russia. The authors offer an algorithm of the identification of development tendencies for small and medium-sized businesses using linear equations. The medium-term econometric model of economic forecasting is based on the application of a set of dominating factors, which were previously selected. The authors present a medium-term trend of SMEs turnover in modern Russian conditions.
Methodological Potential of the Concept «Military Culture of Society» in Historical and Political StudiesAbstract
The author considers the scope of the «military culture of society» concept and analyses the possibilities of its application in humanities in order to extend our knowledge of the past and the present.
Military commandant's offices of the 3rd Belorussian front in East Prussia (October 1944 —May 1945)Abstract
This article considers the issues of establishment and activity of commandant’s offices of the Third Belorussian front on the territory of Prussia at the closing stage of World War II.
Modern trends in the Baltic countries in the discourse of identity: between sovereignty and European integrationAbstract
The publication reflects the problem of new identity of the Baltics in the conditions of competition between European spaces. The Baltic States are presented as a political structure, where mutually competitive identities oriented towards different centres of modern Europe are developing. In the Baltics, the identity discourse acquires new markers. The agenda includes the crisis of confidence in the institutions of power and integration problems.
Municipal Tax Autonomy under Conditions of Budget Federalism: Reform Experience in Italy and RussiaAbstract
The article deals with the questions of the current legislative budget process of local autonomies in the Russian Federation and Italy. The current
budget process of an Italian autonomy is characterized by the growing role of municipal taxes and overall decline in public transfers. In the Russian Federation, municipal budgets depend crucially on the mechanism of federal and municipal tax redistribution at this stage of municipal reform. The author comes to the conclusion that legal innovations in the field of the tax base of local autonomies in Russia follow the pattern of the Italian local autonomy reform.
Mutual alimentary obligations of parents and childrenAbstract
The author explores mutual alimentary obligations of children and parents. There are different forms of financial support including alimony. Alimentary obligation is the most important concept of the Family Code. However, neither the Family Code of the Russian Federation, nor other normative acts contains any legal definition of alimentary obligation. The author defines the concept of alimentary obligation and analyses the difference between the concepts of ‘support’ and ‘alimony’. The article describes the alimentary obligations of children in relation to parents and those of parents in relation to children. The author identifies some problematic issues of alimentation.
Network modelling of economic security organisation in the coastal regionsAbstract
This article addresses the problem of economic security organization in the coastal region of Russia. The authors offer a network model of the process as a tool of effective management
No politics: François Guizot’s historiosophy before 1814Abstract
This paper analyses the historiosophical views of François Guizot (1787—1874) based on his works from the period of the First Empire (1804— 1814). The established chronological framework makes it possible to identify the foundations of the great thinker’s historical theory — foundations cleansed of the political influence of the Bourbon Restoration (1814—1830) and the July Monarchy (1830-1848), where Guizot was an activist of the liberal opposition and later became one of the leaders of the French political elite.
Ober-hieromonks in the Russian Navy in the 18th centuryAbstract
This article uses archive documents to consider the management of Orthodox priests serving in the Russian Navy in the 18th century. The author describes the duties of the Holy Synod, bishops’ administrations, and the Admiralty and naval ship commanders. Special attention is paid to ober-hieromonks and commanding hieromonks of the Navy. The author studies their responsibilities in different locations and presents new biographical information.
Objective Criminological Characteristics of Justifiable Defence and Excessive Defence SituationsAbstract
The article considers the peculiar problems of criminological characteristics of justifiable defence and excessive defence situations. The author analyses and compares objective criminological characteristics of the situations of justifiable and excessive defence. The article is based on the legislation of the Russian Federation and empirical research conducted by the author.
On certain groups in the Soviet outbound tourism (on the example of the Kaliningrad region)Abstract
They urgency of this topic is caused by poor knowledge of specific issues in development of Soviet outbound tourism, especially on the regional scale. The purpose of this research is to define the functional aim and effectiveness of use of specialized tourist groups in the structure of outbound tourism in the Kaliningrad region. For this purpose, the author examines the available archive materials of the Kaliningrad Regional Council of Trade Unions and the Regional Council of CPSU (Communist Party of the USSR), analyzes relevant publications. Particular attention is drawn to the implementation of the mission of tourist groups aboard, following the specialized routs. The author identifies the measures taken by the state organizations dealing with the outbound tourism issues aimed to improve the efficiency of the tourist trips. The article considers the basic elements borrowed from foreign experience and implemented in the Kaliningrad regional economy.
On distinguishing the measures of constitutional responsibility and other measures of constitutional enforcement imposed upon the executive authorities of constituent entities of the Russian Federation and their officialsAbstract
This article examines the measures of constitutional responsibility and other measures of constitutional enforcement. The author puts forward several proposals regarding the classification of constitutional enforcement measures imposed on the executive authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation and their officials.
On Essence and Correlation of "Region" and "International", "Transnational", and "Transboundary" Region ConceptsAbstract
The authors suggest differentiating between integral and industrial zoning. Correspondingly, regions (integral regions) and industrial regions are distinguished within a state. The interaction of several states results in the emergence of transnational regions, while the development of mutual connections between international regions brings to the formation of transboundary regions. Regions, including international (transboundary and
transnational) ones have a certain hierarchy but, unlike national regions that cover the whole territory of a state, same-levelled international regions do not encompass the whole world.
On potential role of regional authorities in managing formation an development of market infrastructureAbstract
The article examines the role of Kaliningrad region’s government in managing market infrastructure development on the regional level. Special attention is given to the foreign experience concerning the role of regional authorities in formation and development of small- and medium-sized business supporting infrastructure.
On the competitiveness of regions in economic space
On the development of the "Greater Finland" iIdeologyAbstract
This article focuses on the role of Länsipohja and Ruija in the "Greater Finland" ideology. The growing interest in the closely related peoples in the 1920s became a prerequisite for the foundation of the Academic Karelia Society (AKS). The author addresses the activity of the AKS concerning Länsipohja and Ruija.
On the fight against corruptionAbstract
This article considers the current problems of fight against corruption in Russia. The author analyzes the capacity of the state and society to combat corruption. It is concluded that the scale of criminal factors affecting corruption is not proportional to the means of combating this phenomenon. In the current conditions, the most effective anti-corruption measures are the upgrading of criminal penalties.
