Population and settlement of the Kaliningrad region at the beginning of 2023
The article focuses on the dynamics of the Kaliningrad region population in 1947—2023 and the dynamics components in 1990—2022 in comparison with the national average (based on the official statistics). The authors reveal some territorial features of the demographic processes, such as the development of settlement polarization and suburbanization, as well as the fundamental geodemographic differences between the near suburban zone of Kaliningrad and less urbanized eastern municipalities. It is proposed to use the concept of the Unified Settlement System in the eastern parts of the region to improve the spatial organization of settlement on the basis of a three-stage system of inter-settlement service. The authors noted strengthening role of Sovetsk and Chernyakhovsk in serving the cities and rural areas of the North and South-East of the region, respectively, developing rural-urban ties between the centers of municipalities with their rural settlements, and within municipal districts, which testifies to the strengthening support functions of the centers of the first level municipalities.