Cultural heritage protection in Russia and Germany: challenges and solutions
Cultural heritage sites play an important role both in terms of the study and preservation of the culture and history of a particular territory, and in terms of their importance in recreation and tourism as a “soft power” for shaping a positive image in the geopolitical arena. These two components are directly related: the maintenance of cultural heritage objects in proper condition allows them to be used in economic activities, for example in tourism; and the economic well-being of their owners, in turn, allows them to seek funds for their restoration and reconstruction. Legal aspects have a key role to play in optimising the system of “protection-use”. Different countries have different laws governing this relationship. While both Russia and Germany are at the forefront of this issue, there are also differences, which, if identified and compared, would further optimise the legal framework. The aim is to compare the experiences of Germany and Russia in the preservation and use of cultural heritage objects. The methodology of the study is based on a study of the legal framework of these states in this field. The study compares the laws and provides concrete examples of the legal framework. Particular attention is paid to public-private partnerships. It has been revealed that Russian legislation is more restrictive in terms of protection of cultural heritage, while the legal provisions and their practical application have stimulated the development of public-private partnerships (PPP) in Germany, which in turn has helped to preserve and put into modern use a significant number of cultural heritage objects. This experience can also be applied to Russia.