On the methodological meaning of notion of isomorphic enclosure of formalismsAbstract
This article suggests that, in many interesting cases when considering the given reference domain, one has to deal with a system of formalisms rather than a single formalism. It is argued that these systems are integrated through isomorphic embeddings of their elements into each other. The article considers some alternative notions of formalism and the definitions of isomorphic embeddings
corresponding to them. A number of new results concerning their interrelations are presented without proofs.
On the nature of the notion of "Charter statute"Abstract
This article examines the charter statute as a new type of legislation of constituent entities of the Russian Federation on the basis of the analysis of the Charters of the Kaliningrad and Krasnoyarsk regions. The emphasis is placed on the theoretical and practical issues of the charter statutes incorporation in the sources of law system.
On the new branch of the economic science (on the book Economy as a synergetic system by L. P. Yevstigneyeva and R. N. Yevstigneyev)
On the place of death of the leader of the Great Prussian Uprising, Herkus Monte
On the results of the battle of Gumbinnen: once again about W. Churchill’s assessment of the victory of Russian army in Eastern Prussia on August 20, 1914
On the role of government regulation in creating conditions for the development of Russian regions: the case of tariff policyAbstract
The elimination of disparities in the economic conditions of regional development is an important task of government regulation. The tariff policy influences the economic development of Russia and different regions. The market incentives for innovation are not sufficiently strong. The rise in prices and tariffs has a negative impact on cost structure and production efficiency. The research conducted shows the degree of variation in the level and dynamics of prices and rates in each region and provides a basis for analyzing the conditions of economic development and their comparison at a regional level. The paper shows the impact of tariff policy on the development of regional markets and the creation of conditions for economic development.
Organizational support for the function-object approach to regional development in the systems of strategic managementAbstract
This article focuses on the basic aspects of organizational support for the function-object approach to regional development in the system of strategic management. The author proposes a mechanism combining the principles of regulation and self-regulation on the basis of application of function-object modeling of regional growth and motivation to achieve regional goals.
Origins and beginnings. The Livonian Rhymed Chronicle as a reference point for literature in the Teutonic OrderAbstract
Almost all recent historical and literary studies agree that the Livonian Chronicle conveys an impression of a poetical work containing archaic elements. The affinity between the Chronicle and German heroic epic poetry is often stressed. The established perspective, which distorts the image of the Chronicle, requires adjustment. This literary study into the Chronicle’s text complements research on the development of corporate identity in the Teutonic Order.
Pardon committees as central institutions of the civil societyAbstract
This article considers the issues of improving the efficacy of pardon committees in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. The author puts forward proposals concerning the improvement of the criminal and penal legislations and emphasises the need for the restoration of certain institutions of the civil society that successfully functioned as early as the Soviet period.
Parliament and law-making: modern understanding of the role of parliamentary procedures and laws in transforming societyAbstract
The author analyzes the place and role of parliament in today's transforming society and investigates the causes of the crisis of parliamentarism, the confrontation between parliament and government in some countries and in others - the widespread "legitimization" of government policy in the sphere of legal norms. The author has identified the reasons for a decrease in trust to parliaments, which no longer play a decisive role in the division of power, being forced aside by the executive authorities. Today the regulatory function of parliament is narrowed to the elaboration of legislation regulating, widely speaking, the standing of both individuals and corporations in all kinds of public relations. The author has proposed to focus the legislative activity of Parliament on the creation of basic norms and principles that outline the framework of public relations rather than elaborating legal acts regulating many spheres at large. The author has reviewed the role of the parliament regulations and rules of procedure in the activities of parliament. It is proposed to to move away from the practice of speedy adoption of laws and to introduce expert support and evaluation of the legislative process in parliament as mandatory elements of the legislative process. The article asserts the need to strengthen the role of expert councils under the committees of the Russian State Duma and the place of the Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, fixing in the parliamentary regulations and laws, the mandatory nature of their analysis and expertise of introduced bills at the stages of the legislative process.
Political elite networks in Latvia and their transformation in 1993-2014Abstract
The authors consider the structure of the Latvian political elite in 1993—2014 and analyse the major network parameters. The roles of key network actors and their changes over the study period are examined
Political interests in the context of political diversity in the Russian FederationAbstract
This article addresses the problem of the realisation of political interests in the Russian Federation in the context of political diversity stipulated in the Constitution. The author distinguishes the social groups of political process actors, analyses their current state, and formulates the problems and possibilities of the realisation of their political interests.
Polyakova I. A. Andreas Aurifaber (1515—1559) and his Historia succinic / Kaliningrad Amber Museum. Second revised and enlarged edition. Kalininrgad, 2013. 208 pp
Population aging and the problems of the sandwich generation: Socioeconomic and psychological aspectsAbstract
The advance of the population aging process leads to new socioeconomic consequences, including the formation of the so-called sandwich generation — 55-65 year olds, predominantly females, who care for their elderly parents, raise children (or grandchildren), and perform their professional duties. One of the key problems faced by people in this situation is psychological adaptation to the changing life conditions. This article considers changes in the 50-65 year old population in Russia and identify generation gap problems faced by this age bracket.
Possession and possessory protection: the problems of legal regulation and practical implementation in the context of civil law reformsAbstract
This article focuses on the issues of introduction of possession and possessory protection into the Russian Civil Code. It is emphasized that the authors of the draft bill did not manage either to develop a consistent approach to possession as a fact or justify theoretically the need for such innovation and its practical significance for modern Russian law and order.
Preaching activity of Ludwig Ernst Borowski, a Königsberg pastor, during the Napoleonic wars (1806—1816)Abstract
The article explores the life of the Königsberg preacher Ludwig Ernst Borowski (1740—1831). Special attention is paid to his biography and his pastoral activities. A detailed analysis of Borowski's patriotic sermons (1806—1816) is undertaken; the idiosyncrasies of his literary style are emphasized. The main themes and subjects of pastor Borowski's sermons are vcarefully examined. The author emphasizes the significance of Borowski's personality for the intellectual and political life of Königsberg and East Prussia at the beginning of the 19th century.
