The humanities and social science

2023 Issue №3

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Men’s revolt: the struggle for gender equality in the Polish lands of the Austrian and Russian Empires at the beginning of the XX century: issues of political communication



The article examines the cooperation between men and women during the third wave of feminism in the Polish territories of the Russian and Austrian Empires at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. The role of individual men in the establishment of the first major feminist organizations is highlighted. The author studies the contribution of Stanisław Kośutski in forming the first mass women’s organization in the Polish territories. The collaborative efforts of women and men in the League of Men for the Defense of Women’s Rights and the Union for Equal Rights of Polish Women are characterized. The reasons for the split in the Union for Equal Rights of Polish Women, Stanisław Kośutski’s role in the internal conflict of the Un­ion, and his relations with key activists of the Polish women’s movement are analyzed. The political evolution of Maria Dulębianka in the Galician Sejm and her collaboration with Aus­trian socialists are separately discussed. Meanwhile, the article examines the positions of key activists in the Polish women’s movement regarding cooperation with men and political par­ties. The stance of certain politicians and public figures, who did not align with any of the organizations advocating for women’s emancipation to achieve national interests, is charac­terized.