Geoecological aspects of various types of archaeological sites in the North-West of the Russian Plain
The study of geo-ecological factors allows not only to determine the nature of human economic activities but also reveals natural influences affecting the placement of archaeological objects in the past. Special attention is given to «Stone piles» («Lappish cairns») — stone piles widely found within the studied territory. Despite years of archaeological research, the nature of these structures remains enigmatic, though archaeological artifacts are often absent. The application of geo-chemical research methods enables the assessment of ancient human impact on the surrounding environment and also provides insights into their activities and motivations for selecting specific locations. Analysis of geo-chemical indicators such as SiO2, Al2O3, MgO, CaO, Fe2O3 helps reveal distinct microrelief features. The examination of anthropogenic activity-related geo-chemical modules within the archaeological site, such as P2O5(anthrop), CaO(anthrop), K2O(anthrop), Rb(anthrop), facilitates the reconstruction of functional zones within the site and identifies the type of economic activities conducted there. This study has for the first time identified geo-ecological factors influencing various types of archaeological sites, including settlements, burial grounds, and ritual objects. Through the analysis of geo-chemical, archaeological, and landscape parameters, it was possible to establish the influence of these factors on the distribution of such objects in the past.