Problems of increasing the efficiency of the special economic zone legal regime in the Kaliningrad regionAbstract
This article considers the main problems of improving the legal regime of the Special Economic Zone through the prism of efficiency increase. The author stresses the imperfection of some provisions contained in the Law on the Special economic Zone. Certain proposals on the legal regulation and law enforcement are formulated.
Public law entities and the theory of the subjects of lawAbstract
This article reviews theoretical works of Russian legal scholars on public law entities and analyses several provisions of the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the Charter of the Kursk region. The author reflects on the representational functions that public law entities perform in public relations. The article aims to study the terminology and essential characteristics of legal entities in public law. The author considers the widely discussed problem of the juridical person as a legal fiction and explores it proceeding from the methodological assumption that Russian legislation recognizes the legal standing of the juridical person (public law entity). The author performed a comparative semantic analysis of the terminology and used a formal method of legal research revealing the constitutional foundations of the representational functions of public law entities in public relations. Many legal scholars have demonstrated the fallacy of separate terms in public law and have drawn attention to the increasing number of arbitrary provisions in public legislation. In their works, they have noted a growing number of fictitious legal constructions and relations that complicate the assessment of the legitimacy of the individual’s conduct.
Redeployment of the 3rd Belorussian front troops on the eve of the Samland Offensive of 1945Abstract
This article describes the final stage of the East-Prussian Offensive of 1945. Particular attention is paid to the problem of redeployment of the 3rd Belorussian Front forces to create the necessary conditions for defeating the enemy during the Battle of Königsberg and the follow-on front mission on the Samland peninsula.
Regional models of self-government in the non-German right cities of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 16th — 17th centuriesAbstract
The author considers the problem of regional self-government model functioning in the cities where the German right had not been introduced. The article analyses the systems of self-government in Vitebsk, Pinsk, Mogilev, Orsha and other settlements. The author introduced the notion of selfgovernment regulations, examines the functions of main government institutions in a number of cities, and identifies the features of their self-government models.
Relevant issues of the fight against corruptionAbstract
This article studies the criminogenic circumstances associated with cor-ruption and those impeding effective fight against it. In view of the extreme social danger of corruption and the considerable economic, political, and moral damage to the society, this article formulates a number of proposals primarily relating to criminal law relevant at the current stage of social development.
Rent-seeking behavior and rent-oriented behavior in the sphere of art and cultureAbstract
The article investigates the phenomenon of rent-seeking and rent-oriented behavior in the sphere of culture and arts. The author describes the specific features of the cultural production. It is shown that, the supply of cultural goods is characterized by the different level of rarity and consists from creative production, services of the institutions of culture and art, antiques, reproductions of works of art. Given the demand the cultural goods are structured in compliance with inquiries of its dealers, traders, collectors, adherents of prestigious consumption, real connoisseurs of art, consumers of entertainments. The article claims that the sphere of culture is divided into two sectors according to rental factors. In the first sector (primary market) production of the specific rent is possible (rent of talent, rents for rarity, marketing quasirent) that promotes rent-seeking behavior. In the second sector (services of the institutions of culture and art, art-object markets) rent-focused behavior is possible (capital rent, tourist rent, status rent, administrative rent). Political quasirent is the object of rent-seeking and rent-oriented behavior.
Review of D. Pertsev’s monograph “Criminal and Criminological Problems of Justifiable Defence”.Kaliningrad, IKSUR Press, 2009
Revolutionary processes as seen by students reading P. A. Sorokin and contemplating the presentAbstract
In analysing Pitirm Sorokin’s The Sociology of Revolution, future sociologists and political scientists assimilate revolutionary processes in Russia at the beginning of the 20th century and try to establish reasons and factors behind social shocks. Students seek to juxtapose the consideration of evolutionary changes with cardinal changes in the life of society and to register the existence of manipulated and spontaneous processes. In their essays, students arrive at conclusions about whether a revolution is possible today.
Russia and the way out of the civilizational crisis: N. A. Berdyayev’s historiosophy and aestheticsAbstract
Berdayev’s works The New Middle Ages, The Meaning of History, The Crisis of Art help reveal the essence of the eschatological consciousness of the 20th century. The principal feature of New Middle Ages in European culture is proved to be the polarization of consciousness, which is most vividly manifested, according to Berdyaev, in the structure of Russian soul (the apocalyptic and nihilistic type), as well as the divergent trends of contemporary art (synthetism and analytism).
Russian Philosophy Abroad: Development of Conceptual FrameworkAbstract
Russian philosophy abroad is associated with the names of those representatives of Russian culture who left the country or were forced to leave after the well-know revolutionary events, for instance, the outstanding Russian thinkers: Nikolai Berdyaev, Ivan Ilyin, Nikolay Lossky, Semyon Frank, and others. The article considers the conceptual framework of Russian philosophies. It allows stating, that the categorical structures of Russian philosophy are obviously original and have great theoretical potential granting new opportunities for philosophical creation.
S. V. Kortunov «The contemporary foreign policy of Russia: The strategy of selective involvement»
Schaller H. W. Geschichte der Slawischen und Baltischen Philologie an der Universität Königsberg
Sea-industry complex as a reserve for overcoming economic crisis in the sea-shore regionAbstract
The author substantiates the function of sea-industry complex in overcoming economic crisis and makes the forecast of project development
of this complex in the Kaliningrad region.
Short Life Projects as Basis of Modern Society AnomieAbstract
The article analyses the main problems of social cognition development under modern conditions; it suggests considering the anomie in the modern society in the framework of short social projects.
Simon Dach in the history of Königsberg UniversityAbstract
This article considers the literary career of the famous East Prussian poet Simon Dach in connection with the history of Koenigsberg University. With the support of the ruling house of the Electorate of Branderburg and Prussia, Dach managed to obtain the position of a professor of poetry at the university, with which both his work and life are closely connected. One of Dach’s university works is the poetic composition “Prussiarchus” dedicated to the centenary of Albertina (1644). This work is a poetical-allegorical depiction and
interpretation of the history of the Prussian land in the time of duke Albrecht, the founder of the university.
