Natural and medical sciences

2021 Issue №4

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The birth of premature children and the causes of disability of the child population in the kaliningrad region



The purpose of this work is to study the frequency of birth of premature babies and disability in children and the need to accompany premature babies by a pediatric neuropsychologist in the Kaliningrad region. The disabled children in the Kaliningrad were registered from 2016 to 2020 through statistical reports of the birth rate of premature babies. Against the background of a decrease in the overall birth rate, there is no trend towards a decrease in the birth of premature babies, the disability of the child population has stable indicators. As a result, the most urgent problem is the development of modern neuropsychological methods for early prevention and / or rehabilitation of motor, uneven mental, cognitive developmental disorders in children recognized as disabled when they are 0-3 and 4-7 years old. Mental disorders, mental retardation, cerebral palsy, congenital malformations and chromosomal abnormalities, which are the main causes of disability in children, deserve special attention. In the Kaliningrad region, 6.4 % — 6.8 % of premature babies are born annually, who are at high risk for the development of disorders of the central nervous system and need to be accompanied by a pediatric neuropsychologist. Neurological and mental diseases prevail in the structure of children’s disability, the share of which is 49.8 %. Most often, premature children are recognized as disabled at the age of 0—3, which is directly related to health deviations in the perinatal period.