Social security and social pathology: the facets of the conjugation of the concepts and phenomenaAbstract
This article analyses the internal and external factors of social security in Russia in the late 2000s. The author pays special attention to the polysemy of the concept of social security and the problems of deviant behaviour.
Some methodological problems of military and historical anthropologyAbstract
This article considers the contentious issues of modern military anthropology, including research methodology. The author focuses on the use of anthropology as a method of historical research since the early 19th century until today. The problem of correlation between the subjective and objective in the objective of historical research is analysed, a promising direction of development of this research field is suggested.
Some Problems of Legal Treatment of Special Economic Zone in the Kaliningrad RegionAbstract
The article analyses the controversial provisions of the Law on Special Economic Zone in the Kaliningrad region and requirements to the residents of the Special Economic Zone. The author points out some problems of the practical application of special entrepreneurship regime faced by the residents.
Some trends and features of investment activity in the Kaliningrad regionAbstract
In 2016, the Kaliningrad region economy is entering a new stage of development. It is important to establish whether the new investment mechanism proposed in the framework of amended SEZ legislation can ensure the development of regional economy. In recent years, investment performance has deteriorated in almost all areas, since the expected abolition of customs preferences brought about dramatic changes in the business environment. The investment mechanism proposed in the new SEZ law could not create a new model for the sustainable development of regional economy.
Special legal regimes as a means to differentiate the legal regulation of entrepreneurshipAbstract
The legal category of ‘legal regime’ is considered as a means of differentiating legal regulation of entrepreneurial activities. The author stresses the use of special legal regimes in entrepreneurship legislation and examines the purposes of their application. The article emphasises the problems of improving special legal regimes of entrepreneurship.
Spiritual foundations of lawAbstract
This article attempts to elucidate the fundamental connection between law and morals. The authors substantiate the thesis about the spiritual nature of law as a methodological principle of theoretical and practical jurisprudence. The subject content of spiritual foundations of law is demonstrated through the triunity of dignity, autonomy, and mutual respect and trust. Alongside factual and legal aspects, the article addresses the moral aspect of legal relationship.
Strakauskaitė N. Kultūros kraštovaizdis prie Kuršių marių (The cultural landscapes of the Curonian lagoon area)
Taxation of Special Economic Zone Residents in Russia: Legal IssuesAbstract
This article deals with the system of taxes paid by the residents of special economic zones, tax benefits provided to the residents, and the application of special rules and tax payments procedures in special economic zones on the territory of Russia. The author pays attention to the imperfections of certain legislative formulations decreasing the efficiency of legal regulations.
Termination of a credit agreementAbstract
This paper analyses the grounds for terminating a credit agreement at the initiative of either the bank, or the borrower. The author analyses relevant law cases. This article is intended for practicing specialists — attorneys and bank lawyers.
Territorial Framework for Local Community OrganizationAbstract
In this article, we analyse the concept of ‘local community’, its distinctive features, and its role and place in socio-geographical studies. We stress the connection between local communities and the area where community members reside and go through everyday routines. Processes characteristic of local communities include territory socialization, residents’ self-identification, selfregulation, and taking over administrative functions. In the case of the Perm region, we study the features of localities at a regional level, namely, the formation of vernacular areas. We conclude that neighbourhood, which requires consolidation to improve the living environment, is manifested today in new forms including owners’ associations.
The "thrust toward the East" in the Soviet historical discourseAbstract
This article analyses the "thrust toward the East" concept in the Soviet historical discourse. The author identifies the bases of this concept underlying its theoretical framework.
The “Archaeological studies in the Kaliningrad region (in memoriam V. S. Suvorov)” international research conference
The “European identity” of today: a category of political practice or discourse?Abstract
This paper considers the cultural, political, and historical problems of the development of European identity in the discourse of Europe. The author addresses the question as to whether European identity is a category of political discourse or a real instrument of European integration and comes to a conclusion that the concepts of European identity are stuck in a methodological trap. And the EU institutional design does not inspire confidence among the residents of united Europe. The question as to how European identity will develop after the EU crisis is becoming increasingly topical.
The “questioning” of entering foreigners by the Рosolski Рrikaz in the 1610—1620sAbstract
This article examines the first contacts of future foreign mercenaries in Russian military service with the Posolski Prikaz in the beginning of the 17th century.
The activities of Kaliningrad public education authorities aimed at organising military and pre-conscription training of schoolchildren in 1945—1962Abstract
This article consdiers the issues concerning the military training of schoolchildren in the post-war years (1945—1962) in the Kaliningrad region.The authors analyse the processes of integration of military and physical training at school as well as the management of these processes by public education authorities.
The advantages and disadvantages of the logical approach to the argumentation modellingAbstract
This article considers the logical modelling of a set of arguments. The author shows that logic offers normative models, which impose the pre-set structure on the argumentation. The article introduces the notions of macro-, micro-, and mesostructure of argument sets as well as the notion of argumentation circle as a variety of the hermeneutic circle. The author determines the advantages and disadvantages of logical models.
The anniversary of Sergey F. Milyukov
The Baltic Region in the context of the North area. From the Middle Ages to the 1940s
The Baltic states before and during World War II: The dilemma of independenceAbstract
This article considers the events of the 1930—1940s in the Baltics. The authors analyse changes in the political systems and international priorities of the ruling elites of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. The influence of domestic factors on solving the problem of independence preservation in the conditions of world war is identified.
The central philosophical conception of the creator of logical algebra: On the bicentenary of George BooleAbstract
The article considers the history of George Boole’s main philosophical conception consisting in using his logical-algebraic and theoretical-probabilistic methods in modelling thought processes. Despite the project’s failure, current developments in computer science and programming have surprisingly confirmed Boole’s ideas on the applicability of rigorous methods of logical calculus in the explication of thought processes.
The combat against organised crime and corruption in Russia: reality and prospectsAbstract
This article considers the determinants of organised and corruption crime, its extent, and associated public danger, as well as the economic, organisational and legal measures of its prevention.
The concept and features of discretionary powers of judgesAbstract
This article addresses the problem of discretionary powers of judges and considers the correlation between the notions of judicial discretions and discretionary powers. Based on an analysis of scientific literature, the author identifies the features of discretion powers of judges, as well as the possibilities for their efficient application in the administration of justice.
The concept of paradigm in the theories of R. Merton and T. Kuhn: A comparative analysisAbstract
This article analyses Robert Merton’s and Thomas Kuhn’s approaches to the concept of paradigm. Whereas Merton identifies the function of a paradigm in analysing data obtained within a social study, Kuhn considers a paradigm as a key notion at a certain stage of the development of science – that of normal science. It is stressed that, despite differences in approaches, the theories do not contradict but rather complement each other.
The conflict between the types of theoretical and practical rationality in Russian philosophy and science of the 19th centuryAbstract
This article analyses the formation of a new type of rationality in N. Lobachevsky's works. The author identifies the reasons for hostility against the new theory of outstanding Russian mathematicians and pays special attention to the development of rationality in Russian philosophical thought of the 19th century.
The content of morality as an object of constitutional and legal protectionAbstract
The article develops the concept of «morality» and establishes its content as an object of constitutional and legal protection. The author analyzes some legal provisions related to the protection of public morality. Another issue which is considered in this publication is the views of researchers who studied the content of morality as a matter of legal protection in various legal spaces.
The criminological and psychological profile of persons sentenced to restriction of freedomAbstract
This article is devoted to the investigation of forensic and psychological features of persons sentenced to restriction of liberty on the basis of a psychological and sociological analysis of persons sentenced to restriction of freedom registered at penal institutions of the Kaliningrad region. An analysis of the results of the study suggest that, during the sentence period, those sentenced to restriction of freedom either do not reject the commonly accepted norms, values, and behavior patterns or demonstrate the medium degree of rejection. This category of convicted persons shows either low or medium degree of readiness for delinquent behavior and aggression. In most cases, those sentenced to restriction of liberty are able to control the behavioral manifestations of emotional reactions.
The Development of a Criminalistics Theory in Russia and the United States: A Comparative AnalysisAbstract
Drawing on a comparative analysis of current research and academic literature published in Russia and the United States, I describe the stages of the development of forensic science in the two countries. I analyse the structure and major areas of modern criminalistics. Special attention is paid to the relevant philosophical and methodological framework and the functions of forensic science. I give a detailed account of Russian and US scholars’ approaches to the nature, subject, and object of criminalistics and provide an overview of the history of the discipline. I address the relationship between criminalistics and criminal procedure law. In considering the methodological framework for criminalistics, I focus on the thought experiment (event reconstruction) technique and the situational approach, which is used both in Russia and in the US. I describe the concept, essence, and capabilities of the situation approach to crime investigation. Today, the situational approach is central to forensic thinking. I demonstrate the role of the approach in the training of lawyers and in investigative practices. I describe the use of forensic thinking in the US in the advanced training of detectives and investigators as a means to further their professional growth. I demonstrate how civil and arbitration procedures may benefit from modern criminalistics.
The development of regional aspects of theory of entrepreneurshipAbstract
This article analyses major approaches to the development of entrepreneurship theory relating to its regional aspects. The author emphasizes the need and describes the possibility of applying interdisciplinary approach to the development of regional aspects of entrepreneurship theory. The theoretical assumptions and conclusions presented in the article can be used in research on theory of entrepreneurship and the preparation of training, methodological, and research literature.
The development of the legal framework of Russian economy: the formulation of the problemAbstract
This article explains the need for the construction of an integral legal framework for Russian economy and considers its principal problems.
The diagnostics of regional asymmetry of innovative development of small enterprisesAbstract
The subject of this study is the influence of area factors on the innovation activities of small enterprises. The main theoretical aspects of regional asymmetry of economic development are analyzed. The article presents the author’s method of assessing regional asymmetry of small enterprise innovation development and the mechanism of its diagnostics tested in the case of the regions of the Northwestern Federal District of the Russian Federation. The most meaningful factors affecting innovation activities of small enterprises are identified.
The discourse of “European identity” in the conditions of the EU crisisAbstract
This paper considers the problem of European identity in the conditions of the current European crisis. European identity developed over a long time on the moral and political grounds. The author arrives at a conclusion about the need to reconsider the concept of European identity in the EU crisis conditions. European identity cannot develop in an institutional crisis. The concept of European identity requires structural reconstruction, new foundations, since the old ones are, to a great degree, an extension of earlier political discourses.
The author forecasts that the change in discourses around European identity will lead to a shift in the paradigm and the perception of this phenomenon in political theory.
The dispositive principle as a basis for economic relations developmentAbstract
This article analyses the problems of civil law regulation, identifies contentious issues, and states that the dispositive principle can act as a basis for economic relations development.
The Emergence in the First Quarter of the XIX-th Century of the Russian Conservative NationalismAbstract
The article presents the main factors of the emergence of Russian conservative nationalism in the first quarter of the XIX century and the role of socalled «Russian Party» (N. Karamzin, A. Shishkov, F. Rostoptschin, S. Glinka) in this process. The author defines the basic elements of conservative nationalist ideology: interpretation of the people as a «body politic», antiwesternism, antiliberalism, cult of autocracy, selective glorification of Russia’s historical past.
The ethnocultural identification of the Belarusian population in the Russian publications of the late 18th — early 19th centuriesAbstract
This article analyses the ethnonymy and other ethnocultural markers (denomination, language) of the residents of Belarusian lands during the partitions of Poland on the basis of works by S. Plescheev, H. F. Hackmann, L. M. Maksimovich, V. M. Severgin, and other scholars. The urban population was ethnically identified as Polish, whereas the rural peasant one as predominantly Lithuanian.
The execution of Henry Monte and the Prussian motif of “double death”Abstract
This article focuses on the execution of one of the leaders of the Prussian revolt, Herkus Monte, according to the “double death” rite dedicated to two gods — Patollo and Potrimps. This rite is typical for the Baltic perception of the other world and is a special case of the common for Indo-European peoples idea of death.
The factors of human capital reproduction financingAbstract
This article is devoted to the analysis of influence of a certain set of factors on human capital reproduction financing. The basic factors are as follows: demographical factor, public sector development level, technological development, labor market situation, political factor, and the state of economy.
The First World War in the assessment of his contemporaries: the government and Russian society
The formation and development of regional system of commissioning non-profit organisations for social servicesAbstract
This article is an attempt at a comparative analysis of legal documents regulating social services commissioning in a number of constituent entities of the Russian Federation. Furthermore, the authors specify the concept of the given form of interaction of public authorities and noncommercial organizations and describe the advantages of social services commissioning as a mechanism of the implementation of regional socioeconomic policy.
The history of opposition between formal and dialectical logic in Russian philosophyAbstract
This article shows that the opposition between formal and dialectical logic first emerged within Hegel’s dialectical logic. The article shows that in the framework of the division of time into «now» and «not now», the incorrect formal logical description of dialectical opposition disappears. The author comes to a generalised conclusion: the rejection of language description of dialectical opposition as a true conjunctive proposition of the A ¬A type marks the end of opposition between formal and dialectical logic in Russian philosophy.
The image of a ‘good Frenchman’ in Russian press between the Napoleonic and Crimean WarsAbstract
The author examines the image of the Frenchman in Russian quality journals published between the Napoleonic and Crimean wars. In many Russian journals, the emphasis was laid on creating a positive image of some social strata of French society. The author identifies the reasons for this phenomenon. The image of a ‘good Frenchman’ reveals the attitude of Russian press towards acute political and social issues of the time.
The impact of Russia’s counter-sanctions on Lithuania’s foreign economic activitiesAbstract
This article explores Russian-Lithuanian trade relations under the EU sanctions against Russia and Russian counter-sanctions. The authors identify changes in the structure of foreign economic activities and examine the main trends, features and problems of trade. The authors analyse transformations in bilateral trade — the role of Russian in Lithuanian foreign trade and the volume of Russian-Lithuanian exports and imports of goods and services.
The influence of Kant’s philosophy on the formation of the Marxist concept of practiceAbstract
This article analyzes the attitude of Marx and Engels to Kant’s philosophical legacy. The author proposes a similarity between Marx’s idea on nature as a substantive implementation of a human being, their reflection and analog, and Kant’s doctrine of the world of phenomena created by the subject from things-in-themselves. The article criticizes the Marxist interpretation of Kant's philosophy as agnostic and divorced from practice.
The Institutional Architecture of Territorial Innovative Systems: Towards a Spatially Targeted Regional PolicyAbstract
The uniqueness of a territorial socio-economic system lies in the specific features of spatial networking of economic entities that form clusters of excellence and ensure the competitiveness of the entire system. Identifying the key elements of territorial capital is a global challenge faced by modern regional policy. I analyse the background for, and limits to, the development of a spatially targeted regional development policy. Lithuania’s so-called valleys – integrated centres for research and business — are a possible way to embrace the approach that suggests concentrating resources on breakthrough areas, which makes it possible to put local growth points on the international map.
The institutional concept of territory marketing managementAbstract
This article analyses the institutional concept of territory marketing. The authors suggest considering institutional environment as the key factor of territory management and the minimization of the transaction costs as the objective of territory management. The authors substantiate the cybernetic and synergetic approaches to territory marketing.
The international cooperation ability of management in the strategic potential of an organisationAbstract
On the basis of the resource approach to analysing the mechanism of the formation and application of competitive advantages of organisation, this article stresses the need for the examination of the category of the "strategic potential of an organisation. The author considers the ability of the management of organisation to cooperate at the international level, or the international cooperation capability (ICA), in the framework of a more advanced version of the resource approach — the dynamic capabilities concept.
The international legal regulation of the status of voluntary human shieldsAbstract
The analysis of existing rule of International humanitarian law governing the cases of use of human shields by the parties of armed conflict justifies the conclusion that these persons are a sui generis case and should be regarded as an exception to a number of general rules. As a result, they should not be classified as taking a direct part in hostilities and must be treated according to the principle of proportionality provided that the permissible level of excessiveness of collateral damage can be lowered.
The legal issues of the exclusion from the register of the residents of the special economic zone in the Kaliningrad regionAbstract
This article analyses the debatable legislative provisions concerning the exclusion from the register of the residents of the Special economic zone in the Kaliningrad region, the court practice regarding the implementation of investment policy statements by the residents and the exclusion of the latter from the register in case of violations. The author draws attention to the problems of the improvement of the corresponding legislation and law enforcement practice.
The legal regime of Special economic zone in the Kaliningrad region: the routes to improvementAbstract
This article analyses the problems of implementation of the Special economic zone regime in the Kaliningrad region, outlines its major development trends, suggests prolongation of the transitional period for business entities using the free customs zone procedure, and emphasises certain problems of legislation improvement and application of law in the field under consideration.
The legal regulation of inflicting damage on a criminal during detainment in the criminal codes of foreign statesAbstract
This article deals with the provisions of a number of international criminal codes determining the permissible damage that can be inflicted on the criminal during detainment, thus creating the theoretical framework for the improvement of the corresponding provisions of the Criminal code of the Russian Federation.
The legal status of the allotment land in the period of P. A. Stolypin’s agrarian reformAbstract
This article analyses the changes to the legal status of various categories of allotment during P.A. Stolypin’s agrarian reform. It is shown that the introduction of the institution of personal property (which is not identical to private property) did not mean the elimination of rural community’s ownership of a significant part of the allotment land.
The methodological aspects of development of object-functional approach to the regional development managementAbstract
This article considers the main aspects of the methodology of formation of object-functional approach to regional development, which makes it possible, due to taking into account the patterns of regional function distribution, to choose strategic regional objects and ensure their interaction on the basis of incentives for economic agents.
The methodology of research on anomie and social reality: Polish and Russian dimensionsAbstract
This article considers different methodological approaches to research on anomie. The author analyses Durkheim’s approach to social pathology and the application of P. Sztompka’s concept of cultural trauma. Special attention is paid to R. Merton’s theory of anomie and strain and D. Murphy and M. Robinson’s concept of maximization. At the same time, the author takes into account
the specific features of post-communist transformations, Polish and Russian experience of overcoming social unrest relating to the period of transition, and the modern contemporary problems faced by states today.
The Models of Reasonings — 2: Argumentation and Rationality
The modern historiography on the gender aspects of the history of the First World WarAbstract
This article describes the major issues in studying the gender aspects of the First World War in modern historiography. Major topics of studies include women on the battlefield and on the home front, gender-specific propa¬ganda, and the crisis of masculinity. The author argues that the explanation of history of societies during and after WWI is incomplete without taking into account the gender aspects.
The Neuchâtel Crisis of 1856—1857 and the British positionAbstract
This article focuses on the reasons behind and the diplomatic aspects of the Neuchâtel crisis in Prussian-Swiss relations. The Neuchâtel crisis arose in the end of 1856 as a result of the Prussian territorial claims and interference in Swiss home affairs. The author examines the diplomacy of the leading European powers – mainly England – aimed to resolve the Neuchâtel crisis.
The potential of structural changes in the economy of the Kaliningrad regionAbstract
The issue of structural policy in the Kaliningrad region remains pressing. Russia’s commitment to modernisation based on innovative development, overcoming the dependence on raw materials, and the current crisis phenomena require a transformation of the structure of region’s economy.
An effective structural policy requires assessing the structural transfor-mation potential, identifying the rates and criteria of structural changes, and developing a mechanism of reforming the structure of economy in view of the availability of highly specialized professionals in the region and based on the practices of developing traditional industries in the Kaliningrad region.
The principles of tariff policy and the objectives of economic growth promotionAbstract
This article considers the tariff policy issues serving as the focus of economic discussions, since their solution has a profound effect on the opportunities of the country’s economic development. The tariff policy problems impair the efficiency and competitiveness of national business and lower living standards. The government declares its readiness to limit the growth of tariffs, which, however, suggests “manual operation” and stopgap measures. The author emphasizes the need to reconsider the methodology and principles of public tariff policy.
The problems of legal regulation of relations pertaining to satisfying state requirements in the light of new legislationAbstract
This article analyzes the provisions of the recently adopted federal law on the contract system and identifies its shortcomings. The author stresses that new rules are not capable of solving the problem of legal regulation aimed to satisfy state requirements and will create additional complications in the use of terminology, application of legislation, identification of the scope of different regulations, and the correlation of private and public law regulation.
The renaming campaign in Warmia and Masuria after World War IIAbstract
Using documents, the press, and studies of Polish scholars, this article analyses the problem of changing German toponyms during the remaining campaign in Warmia and Masuria in the early postwar years. The historical background, conditions, and principles of renaming settlements, natural objects, streets, and squares are identified and the practical problems of the renaming campaign are analysed. It is concluded that these processes were quite dissimilar in Poland and the USSR, which is explained by different historical pasts and different approaches to solving the problem of ‘appropriating’ the space of former East Prussia by the authorities and communities of the Masurian district of the Olsztyn voivodeship in Poland and the Kaliningrad region in the RSFSR.
The requirements for concluding administrative contracts developed in Russian legal scienceAbstract
This paper attempts to summarise the established in Russian legal science conceptions of legal regulation of contract forms of public administration implementation and offers a model of legal regulation of preparation and conclusion of administrative contracts.
The role of brand ecosystem in solving the tasks of hi-tech product marketingAbstract
This article analyses an efficient method of interacting with customer, which is aimed at the successful adaptation of innovations. It is noted that, in hi-tech markets, such interaction with all groups of customers can be carried out through a strong brand, whereas special importance is attached to the creation of the brand’s ecosystem, which would make it possible to offer the customer package solutions and include them into the value added chain.
The role of constitutional courts in the mechanism of public authority responsibility in Russian regionsAbstract
This article focuses on the powers of regional constitutional courts relating to the legal responsibility of regional officials and public authorities in the Russian Federation. The author analyses possible participation of constitutional courts in providing a mechanism for legal responsibility of public authorities in regions of the Russian Federation. Attention is paid to the stages of regional legislation development and current trends. The author suggests avenues of legislation improvement.
The role of customer loyalty programmes in the modern marketAbstract
This article examines the main trends in the development of customer loyalty programmes and describes companies’ approaches to creating and implementing them. The authors identify the challenges facing companies that modify customer loyalty programmes in accordance with the features of the Russian institutional environment.
The role of the European Central Bank in ensuring the financial stability of the EUAbstract
The Declaration of the Heads of State and Government of June 29, 2012 was the birth of the European Banking Union. It demonstrated considerable and, in some ways, unprecedented support by the member states of the European Union to each other. This move was highly questioned by the public. In addition to eloquent statements about the need to break the adverse interdependence of sovereign risks and risks of the banking sector, this Declaration included two specific legal obligations. Firstly, the creation of the Single Supervisory Mechanism (SSM) and the centralized supervision of the banking sector of the Member States of the eurozone with supervisory powers transferred to the European Central Bank in accordance with Article 127 (6) of the Treaty on the functioning of the EU. Secondly, the direct recapitalization of banks from the European Financial Stability Facility (EFSF), established under the European Stability Mechanism (ESM) based on the Treaty, signed a few months earlier — February 2, 2012. The fulfilment of these obligations directly depends on the effective work of the European Central Bank (ECB). That is why the formation of the EU Banking Union and its current activities are inextricably linked with the efficiency of the ECB. EU member states gave the ECB a certain credit of confidence by giving up part of their mandates and transferring powers to a supranational level in the hope that the ECB has sufficient resources and experience to increase the transparency, stability and security of the EU banking sector.
The role of the principle of honesty in the principle system of Russian civil lawAbstract
This article examines the interaction between the principle of honesty and the other principles of the civil law of the Russian Federation. Honesty is manifested in various institutions of law; it interacts with each principle and basic element thus limiting each freedom. It is stressed that honestly — despite having the potential of broad practical application — has not been sufficiently developed in either theory or jurisprudence. The formation of honesty-driven behaviour in the participants in civil legal relationships is part of the trend towards the development of law and society
The role of trade and economic factors in English-Russian relations of the second half the of the 19th/beginning of the 20th centuryAbstract
English-Russian state-to-state relations in the second half of the 19th/ beginning of the 20th century are distinguished by complex character and dramatic shifts from cooperation to confrontation and vice versa. Different circumstances and factors, including the level of trade and economic contacts, affected the condition of English-Russian relations. The author analyses the principal stages of the evolution of trade and economic contacts between Great Britain and Russia from the Crimean war to the agreement of 1907 and identifies their role and influence on the political English-Russian relations of that period.
The Rоs names of the Dnieper rapids of the Ros origin and the toponymy of South-Eastern BalticAbstract
This article delves into the etymology of the names of the Dnieper rapids of the Ros origin mentioned by Constantine Porphyrogennetos. The author reveals the similarity between these names and the Baltic toponymy.
The secret of MoritzfeldeAbstract
Based on documents of the State Archive of the Kaliningrad region that were not previously used for scientific purposes, this article attempts to examine the specific Soviet social phenomenon of factory pilfers and identify the reasons behind its development, as well as its extents at factory No. 820 (today, the Yantar factory). The author presents the facts of petty thefts at the factory and analyses corresponding punishments and the management’s attitude towards pilfers.
The special legal treatment of investment activity in the Kaliningrad regionAbstract
This article offers an analysis of the basic issues of introduction of special legal treatment of investment activity in the Kaliningrad region, describes the main features of investment treatment, and identifies several problems relating to the improvement of legislation and legal practices in this sphere.
The strategic potential of an organisation: A theoretical framework for researchAbstract
This article considers the problems of securing competitive advantages of an organisation in a dynamic environment and focuses on the key methodological approaches to studying the strategic potential of an organisation (SPO). Special attention is paid to the resource approach and the concept of dynamic capabilities, as well as the features of non-profit organisations' SPO.
The strenghts of Russian garrison and Polish-Lithuanian army during the Siege of PskovAbstract
This article addresses the controversial issue of the strength of the Russian garrison and the Polish-Lithuanian army during the Siege of Pskov in the period of the Livonian War. The article offers data provided in the Russian Chronicles on the Siege of Pskov by Stefan Batory and the works of Polish contemporaries. The author describes the perspectives of prerevolutionary, Soviet and contemporary researchers on the strength of the opposing forces. The author comes to a conclusion that Stefan Batory's army of was at least 2—2,5 times stronger than the Russian forces defending Pskov, including armed citizens.
The synergetics and rationality of modern Russian societyAbstract
This article analyses the features of the modern Russian society from the perspective of synergetic concept of social development. The author maintains that the type of rationality formed by synergetics can become the basis for practical activities in the 21st century Russia thus contributing to the solutions to acute socioeconomic problems.
The transfer of the ownership of the objects of cultural heritage of the Kaliningrad region to the Russian Orthodox Church: the social and cultural aspects of the conflictAbstract
This article focuses on the factors having influenced the formation of the conscious attitude to the past of the Kaliningrad region in the local residents. The author shows that a special regional identity, which developed in the interaction with the unique cultural environment, requires a public discussion as decisions concerning the transfer of the ownership of cultural and historical objects to a religious organisation are made.
The transitological dimension of constitutional changes in the Slovak RepublicAbstract
The transformation of constitutional legislation in post-Communist countries follows two models: "reconstruction" and "dismantling". The Czechoslovak experience of constitutional legislation transformation follows that of dismantling. One of the positive features of this model is the rapid adoption of a new constitution. Experts and politicians stress that the main drawback of the Slovakian Constitution is that it has not eliminated the gap between values and rules and the actual condition of human rights. The prospects of further development of constitutional law in Slovakia are associated with overcoming the post-Communist attitudes of the Constitution.
The urban development in East Prussia in the interwar periodAbstract
This article considers the features of urban restoration in East Prussia after World War I. In a difficult economic situation, the system of restoration works was clearly structured. In the interbellum, the public development policy for the province was formulated in accordance with the contemporary urban development requirements and was based on a combination of old and new architecture, the expansion of residential areas, and creation of a comfortable environment with the help of landscape gardening.
The Welfare State (Social State) in the Russian Federation as a Constitutional Principle and its Practical ImplementationAbstract
The authors are investigating the content and practical implementation of the constitutional principle of the social (welfare) state in the Russian Federation, especially the relevant state measures supporting families, birth rate and migration. Legal research in this paper is also focused on the selected state projects realized in the contemporary Russia: state program of the maternity (family) capital, experience of the granting the Charge-Free Land Property for multi-child families, and also so-called project of the "Charge-Free Far Eastern Hectare". Based on the conducted analysis the authors of the article have made several suggestions regarding pragmatic realization of the constitutional principle of the Welfare State (Social State), and also regarding further modernization of the existing projects of social innovations in the Russian Federation.
Time in N. O. Lossky’s ideal realismAbstract
This article discusses the ontological and epistemological aspects of the interpretation of time in N. O. Lossky’s ideal realism. It is stressed that time is a form of events initiated by substantial actors in the process of world creation. The author analyses the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of time. The features of synchronous and asynchronous aspects of cognising existential processes by an agent are identified in the framework of epistemology.
Tolstoyan colonies in England in the late 1890sAbstract
This article considers the history of establishment of first Tolstoyan colonies in England, the inner life of those colonies and the relationship between Russian emigrants and English colonists.
Tools for developing and implementing the innovative policy of a regionAbstract
This article focuses on the tools of development and introduction of innovation policy at the mesolevel, which serves as an integral part of the innovation policy of a state and the driving force of regional competitiveness. The author presents the results of innovative activity ranking of Russian regions, pays attention to the innovative potential of the Kaliningrad region, and considers the decisions of public authorities and the recent developments in the field of innovations in Russia.
Trade in the Kaliningrad region: methods of evaluationAbstract
The article suggests a new methodological approach to assessing business activity in retail trade in the Kaliningrad region. The authors present a methodology for calculating the regional index of business activity in retail trade, taking into account the specificity of the Kaliningrad region. Indicators of retail business activity in the region in 2016 are analyzed.
Transcendental reflection and the ideal of pure reason in Kant’s worksAbstract
This article discusses the problem of correlation between the two fundamental concepts of Kantian philosophy — transcendental reflection and the ideal of pure reason. Based on the analysis of Kant’s three Critiques, the author demonstrates that the ideal of pure reason can be described as a goal that defines the shape of knowledge in any field of activity, whereas transcendental reflection is a means to embody the ideal of pure reason in practice, i. e. to apply it to concrete disparate and multifarious empirical material.